• Are Prisoners More Psychopathic than Non-forensic Populations? Profiling Psychopathic Traits among Prisoners, Community Adults, University Students, and Adolescents

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; Sherretts, Nicole; Willmott, Dominic; Kielkiewicz, Krzysztof; Popiolek, Katarzyna; Hyland, Philip (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-12)
    • A bifactorial solution to the psychopathy checklist screening version in a sample of civil psychiatric patients

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Hyland, Philip; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; National College of Ireland ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-03-31)
      Background: There is considerable debate about the underlying factor structure of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). An established view is that it reflects a unitary construct underpinned by two correlated factors. More recent research has, however, undermined this conceptualisation. Aims: Our aim was to compare 10 competing models of the PCL: SV in a sample of civil psychiatric patients. Method: Ten distinct factor models were specified and tested using conventional confirmatory factor analytic techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor modelling. Results: A bifactor model, including two general factors (interpersonal-affective and antisocial-lifestyle), and four subordinate factors (interpersonal, affective, antisocial, and lifestyle) provided the best fit to the data. The reliability of the conceptualisation was supported through the use of composite reliability, and the differential relationships exhibited between the general factors and measures of personality, impulsivity, and mental health. Conclusions: The results suggest that two general factors should be taken into account when interpreting the PCL:SV for clinical purposes.
    • Critical evaluation of psychopathy measurement (PCL-R and SRP-III/SF) and recommendations for future research

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, Poland; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-12-28)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to review, summarize, and critically engage with the most recent findings into the dimensionality of the PCL-R, SRP-III, and SRP-SF. Another objective was to provide a set of directions for future research. Methods: A search in PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar was performed. Twenty-one studies examining the dimensionality of the PCL-R and 11 studies assessing the factor structure of the SRP- III and SRP-SF were identified. Results: A critical review of the studies revealed inconsistent findings as to the underlying structure of the PCL-R and SRP-III/SF. Research has been limited by methodological and conceptual weaknesses, which calls into question the applicability of its findings. As such, it is suggested that prior results should be interpreted with caution. Conclusion: Future research should test competing models derived on the basis of previous research and theory, report the results of a differential predictive validity or alternative test, provide all relevant fit indices, utilize new data sets of appropriate size, avoid parceling procedures with short scales, and report the results of composite reliability.
    • The effect of male incarceration on rape myth acceptance: Application of propensity score matching technique

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; DeLisi, Matthew; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; Iowa State University (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-17)
      The aim is to assess the effect of imprisonment on rape myth acceptance. The research used a sample of male prisoners incarcerated for non-sexual crimes (n = 98) and a sample of males drawn from the general population (n = 160). Simple linear regression did not indicate a significant effect of incarceration on rape myth acceptance. After controlling for background covariates using propensity score matching, analysis revealed a positive significant effect of incarceration on rape myth acceptance. Although further research is required, results indicate that being subject to incarceration has a significant positive effect on stereotypical thinking about rape.
    • Exposure to criminal environment and criminal social identity in a sample of adult prisoners: The moderating role of psychopathic traits

      Sherretts, Nicole; Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities ; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2016-02-31)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of period of incarceration, criminal friend index (a retrospective measure intended to quantify criminal associations before first incarceration), and four psychopathy factors (interpersonal manipulation, callous affect, erratic lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) in criminal social identity (CSI) while controlling for age and gender. Participants were a sample of 501 incarcerated offenders (males n = 293; females n = 208) from three prisons located in Pennsylvania Sate. Moderated regression analyses indicated no significant direct association between period of incarceration and CSI or between criminal friend index and CSI. However, a significant moderating effect of interpersonal manipulation on the relationship between period of incarceration and CSI was observed. Period of incarceration was significantly positively correlated with CSI (particularly with in-group ties subscale) only for those offenders who scored high (1 SD above the mean) on interpersonal manipulation and significantly negatively correlated for those who scored low (1 SD below the mean) on interpersonal manipulation. Also, criminal friend index was positively significantly associated with in-group ties for high levels (1 SD above the mean) of callous affect. The main findings provide evidence for the claim that prisoners are likely to simulate changes in identity through the formation of bonds with other offenders and that this can be achieved using interpersonal manipulation skills.
    • Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse

      Humphries, Rachel L.; Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; University of Chester, University of Huddersfield, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-02)
      There is a dearth of research investigating psychosocial correlates of attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse (CSA) in males and females, and a lack of such studies drawing on participants from the UK. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to examine gender differences in social and psychological predictors of attitudes towards reporting CSA. Participants drawn from the UK general population were recruited via an opportunistic sampling method. Cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaire was utilized. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that social support, masculinity, and age form significant associations with attitudes towards reporting CSA in females (total variance explained by the model was 25%). In the male sample, the only significant predictor of attitudes towards reporting CSA was interpersonal manipulation (total variance explained by the model was 9%). This study provides an important insight into psychosocial barriers/facilitators to reporting CSA. Such knowledge is crucial for the early detection and prevention of abuse.
    • Gender differences in the correlates of reactive aggression

      Debowska, Agata; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Boduszek, Daniel; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; University of Huddersfield (de Gruyter, 2015-11)
      The main aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behaviour) as well as childhood exposure to violence and reactive aggression in men and women. Participants were a sample of working adults (N = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan. Results indicated that reactive aggression among males formed significant associations with Erratic Lifestyle, Interpersonal Manipulation, and childhood exposure to violence. Only one correlate, Erratic Lifestyle, was a significant correlate of reactive aggression in females. These findings are discussed in light of theory and previous research findings.
    • Genuine and simulated suicide notes: An analysis of content

      Ioannou, Maria; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield ; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2014-11-01)
      The present study examined genuine and simulated suicide notes aiming to identify the measures of content that best differentiate between the two. Thirty- three genuine and thirty-three simulated suicide notes were content-analysed and data subjected to Smallest Space Analysis (SSA), a Multidimensional Scaling Procedure. The core of all suicide notes was discovered to be constructed with the use of three variables: expressions of love, positive construction of partner and apologies. Furthermore, four different genuine suicide note themes (‘planned escape’, ‘negative affect and self-mitigation’, ‘positive affect and failed relationship’, ‘lack of self-acceptance’) and three simulated suicide note themes (‘escape’, ‘positive affect and self-blame’, ‘purposeless life’) were identified revealing that authentic suicide note themes were more internally consistent and clearer to interpret.
    • The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI)

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield, Leeds Beckett University, University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-22)
      The integrated psychosocial model of criminal social identity attempts to synthesize, distil, and extend our knowledge and understanding of why people develop criminal social identity, with a particular focus on the psychological and social factors involved. We suggest that the development of criminal social identity results from a complex interplay between four important groups of psychosocial factors: (1) an identity crisis which results in weak bonds with society, peer rejection, and is associated with poor parental attachment and supervision; (2) exposure to a criminal/antisocial environment in the form of associations with criminal friends before, during, and/or after incarceration; (3) a need for identification with a criminal group in order to protect one’s self-esteem; and (4) the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between criminal/antisocial environment and the development of criminal social identity. The model produces testable hypotheses and points to potential opportunities for intervention and prevention. Directions for future research are discussed.
    • Introduction and validation of Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS) in a large prison sample

      Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata; Dhingra, Katie; DeLisi, Matthew; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland; University of Chester; Leeds Beckett University; Iowa State University (Elsevier, 2016-02)
      Purpose: The aim of this study was to create and validate a brief self-report scale of psychopathic personality traits for research purposes which would grasp the essence of a psychopathic personality, regardless of respondents’ age, gender, cultural background, and criminal history. Methods: The Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS), The Measure of Criminal Social Identity, Self-Esteem Measure for Criminals, The Child Sexual Abuse Myth Scale, Attitudes Towards Male Sexual Dating Violence, and Lie Scale were administered to 1,794 prisoners systematically sampled from 10 maximum- and medium-security prisons. Dimensionality and construct validity of the PPTS was investigated using traditional CFA techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor analysis and multitrait-multimethod modelling (MTMM). Seven alternative models of the PPTS were specified and tested using Mplus with WLSMV estimation. Results: MTMM model of PPTS offered the best representation of the data. The results suggest that the PPTS consists of four subscales (affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, interpersonal manipulation, and egocentricity) while controlling for two method factors (knowledge/skills and attitudes/beliefs). Good composite reliability and differential predictive validity was observed. Conclusion: This brief measure of psychopathic traits uncontaminated with behavioural items can be used in the same way among participants with and without criminal history.
    • The moderating role of psychopathic traits in the relationship between period of confinement and criminal social identity in a sample of juvenile prisoners

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield; SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, Poland; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-03)
      The main aim of the current study was to examine how primary psychopathy may interact with period of confinement to predict Criminal Social Identity (CSI) scores, while controlling for covariates. Methods: The Measure of Criminal Social Identity, Levenson Self-report Psychopathy Scale, and the Measure of Criminal Attitudes and Associates were administered to 126 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Results: Results indicated no significant direct relationship between period of confinement and CSI scores. However, as expected, a significant moderating effect of primary psychopathy on the association between period of confinement and CSI scores was observed while controlling for covariates. Specifically, the significant effect of period of confinement on CSI was observed only for those participants who scored higher (1 SD above the mean) on primary psychopathy (affective and interpersonal features). Conclusion: For incarcerated juveniles with greater primary psychopathic traits, the formation and/or intensification of CSI may be an adaptive response to incarceration.
    • Psychopathy, gang membership, and moral disengagement among juvenile offenders

      Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Sharratt, Kathryn; Hyland, Philip; Kola-Palmer, Susanna; Manchester Metropolitan University ; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; National College of Ireland ; University of Huddersfield (Emerald, 2014-11-10)
      Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of psychopathy factors and gang membership on moral disengagement while controlling for age, ethnicity, having run away from home, family member and/or friend arrests, substance misuse, parental physical fights, violence exposure (victimization and witnessing), and maternal warmth and hostility. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on data collected from serious juvenile offenders (N = 769) as part of the Pathways to Desistance Study. Findings: Six independent variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model: gang membership, age, gender, violence exposure, and psychopathy Factors 1 and 2. Psychopathy Factor 1 was the strongest predictor of moral disengagement. Originality/value: Results indicate that youth with heightened psychopathic traits make greater use of strategies to rationalize and justify their harmful behaviour against others. Implications in relation to theory and previous studies are discussed.
    • The role of psychopathy and exposure to violence in rape myth acceptance

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Alexandra; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; University of Huddersfield ; Polish Prison Service (SAGE, 2014-10-09)
      The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
    • The role of psychopathy factors in reactive aggression within a sample of prisoners

      Debowska, Agata; Zeyrek Rios, Emek Y.; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield (Emerald, 2014-11-11)
      Purpose - The main objective of this paper is to examine the role of four psychopathy factors (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behaviour) and the length of incarceration in reactive aggression. The predictive effect of dissatisfaction with peer relations, childhood experiences of violence, and criminal friends on reactive forms of aggressive acts is also explored. Design/methodology/approach – One hundred and twenty nine (N = 129) male prisoners incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison were recruited for the study. Cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaire of retrospective and prospective nature was utilised. Findings – Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that only one psychopathy facet, Interpersonal Manipulation, forms a significant association with reactive aggression. Another accurate correlate of reactive aggression was the length of incarceration. Originality/value – The results of the present study indicate that the commonly suggested two-factor models of psychopathy may be misguided. Future studies examining the effect of psychopathy facets on aggression should consider Interpersonal Manipulation and Callous Affect as separate dimensions. Additionally, this study is the first to demonstrate that reactive aggression may be exacerbated during incarceration.
    • Validation of the Urdu version of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents

      Shagufta, Sonia; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Kola-Palmer, Derrol; University of Huddersfield; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-06-03)
      Purpose: The aim was to examine the dimensionality, composite reliability, and incremental validity of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI) in a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents (N = 315) following translation of the measure into Urdu. Design/methodology/approach: Four alternative factor models, with uncorrelated measurement error terms, were specified and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor modelling techniques. Findings: Results indicated that a three factor model provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models tested. The reliability of the scale was established using composite reliability. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed that the three MCSI factors were differentially related with external variables, indicating that the MCSI measures substantially different domains. Implications: Implications for theory and future research are discussed. Originality/Value: The results add valuable evidence as to the cross-cultural applicability of the MCSI.
    • Victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics in filicide and filicide-suicide

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2015-01-07)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of most recent studies of parental and stepparental filicide. A detailed review of the literature revealed the importance of certain demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors in the commission of child homicide. Our findings indicate that filicides perpetrated by genetic parents and stepparents differ considerably in terms of underlying motivational factors. Data in the literature suggest that biological parents are more likely to choose methods of killing which produce quick and painless death, whereas stepparents frequently kill their wards by beating. Research results demonstrate the victims of maternal filicides to be significantly younger than the victims of paternal filicides. Additionally, filicide-suicide is most often associated with parental psychopathology. Genetic fathers are at the greatest risk of death by suicide after the commission of familicide. These findings are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks explaining the occurrence of child murder. Further, limitations of reviewed studies and directions for future research are presented.