• Negative cognition, affect, metacognition and dimensions of paranoia in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis: A multi-level modelling analysis

      Morrison, Anthony P.; Shryane, Nick; Fowler, David; Birchwood, Max; Gumley, Andrew I.; Taylor, Hannah E.; French, Paul; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Jones, Peter B.; Lewis, Shôn W.; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2015-04-08)
      Background: Paranoia is one of the commonest symptoms of psychosis but has rarely been studied in a population at risk of developing psychosis. Based on existing theoretical models, including the proposed distinction between ‘poor me’ and ‘bad me’ paranoia, we test specific predictions about associations between negative cognition, metacognitive beliefs and negative emotions and paranoid ideation and the belief that persecution is deserved (deservedness). Methods: We used data from 117 participants from the EDIE-2 trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for people at high risk of developing psychosis, comparing them with samples of psychiatric inpatients and healthy students from a previous study. Multi-level modelling was utilised to examine predictors of both paranoia and deservedness, with post-hoc planned comparisons conducted to test whether person-level predictor variables were associated differentially with paranoia or with deservedness. Results: Our sample of ARMS participants was not as paranoid, but reported higher levels of “bad-me” deservedness, compared to psychiatric inpatients. We found several predictors of paranoia and deservedness. Negative beliefs about self were related to deservedness but not paranoia, whereas negative beliefs about others were positively related to paranoia but negatively with deservedness. Both depression and negative metacognitive beliefs about paranoid thinking were specifically related to paranoia but not deservedness. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the role of negative cognition, metacognition and negative affect in the development of paranoid beliefs, which has implications for psychological interventions and our understanding of psychosis.
    • Psychopathology and affect dysregulation across the continuum of psychosis: A multiple comparison group study

      Taylor, Hannah E.; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Dunn, Graham; Parker, Sophie; Bentall, Richard P.; Birchwood, Max; Morrison, Anthony P.; University of Manchester; Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust; Bangor University; University of Birmingham (Wiley, 2013-06-17)
      Aim: There is evidence that psychotic-like phenomena can be detected within the general population and that psychotic experiences lie on a continuum which also spans affective states. We aimed to investigate comparisons of a first episode psychosis group, an ‘at-risk mental state group’ and a help-seeking control group with non-patients to explore whether affective states lie on a continuum of psychosis. Method: Measures of psychotic-like experiences, social anxiety and depression were administered to 20 patients experiencing first episode psychosis (FEP), 113 patients experiencing an ‘at-risk’ mental state (ARMS), 28 patients who were help-seeking but not experiencing a FEP or ARMS (HSC) and 30 non-clinical participants (NC). Results: For distress in relation to psychotic-like experiences, the FEP, ARMS and HSC groups scored significantly higher than the NC group for the perceptual abnormalities and non-bizarre ideas. In terms of severity of psychotic experiences, the FEP scored the highest, followed by the ARMS group, followed by the HSC and NC group. The clinical groups scored significantly higher for depression than the non-clinical group. Interestingly, only the FEP and the ARMS group scored significantly higher than non-patients for social anxiety. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a psychosis continuum exists, however this does not suggest that both psychosis and affective symptoms lie on the same continuum, rather it would appear that the presence of such affective states that may affect help-seeking behavior and clinical status. The implications of these findings for clinical practice are discussed.