• “The Fruit of Consultation” – Co-production as a solution to the challenges of safeguarding children and young people in International Christian work, findings from an online survey.

      Oakley, Lisa; Lafferty, Moira; McFarlane, Leigh; Thirtyone:eight; University of Chester
      Incidents of child abuse such as the Oxfam case in 2010 of sexual abuse of children by volunteers’ and cases of abuse in orphanages by high risk overseas volunteers have highlighted the need for the development of effective safeguarding in the international context. This is of equal importance for faith-based organisations (FBOs) who, like non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are obligated to create safe spaces for their beneficiaries. This paper reports the findings from an online survey conducted in 2019, which was completed by 72 participants, 39 were representatives from organisations based in the UK which support individuals to engage in International Christian Work (ICW), 33 were individuals who are or have been engaged in ICW in the last three years. The online survey collected qualitative data, which was analysed using reflexive thematic analysis whilst descriptive analytical techniques were employed on the quantitative data. The findings illustrate commitment to safeguarding children and young people in ICW but also the complexities, challenges, and tensions around this. The necessity to work collaboratively with local contexts and co-production was identified as key to developing effective safeguarding practice. These findings have implications beyond faith-based organisations to others working in the international context.
    • Web-based psychological interventions for people living with and beyond cancer: A meta-review of what works and what doesn’t for maximising recruitment, engagement, and efficacy

      Leslie, Monica; Beatty, Lisa; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Pendrous, Rosina; Cartwright, Tim; Jackson, Richard; The Finding My Way UK Trial Steering Group; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J; University of Chester; Flinders University; University of Liverpool
      Background: Despite high levels of psychological distress experienced by many patients with cancer, previous research has identified several barriers to accessing traditional face-to-face psychological support. In response, web-based psychosocial interventions have emerged as a promising alternative. Objective: This meta-review aimed to synthesise evidence on: (1) recruitment challenges and enablers; (2) factors that promote engagement and adherence to web-based intervention content; and (3) factors that promote the efficacy of web-based psychosocial interventions for cancer patients and survivors. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for previous reviews which have investigated the recruitment, engagement, and efficacy of online and app-based psychosocial interventions in adult cancer populations. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library database for relevant literature. Search terms focussed on a combination of topics pertaining to neoplasms and telemedicine. Two independent authors conducted abstract screening, full-text screening, and data extraction for each identified article. Results: Twenty articles met eligibility criteria. There was inconsistency in the reporting of uptake and engagement data; however, anxiety around technology and perceived time burden were identified as two key barriers. Online psychosocial oncology interventions demonstrated efficacy in reducing depression and stress but reported weak to mixed findings for distress, anxiety, quality of life, and wellbeing. While no factors consistently moderated intervention efficacy, preliminary evidence indicated that multi-component interventions and greater communication with a healthcare professional were preferred by participants and associated with superior effects. Conclusions: Several consistently cited barriers to intervention uptake and recruitment emerged, which we recommend future intervention studies address. Preliminary evidence also supports the superior efficacy of multi-component interventions and interventions which facilitate communication with a healthcare professional. However, a greater number of appropriately powered clinical trials, including randomised trials with head-to-head comparisons, are needed to enable more confident conclusions around which online psychosocial oncology interventions work best and for whom.
    • Suicide rates amongst individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Troya, M. Isabela; Spittal, Matthew, J; Pendrous, Rosina; Crowley, Grace; Gorton, Hayley, C; Russell, Kirsten; Byrne, Sadhbh; Musgrove, Rebecca; Hannah-Swain, Stephanie; Kapur, Navneet; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-04-28)
      Background Existing evidence suggests that some individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds are at increased risk of suicide compared to their majority ethnic counterparts, whereas others are at decreased risk. We aimed to estimate the absolute and relative risk of suicide in individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds globally. Methods Databases (Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo) were searched for epidemiological studies between 01/01/2000 and 3/07/2020, which provided data on absolute and relative rates of suicide amongst ethnic minority groups. Studies reporting on clinical or specific populations were excluded. Pairs of reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts. We used random effects meta-analysis to estimate overall, sex, location, migrant status, and ancestral origin, stratified pooled estimates for absolute and rate ratios. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020197940. Findings A total of 128 studies were included with 6,026,103 suicide deaths in individuals from an ethnic minority background across 31 countries. Using data from 42 moderate-high quality studies, we estimated a pooled suicide rate of 12·1 per 100,000 (95% CIs 8·4–17·6) in people from ethnic minority backgrounds with a broad range of estimates (1·2–139·7 per 100,000). There was weak statistical evidence from 51 moderate-high quality studies that individuals from ethnic minority groups were more likely to die by suicide (RR 1·3 95% CIs 0·9–1·7) with again a broad range amongst studies (RR 0·2–18·5). In our sub-group analysis we only found evidence of elevated risk for indigenous populations (RR: 2·8 95% CIs 1·9–4·0; pooled rate: 23·2 per 100,000 95% CIs 14·7–36·6). There was very substantial heterogeneity (I2 > 98%) between studies for all pooled estimates. Interpretation The homogeneous grouping of individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds is inappropriate. To support suicide prevention in marginalised groups, further exploration of important contextual differences in risk is required. It is possible that some ethnic minority groups (for example those from indigenous backgrounds) have higher rates of suicide than majority populations.
    • Appraisal Self-respect: Scale Validation and Construct Implications

      Clucas, Claudine; Corr, Philip; Wilkinson, Heather; Schepman, Astrid; University of Chester; University of London (Springer, 2022-04-26)
      Despite the widely accepted recognition of the notion of self-respect and its importance for emotional well-being, it has received scant attention in the psychological literature. We report on the development and validation of a scale to measure trait (character-based) appraisal self-respect (ASR), conceptualised as a disposition to perceive or appraise oneself as being a respectworthy honourable person. We tested the factor structure, reliability, convergent, discriminant and criterion validity of the ASR scale in samples of adult individuals (combined N = 1910 across samples). The resulting ASR scale was found to be essentially unidimensional and showed good internal and acceptable test-retest reliability. Trait ASR was correlated with (yet distinct from) theoretically related measures of global self-esteem, moral self and principledness, and was distinct from other self-esteem facets not based on honourable character traits. Importantly, it related to well-being and prosocial behaviour over-and-above self-esteem. The validation work served to consolidate the theoretical boundaries and utility of this important concept.
    • Who are we protecting? Exploring counsellors' understanding and experience of boundaries

      Blundell, Peter; Oakley, Lisa; Kinmond, Kathryn; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (European Journal of Qualitative Research in Psychotherapy, 2022-04-07)
      The concept of boundary is a term often used within counselling and psychotherapy literature. However, there is a paucity of research exploring how useful and meaningful boundaries are for therapy practice. This study explored how counsellors understand and experience boundaries within their counselling practice. Seven participants, who were all qualified and practising counsellors, were interviewed about their understanding and experience of boundaries. These interviews were transcribed and then analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Analysis identified one significant overarching theme entitled “Protection and Safety” which distinguished between the protection of self and other. This paper focuses solely on the Protection of Self theme because of the theme’s rich and vivid data and the theme’s overarching dominance across the accounts. Two subthemes were identified: Establishing the Self and Defending the Self. Findings indicate that there was a lack of awareness around boundaries, with some participants describing defensive responses to some boundary issues. However, participants also described using boundaries to restrict, limit and defend themselves when working with clients, and they identified this as necessary for their own safety and security. This study recommends that therapists should engage reflexively with boundaries, towards developing a more relational and/or client-focused approach.
    • Enhancing community weight loss groups in a low socioeconomic status area: Application of the COM-B model and Behaviour Change Wheel

      Coupe, Nia; Cotterill, Sarah; Peters, Sarah; University of Chester; Lancaster University; University of Manchester (Wiley Open Access, 2021-08-04)
      Background Obesity rates are higher among people of lower socioeconomic status. While numerous health behaviour interventions targeting obesity exist, they are more successful at engaging higher socioeconomic status populations, leaving those in less affluent circumstances with poorer outcomes. This highlights a need for more tailored interventions. The aim of this study was to enhance an existing weight loss course for adults living in low socioeconomic communities. Methods The Behaviour Change Wheel approach was followed to design an add-on intervention to an existing local authority-run weight loss group, informed by mixed-methods research and stakeholder engagement. Results The COM-B analysis of qualitative data revealed that changes were required to psychological capability, physical and social opportunity and reflective motivation to enable dietary goal-setting behaviours. The resulting SMART-C booklet included 6 weeks of dietary goal setting, with weekly behavioural contract and review. Conclusion This paper details the development of the theory- and evidence-informed SMART-C intervention. This is the first report of the Behaviour Change Wheel being used to design an add-on tool to enhance existing weight loss services. The process benefitted from a further checking stage with stakeholders.
    • An International Validation of the Bolton Unistride Scale (BUSS) of Tenacity

      Kannangara, Chathurika; Allen, Rosie; Hochard, Kevin; Carson, Jerome; University of Bolton; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2022-03-11)
      Academic success at University is increasingly believed to be a combination of personal characteristics like grit, resilience, strength-use, self-control, mind-set and wellbeing. The authors have developed a short 12-item measure of academic tenacity, the Bolton Uni-Stride Scale (BUSS) which incorporates these elements. Previous work in the UK had established the reliability and validity of the BUSS. The present paper reports the findings of an International validation of BUSS across 30 countries (n = 1043). Participants completed the BUSS alongside other recognised scales. Factor analysis revealed an almost identical two-factor solution to previous work and the reliability and validity of the scale were supported using an international sample. The authors recommend however that the scale be used as a single score combining all 12 items. In the light of this, the authors suggest that the BUSS will be a useful measure to incorporate in studies of academic attainment.
    • Understanding Inequality: The Experiences and Perceptions of Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion of those Working or Studying within Sport and Exercise Psychology

      Morris, Robert; Pattinson, Emily; Lafferty, Moira; Brown, Daniel; Emeka, Lloyd; Williams, Jodine; Byrne, Louise; Shanmuganathan-Felton, Vaithehy; Kiemle-Gabbay, Laura; University of Stirling; Newcastle University; University of Chester; University of Portsmouth; St. Mary's University; Watford FC CSE; LB Performance Psychology; University of Roehampton; Liverpool John Moores University
      Discrimination and inequality are ever present in today’s society, with athletes facing racial abuse and LGBTQ+ individuals fearing for their safety at international events. Due to these additional stressors, the role of sport psychologists becomes increasingly important when supporting athletes from minority groups. An online questionnaire was developed to gain greater understanding of the equality, diversity, and inclusion (ED&I) knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of those working, studying or researching in the field of sport and exercise psychology. The findings of the current study highlight the ongoing experiences of sexism, racism, homo/transphobia, and ableism experienced by participants, as well as the need for more suitable, in-depth training around ED&I subjects and guidance on meaningful action to combat inequality and discrimination in the field. The involvement of individuals from minority groups in the development, delivery and evaluation of training and research is necessary to move towards true inclusion.
    • Situational factors shape moral judgments in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern, and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample

      Bago, Bence; Kovacs, Marton; Protzko, John; Nagy, Tamas; Kekecs, Zoltan; Palfi, Bence; Adamkovič, Matúš; Adamus, Sylwia; Albalooshi, Sumaya; Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; et al. (Nature Research, 2022-04-14)
      The study of moral judgements often centers on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (i.e., emphasizing rules, individual rights, and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (i.e., following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychological and situational factors (e.g., the intent of the agent or the presence of physical contact between the agent and the victim) can play an important role in moral dilemma judgements (e.g., trolley problem). Our knowledge is limited concerning both the universality of these effects outside the United States and the impact of culture on the situational and psychological factors of moral judgements. Thus, we empirically tested the universality of the effects of intent and personal force on moral dilemma judgements by replicating the experiments of Greene et al. in 45 countries from all inhabited continents. We found that personal force and its interaction with intention, exert influence on moral judgements in the US and Western cultural clusters, replicating and expanding the original findings. Moreover, the personal force effect was present in all cultural clusters, suggesting it is culturally universal. The evidence for the cultural universality of the interaction effect was inconclusive in the Eastern and Southern cultural clusters (depending on exclusion criteria). We found no strong association between collectivism/individualism and moral dilemma judgements.
    • Reforms to improve reproducibility and quality must be coordinated across the research ecosystem: The view from the UKRN Local Network Leads

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Pennington, Charlotte R.; da Silva, Goncalo R.; Ballou, Nick; Butler, Jessica; Dienes, Zoltan; Jay, Caroline; Rossit, Stephanie; Samara, Anna; University of Chester; Aston University; Queen’s University Belfast; Queen Mary University of London; University of Aberdeen; University of Sussex; University of Manchester; University of East Anglia; University of Greenwich (BMC, 2022-02-15)
      Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, which has precipitated much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices. Promoting a more positive incentive culture for all ecosystem members is also paramount. In this commentary, we - the Local Network Leads of the UK Reproducibility Network - outline our response to the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s inquiry on research integrity and reproducibility. We argue that coordinated change is needed to create (1) a positive research culture, (2) a unified stance on improving research quality, (3) common foundations for open and transparent research practice, and (4) the routinisation of this practice. For each of these areas, we outline the roles that individuals, institutions, funders, publishers, and Government can play in shaping the research ecosystem. Working together, these constituent members must also partner with sectoral and coordinating organisations to produce effective and long-lasting reforms that are fit-for-purpose and future-proof. These efforts will strengthen research quality and create research capable of generating far-reaching applications with a sustained impact on society.
    • A Community-Sourced Glossary of Open Scholarship Terms

      Parsons, Sam; Azevedo, Flavio; Elsherif, Mahmoud M.; Guay, Samuel; Shahim, Owen N.; Govaart, Gisela H.; Norris, Emma; O'Mahony, Aoife; Parker, Adam J.; Todorovic, Ana; et al. (Nature Research, 2022-02-21)
      Open scholarship has transformed research, introducing a host of new terms in the lexicon of researchers. The Framework of Open and Reproducible Research Teaching (FORRT) community presents a crowdsourced glossary of open scholarship terms to facilitate education and effective communication between experts and newcomers.
    • Mirror self-recognition in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): A review and evaluation of mark test replications and variants

      Murray, Lindsay E; Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G, Jr; University of Chester; Kyoto University Graduate School of Letters; University at Albany, State University of New York (Springer, 2022-01-07)
      Mirror self-recognition (MSR), widely regarded as an indicator of self-awareness, has not been demonstrated consistently in gorillas. We aimed to examine this issue by setting out a method to evaluate gorilla self-recognition studies that is objective, quantifiable, and easy to replicate. Using Suarez and Gallup’s (1981) study as a reference point, we drew up a list of 15 methodological criteria and assigned scores to all published studies of gorilla MSR for both methodology and outcomes. Key features of studies finding both mark-directed and spontaneous self-directed responses included visually inaccessible marks, controls for tactile and olfactory cues, subjects who were at least five years old, and clearly distinguishing between responses in front of versus away from the mirror. Additional important criteria include videotaping the tests, having more than one subject, subjects with adequate social rearing, reporting post-marking observations with mirror absent, and giving mirror exposure in a social versus individual setting. Our prediction that MSR studies would obtain progressively higher scores as procedures and behavioural coding practices improved over time was supported for methods, but not for outcomes. These findings illustrate that methodological rigour does not guarantee stronger evidence of self-recognition in gorillas; methodological differences alone do not explain the inconsistent evidence for MSR in gorillas. By implication, it might be suggested that, in general, gorillas do not show compelling evidence of MSR. We advocate that future MSR studies incorporate the same criteria to optimize the quality of attempts to clarify the self-recognition abilities of gorillas as well as other species.
    • Research Evaluating Staff Training Online for Resilience (RESTORE): Protocol for a single-arm feasibility study of an online acceptance and commitment therapy intervention to improve staff wellbeing in palliative care settings

      Finucane, Anne; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Swash, Brooke; Spiller, Juliet A.; Lydon, Brigid; Gillanders, David; University of Edinburgh; Marie Curie Hospice Edinburgh; University of Chester (AMRC Open Research, 2021-11-18)
      Background Palliative care workers commonly experience workplace stress and distress. General stressors include unmanageable workloads and staff shortages. Stressors specific to palliative care include regular exposure to death, loss and grief. The COVID pandemic exacerbated exhaustion and burnout across the healthcare system, including for those providing palliative care. Evidence based psychological support interventions, tailored to the needs and context of palliative care workers, are needed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an established form of cognitive behavioural therapy which uses behavioural psychology, values, acceptance, and mindfulness techniques to improve mental health and wellbeing. ACT is effective in improving workplace wellbeing in many occupational settings. Our study examines the acceptability and feasibility of an online ACT-based intervention to improve mental health and wellbeing in staff caring for people with an advanced progressive illness. Methods A single-arm feasibility trial. We will seek to recruit 30 participants to take part in an 8- week online ACT-based intervention, consisting of three synchronous facilitated group sessions and five asynchronous self-directed learning modules. We will use convergent mixed methods to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention. Quantitative feasibility outcomes will include participant recruitment and retention rates, alongside completion rates of measures assessing stress, quality of life, wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Focus groups and interviews will explore participant perspectives on the intervention. We will run a stakeholder workshop to further refine the intervention and identify outcomes for use in a future evaluation. We will describe participant perspectives on intervention acceptability, format, content, and perceived impact alongside rates of intervention recruitment, retention, and outcome measure completion. Conclusion We will show whether a brief, online ACT intervention is acceptable to, and feasible for palliative care workers. Findings will be used to further refine the intervention and provide essential information on outcome assessment prior to a full-scale evaluation.
    • Moving to remote working: a guide for traditional lab-based experiments

      Vaughan, Sarah; Holt, Glenys; Scudds, Annie; Wilkinson, Heather; Lasikiewicz, Nicola; University of Chester
      The aim of our study was to test whether we could move a traditional laboratory-based experiment online without reducing the reliability and validity of the results. To this end, we recorded participants facial expressions using an emotional rating task in which participants rated the unpleasantness of emotional stimuli, as well as the strength of their emotional reaction. We adopted a 2 (group: online versus face-to-face) *2 (conditions: attend and reappraisal) design. Here, we presented a recount of our reflections and decisions made during the process of designing this study to provide readers with 1. the opportunity to reflect on the participant experience in navigating the traditionally laboratory-based paradigm online and without assistance, 2. a discussion of the experience of conducting traditionally laboratory-based experimental research in an online environment and 3. a consideration of the future of experimental psychological methods in the context of increased need for online-based research. We would recommend considering the wider contextual, the unknown or known extraneous variables when developing a design.
    • Loneliness and Scholastic Self-Beliefs among Adolescents: A population-based survey.

      Eccles, Alice; Qualter, Pamela; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjorn; University of Chester; University of Manchester; University of Southern Denmark (Taylor and Francis, 2021-10-18)
      Loneliness has previously been linked to cognitive and attentional bias, and such biases may have a detrimental impact on perceived scholastic self-beliefs. Little is known about the relationship in school-aged adolescents. The current study examined the association between loneliness and scholastic self-beliefs in a nationally representative Danish sample of adolescents (aged 11-, 13- and 15 years, n = 3815, collected by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC, 2014). Through binary logistic regressions, results demonstrated that higher levels of loneliness, measured by a single item and a composite score, were associated with poorer self-reported achievement perception, higher feelings of school dissatisfaction, and greater feelings of school pressure. Results also suggested gender played a moderating role. The current study highlights the importance of loneliness for scholastic self-beliefs, and provides a novel insight by utilising distinct loneliness measures. The implications, in relation to research and practise, are discussed.
    • The views of the few or the voices of many: Methods of exploring leadership roles through alternative approaches within Higher Education.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; University of Chester (Springer, 2021-12-16)
      In the following chapter I begin by discussing the changing landscape in higher education and argue why “leadership” is an important part of every academic’s journey. I discuss why we need to challenge traditional views of leadership and critically how we need to explore individuals’ views and reflections on their own leadership journeys. Furthermore, I will critically reflect on how we need to adopt different research methods to allow leadership journeys to emerge with a focus on the use of Q-methodology and why such approaches allow not only the emergence of understanding but can serve a dual purpose and contribute not only to a global understanding but also an individual’s personal development.
    • Gut thinking and eye tracking: Evidence for a central preference heuristic

      Thoma, Volker; Rodway, Paul; Tamlyn, Guy; University of East London; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2021-09-01)
      People prefer the central item in an array of items. This could be due to applying a decision heuristic or greater visual attention to the central item. We manipulated task instructions as participants chose one from three consumer items. The instructions were to “think carefully” in one block and to “use gut feeling” in another. A centrality preference appeared only in the “gut” condition, which was also negatively correlated with self-reported reflective thinking disposition (Need-for-Cognition). Eye-movement patterns, however, were equivalent across both instruction conditions with more frequent and longer fixations on the middle items. The findings demonstrate an effect of instructions on the centrality preference for non-identical consumer items, and provide evidence for a heuristic cause of the centrality preference rather than the allocation of visual attention. The results also show that the centrality preference is more likely to be present when people choose quickly and intuitively.
    • A Systematic Review Exploring the Reflective Accounts of Applied Sport Psychology Practitioners

      Wadsworth, Nick; McEwan, Hayley; Lafferty, Moira; Tod, David; Eubank, Martin; University of Bolton; University of the West of Scotland; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores (Taylor and Francis, 2021-10-12)
      This systematic review explores the reflective accounts of applied sport psychology practitioners. The aim of this review was to synthesize the reflective accounts of applied sport psychology practitioners and highlight common themes that provide focus to their reflective practice. The insight into current progress on reflective content in applied sport psychology provides a foundation to build on as we continue to understand this topic. Following a systematic search of the literature, a total of 73 studies were included within the review, which were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Analysis of the reflective accounts resulted in the creation of nine higher-order themes: Process and Purpose of Reflective Practice; Ethical Practice; Supporting Person and Performer; Practitioner Individuation; Relationships with Clients; Cultural Awareness; Competence-Related Angst; Support of Practitioner Development; and Evaluating Practitioner Effectiveness. The review includes recommendations for future research, such as the use of narrative analysis to provide further insight into applied practitioners’ experiences. We also provide practical implications, which are tailored to match the specific demands of practitioners at different stages of development and include increased engagement in critical reflection for trainee practitioners and engaging with ‘critical friends’ to facilitate the process of meta-reflection for newly qualified practitioners.
    • Between-task consistency, temporal stability and the role of posture in simple reach and fishing hand preference in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

      Diaz, Sergio; Murray, Lindsay; Roberts, Sam; Rodway, Paul; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; University of Chester: Liverpool John Moores University (Elsevier, 2021-07-31)
      Studying hand preferences in chimpanzees can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human hemispheric specialization. Research on chimpanzee hand preference requires careful examination of important factors such as posture, between-task consistency and temporal stability, although few studies have investigated all of these factors in combination. We investigated hand preference in simple reach and fishing behaviours in a group of 19 chimpanzees at Chester Zoo in the UK. Simple reach was defined as extending a hand to grasp a small object, then flexing the limb in a continuous motion, and was examined in quadrupedal, sitting and climbing postures. Fish in hole was defined as inserting a stick into a hole in the wall with one hand and then extracting it with the same hand. Between-task consistency of hand preference was assessed by comparing simple reach and fish in hole, while temporal stability was assessed by comparing simple reach from two points in time: 2017 and 2019. The data showed no significant influence of posture on the strength of hand preference, which contrasts with previous research. The findings of this study show temporal stability in simple reach, although only partial between-task consistency. Overall, the results indicate that simple reach elicits laterality at the individual level and is consistent across postures and stable over time, which is consistent with the literature. These results suggest that posture stability may be important in affecting hand preference. Further, whilst there was overall stability in hand preference across time periods, some individuals changed their preferred hand, suggesting there may be individual level temporal instability of hand preference for certain tasks.
    • Valence of agents and recipients moderates the side-effect effect: Two within-subjects, multi-item conceptual replications

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Kennedy, Bradley J.; Haigh, Matthew.; University of Chester; Northumbria University (Taylor & Francis, 2021-08-27)
      The side-effect effect (SEE) demonstrates that the valence of an unintended side effect influences intentionality judgements; people assess harmful (helpful) side effects as (un)intentional. Some evidence suggests that the SEE can be moderated by factors relating to the side effect’s causal agent and to its recipient. However, these findings are often derived from between-subjects studies with a single or few items, limiting generalisability. Our two within-subjects experiments utilised multiple items and successfully conceptually replicated these patterns of findings. Cumulative link mixed models showed the valence of both the agent and the recipient moderated intentionality and accountability ratings. This supports the view that people represent and consider multiple factors of a SEE scenario when judging intentionality. Importantly, it also demonstrates the applicability of multi-vignette, within-subjects approaches for generalising the effect to the wider population, within individuals, and to a multitude of potential scenarios. For open materials, data, and code, see https://www.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/5MGKN.