Recent Submissions

  • The health consultation experience for people with learning disabilities: A constructivist grounded theory study based on symbolic interactionism

    Chapman, Hazel M. (University of Chester, 2014-06-09)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the health consultation experience for people with learning disabilities, particularly in terms of their self-concept Background. Annual health checks have been introduced as a reasonable adjustment for health providers to make in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities, who experience significantly poorer health outcomes than the general population. Evaluation of the health consultation from the service user perspective can inform this service provision. Design. A constructivist grounded theory approach, based on symbolic interactionism, was used to explore the meaning of the health consultation experience for the person with learning disabilities, and its effects on their sense of self. Methods. Purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit 25 participants with learning disabilities through a GP practice, self-advocacy groups and a health facilitator. Nine individual interviews, three interviews with two participants, three focus groups (n=7, n=5 and n=3), and an audio-recorded health check consultation were carried out (with two participants interviewed twice and four attending two focus groups), as well as a member check used to assess the resonance of the findings. Data collection was undertaken in different primary care trusts across the north west of England. Data were subjected to constant comparative analysis, using a symbolic interactionist approach, to explore all aspects of the health consultation experience and its effects on the self. Findings. Current expectations, attitudes and feelings about health consultations were strongly influenced by previous experience. Participants negotiated their own reality within the consultation, which affected their self-concept and engagement with their health care. Respectful and secure health professional – service user relationships, developed over time, were central to an effective consultation. Perspectives on the consultation, and engagement within it, were co-constructed with a companion, who could help to promote the personhood of the service user with support from the health professional. Anxiety, embarrassment and felt stigma were identified as significant barriers to communication and engagement within the consultation. Conclusions. People with learning disabilities have similar health consultation needs and expectations to other people, but may have more difficulties in engaging with the process and building trusting relationships with the health professional, due to previous negative experiences, anticipated stigma and loss of self within health settings leading to a fear of disclosure. This, combined with difficulties in communication and cognitive processing, results in less satisfactory outcomes persisting over time. The effects of triadic consultations are generally positive, particularly where relatives or health facilitators are involved. However, continuity of companion as well as health professional is needed, and more service user engagement should be supported. Fundamental attitude change by health professionals, supported by specific educational initiatives to enhance their understanding of the service user perspective, is needed to reduce health inequalities. Participatory research by people with learning disabilities should inform future health care practice.
  • The effects of induced negative mood state on recalled autobiographical content and memory

    Hayes, Peter; Boulton, Mike; Mitchell, Andrew E. P. (University of Chester, 2012-04)
    Autobiographical memory has been theorized to serve as an adaptive function in coping with negative mood state. To gain a better understanding of whether autobiographical memory changes with negative mood state, a number of experiments examined the relative accessibility of cognitive content and ability to recall specific event memories in those who had a previous history of depression or showed some aspects of current depressive symptoms. Five separate studies involved 288 participants and examined the effects of negative mood components on autobiographical recall. Studies 1 – 4 examined the autobiographical content by cueing content using a cue word technique to evoke autobiographical memories by means of a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). Negative mood state was induced by Velten mood induction technique, and self-reported mood was measured using University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UWIST-MACL; Matthews, Jones & Chamberlain, 1990) before and after mood induction. The ability to recall specific event memories was measured in Study 5 by the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT; Raes, Hermans, Williams, & Eelen, 2007). The results indicate that negative mood does influence autobiographical recall in terms of content and memory. These results indicate that autobiographical memory is a phenomenon that is in part dependent on negative mood state and in part dependent on current depressive symptoms and history of depression. Increased rumination was particularly responsive to induced negative mood state in those with current depressive symptoms. Reduced levels of activity, alertness, loss of interest and diminished pleasure are aspects of negative mood that seem to be particularly important components of mood state at the time of recall. To gain further insights into mood state effects in autobiographical recall, future directions in mood research should focus on and differentiate between the separate mood state components that are more important in bringing about changes in recalled content, especially in those with either a history of depression or showing current depressive symptoms.
  • The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool Primary Care and General Health Setting Version (GMHAT/PC): A validity and feasibility study – Spanish version

    Sharma, V. K.; Tejada, Paola A. (University of Chester, 2017)
    BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to provide training and tools to frontline health workers in order for them to properly diagnose and treat mental illnesses in Latin-American communities, since the vast majority of people with a mental illness suffer in silence. A computer-assisted interview, the Global Mental Health Assessment Tool (GMHAT/PC) has been developed to assist general practitioners and other health professionals to make a quick, convenient, yet reasonably comprehensive and standardised mental health assessment. GMHAT/PC has been translated into various languages including German, Dutch, Chinese, Hindi and Arabic. This is the first study, of a GMHAT/PC Spanish version carried out in Latin America, to establish its validity in that culture and feasibility to be used in the health care setting. If proven a valid tool through this study, the GMHAT/PC Spanish version will be an important aid towards improving the mental health of Spanish-speaking communities within the Latin-American region. AIM: The study aims at assessing both the validity of a GMHAT/PC Spanish version, and the feasibility of utilising a computer assisted diagnostic interview by GPs. DESIGN: 1) Validation study was planned to establish whether the GMHAT/PC based diagnosis compares well with the consultants ICD-10 based diagnosis (Gold Standard) 2) Feasibility study was carried out to examine whether GMHAT/PC can be used in routine clinical care in a general health setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first study (validation), participants varied from those who were in remission i.e. without much psychopathology to those had symptoms of a severe mental illness. They were recruited from in-patient (82%) and out-patient (18%) mental health settings in Colombia. The participants were expected to have a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses (anxiety disorders, depression, psychosis, bipolar affective disorder, organic mental disorders, and other diagnoses). All consecutive patients were interviewed by GPs using GMHAT/PC and psychiatrists made an independent diagnosis applying ICD-10 criteria. The second study (feasibility) was carried out on patients hospitalised at medical, surgical and women’s wards during a period of one month in each service. The diagnosis of a medical illness was made by specialists in each service. A trained GP carried out psychiatric assessment of all participants using GMHAT/PC. RESULTS: First study (validity): two hundred ninety-nine patients (n=299) participated, 54.18% males and 45.81% females in the age range of 14-78. All patients were interviewed independently by seven psychiatrists with over five years of clinical experience. The mean duration of GMHAT/PC interview was 12.5 minutes. Most patients were pleased that they were asked about every aspect of their mental health. Psychiatrists made a single diagnosis in 183 (61%) cases, multiple (two) diagnosis in 112 (37%) cases and multiple (three) diagnosis in another four cases. GMHAT/PC in almost all cases gave additional multiple diagnoses.The results show an acceptable-to-good level of agreement between the GPs’ (GMHAT/PC) diagnoses and the psychiatrists’ (clinical) diagnoses of any mental illness, Kappa 0.58- 95% C.I (0.46, 0.72). There is a good level of sensitivity (81%) and specificity (92%), with GPs correctly identifying 242 out of the 250 participants diagnosed with a mental illness, and 27 out of 35 of those who do not present any whatsoever. The agreement (kappa value) between GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists ICD-10 based diagnosis of specific disorders were as follows: Organic disorders-0.87; Psychosis- 0.56; Depression-0.53; Mania-0.6, Alcohol and drug misuse- 0.62, Learning disorder- 0.4; Personality Disorder- 0.39 and Anxiety disorders- 0.14. The sensitivity of different disorders ranged from 63% (Mania) to 100% (Anxiety) and specificity from 71% (Anxiety) to 100% (organic). The second study (feasibility): out of 455 medically-ill patients, 4.8% had a mental illness identified by GMHAT/PC interview. Anxiety, depression and organic disorders were the most frequently identified mental disorders in internal medicine and surgery. Cancer had a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid mental illness. CONCLUSION: GMHAT/PC -Spanish version used by GPs in this study detected mental disorders accurately and it was feasible to use GMHAT/PC in Colombia and Latin-American health settings. The findings of this study will have a big impact upon mental health service provision in Spanish-speaking nations within the Latin-American region as the Spanish version for GMHAT/PC will assist primary care physicians and other health workers in detecting and managing mental health disorders in the communities. There is no other comparable easy-to-use comprehensive mental health diagnostic tool available in Spanish.
  • Understanding the diffusion of the idea of contact with nature to enhance health: An Eliasian case study

    Thurston, Miranda; Greening, Kim L. (University of Chester, 2015-12)
    In public health working in a less medical and more preventative way by focussing on the wider determinants of health, inter-sectoral collaboration, and evidence based practice have been advocated as ways to raise the health status of the population. In recent years, the idea of contact with nature to enhance health has come to the fore as one way to tackle current public health challenges: for example, diabetes, overweight and obesity, chronic liver disease, hypertension and mental health problems. Yet little is known about how this idea has diffused through the interdependent figurations of researchers, policy makers and into use through the actions of people in local organisations. The processes connecting these interdependent figurations are complex and, in the case of contact with nature, are not well understood. This is the research problem this thesis seeks to address, that is to say, the evidence into action process of an idea. The theoretical perspective of Norbert Elias is used throughout the thesis to analyse the diffusion process of the idea. Elias’s work is concerned with long term processes in human history; in adherence with his approach to sociological inquiry a historical context going back more than three generations provides the backdrop for the empirical work. An examination of the context illuminated the significance of the decade of the 1970s onwards to the present use of the idea of contact with nature in public health; notably the shift in discourse about hazards, risk and threats from nature to one of health enhancement. Norbert Elias’s own thinking and discourse about contact with nature to enhance health is used as a touchstone for the analysis. The empirical data in the thesis is generated through mixed methods, principally bibliometrics and content analysis, to reveal the diffusion and development of the idea over time and to show the way that the idea is framed when used by researchers, policy makers and by people within organisations. An Eliasian approach to case study methodology is utilised. Sub-study 1 revealed that empirical research literature about the idea emerged in the 1970s and that the number of publications per annum increased year on year until 2005. The empirical research was generated by researchers located across several continents and from different disciplines. Early researchers into the idea investigated the psychological benefits whilst latterly epidemiological studies have come to the fore. Sub-study 2 showed that the idea was taken up widely by policy makers in four government departments in England from 2000, with a peak in 2011. There were more references to the idea in the policy documents of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs than other government departments; the references of this department took an ecosystem services stance. Sub-study 3 showed that during July to October 2013 and within Greater Manchester, 36 organisations were providing and/or promoting activities which involved the idea of contact with nature on their websites. Of these 36 organisations, 16 (44%) were conservation/wildlife based agencies whose use of the idea included the pursuit of their own agendas and purposes. ix An analysis of the results, using the theoretical perspective of Norbert Elias, shows the involvement of many figurations of interdependent individuals, and the long term, largely unplanned, and non-linear character of the diffusion process. The empirical findings reflect the transdisciplinary nature of the research, inter-sectoral collaboration across government departments within policy, and the adoption of the idea outside of the traditional health service. People and thinking from the environment sector have greatly influenced the diffusion and development of the idea, and their involvement has widened the scope and form of public health action.
  • A grounded theory study to explore how clinical nurses undertaking research as master's students accommodate and adjust to the experience

    Thomas, Mike; Keen, Adam (University of Chester, 2016-02)
    Taught master's degree programmes represent a popular mechanism for part-time students to access postgraduate level education. A common feature of such programmes is the inclusion of some form of independent research project. Whilst such projects are recognised as being demanding for the students involved, there is a scarcity of research literature that explores their experiences. In this study I have now explored how clinical nurses, as an example of a particular professional group, accommodated and adjusted to the experience of undertaking part-time master's research. My intent was to contribute to the body of knowledge relating to the support of part-time students undertaking master's research.
  • Realities from practice: What it means to midwives and student midwives to care for women with BMIs ≥30kg/m2 during the childbirth continuum

    Steen, Mary; Thomas, Mike; Roberts, Taniya (University of Chester, 2016-12)
    Women with raised BMIs ≥30kg/m2 have now become the ‘norm’ in maternity practice due to the recent obesity epidemic. To date only very limited research evidence exists highlighting midwives’ experiences of caring for this group of women. This thesis aims to provide original research on what it means to midwives and student midwives on the point of qualification to care for this client group throughout the childbirth continuum.
  • Narratives of personalisation in mental health: a collective case study

    Lovell, Andy; Coyle, David S. (University of Chester, 2016-11)
    This work describes the impact of personalisation on users and professional workers identities in four mental health care settings. The development and context of personalisation is identified and set within an emergent narrative of consumer choice and austerity. International personalisation research is compared and a discussion of UK mental health literature is presented. The social constructions of key participants are analysed through their narrative accounts as they undertook identity work while being involved with individual budget pilots, either as users, carers, brokers or mental health professionals. The work employs Stake’s collective case study as the method of combining semi-structured interview data taken from participants in four personalisation studies designed and led by this author between 2008-2011. Narrative social constructionist methods, positioning theory and story-line are used in the analysis to produce a framework of participants’ orientation to personalisation. The importance of nuance as opposed to binary construction towards personalisation is highlighted, as are the positioning actions of independent brokers for the success of personalisation. The importance of co-production and challenging professional asymmetry in health and social mental health care services is clearly made as are the implications for practice. The value of the proposed framework and possible future research are discussed.
  • Personal grooming (beyond hygiene): a grounded theory study.

    Mason, Tom; Gidman, Janice; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Boulton, Michael J.; Woodhouse, Jan (University of Chester, 2015-10)
    Background: We are very individualistic in how we present ourselves to the world. Whilst we are healthy and self-caring we have control over the way we undertake self-groom. Once we need care the situation may change. In the setting of health and social care the emphasis has been on hygiene; aspects of personal grooming [PG] may be overlooked. Few studies exist in the health and social care literature that explore this crucial daily activity of living. Aim: This study aims to address the imbalance on what is known of PG. It seeks to thoroughly explore the concept of PG, identifying the normative activities involved, and the age-related behaviours that occur across the lifespan. Methods: Utilising a grounded theory [GT] methodology, an eclectic data collection approach was taken. Consequently a pilot group, four focus groups (child-focused; males 18-45; females 18-45; over-46), and a visual methodology formed the first phase of the study. The second phase consisted of a formal concept analysis, drawing on literature and data from the focus groups. The final phase of the study involved one-to-one semi-structured interviews with retired persons. A total of 26 participants took part in the study and both genders were represented. Analysis was undertaken using the range of coding consistent with a GT approach and the notion of constant comparison. Findings: New knowledge on PG emerged; an academic definition of PG; PG was found to have ‘four elements’: hygiene, appearance management behaviours, body modification and enhancement. There was a ‘spectrum’ of grooming recognised, which ranged from the wild, un-groomed state to that of being over-groomed. The term ‘allo-grooming’, which means grooming of another, was used to explore the part families play in social learning about PG. A timeline of PG behaviours was created to illustrate how PG changes over the lifespan. Additionally, information on grooming activities, other than those of hygiene, was recorded. Implications: PG is complex and the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach of concentrating on hygiene may not meet the needs of service users. Some body areas, for example, are not included in the published documents that help to guide care services. There appears to a gap in educational programmes of health and social care workers, in respect to PG. Recommendations for practice, policy, education and further research are proposed.
  • Visual perceptions of ageing: A multi method and longitudinal study exploring attitudes of undergraduate nurses towards older people

    Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh-Scott, Annette; Ridgway, Victoria (University of Chester, 2015-12)
    Ageism and negative attitudes are reported to be institutionally embedded in healthcare. The unprecedented increase in the older population together with social perceptions of later life presents all those involved in the delivery of healthcare with considerable challenges. It was therefore timely to examine attitudes and perceptions of healthcare professionals towards older people. This study presents a critical visual exploration of the perceptions of ageing of undergraduate nursing students at a University in the North of England, based on the findings of a three year longitudinal study. The research employed a pragmatic standpoint where mixed methodology was adopted to explore perceptions and included the use of an attitude towards older people scale (KOP) (Kogan, 1961), visual methods (participants were asked to draw a person aged 75), a Thurstone scale and photo elicitation. The research design and construct was influenced by the epistemology of constructionism and discourse analysis. The research was conducted alongside an undergraduate nursing programme, and followed the natural journey of 310 students from one intake and involved three waves of data collection. The study established that the majority of participants had moderately positive attitudes towards older people the beginning of the programme and that these had improved for a significant number by the end of the study programme. From the quantitative data it was determined that age, gender, educational qualifications, practice learning, branch of nursing and contact with older people influenced the participants’ overall attitude score. The use of visual methods provided a narrative of the participants’ perceptions of later life and appearance dominated the imagery via the physical depiction of ageing and the ascetics of clothing and grooming. The influence of role models was seen to impact upon the production of the image via the depiction of grandparents and people they knew and the drawings identified some older people being active. The visual findings established that the undergraduate nurses in the study viewed older people from a socially constructed phenomenon and used symbols (hairstyle, clothing, mobility aids) to depict old age. The nursing programme was found to positively alter perceptions. The research findings have led to recommendations based on three prominent themes; 1) implications for nurse education and practice, 2) gerontology education and research and 3) future use of the research methods.
  • Understanding the Processes Involved in Implementing an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Service: An Exploratory Study that Investigates Practitioner and Client Experience Regarding its Effect on Patient Pathways, Service Design and Overall Outcomes

    Pietroni, Patrick; Thomas, Mike; Steen, Scott (University of Chester, 2015-12-31)
    The English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme is a government-funded initiative that aims to provide timely and equitable access to evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions, within a primary care setting. Despite the many achievements of the programme, there are several issues regarding research to clinical gaps, as well as a high rate of variation between sites concerning outcomes and attrition. This thesis explores the implementation process of the IAPT delivery model to understand which factors are influential in the successful uptake and integration of evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions. The aims of this thesis are:  To explore, identify and analyse the implementation process involved in establishing and delivering an IAPT service.  To uncover the factors that either facilitate or impede its development to provide a more in-depth and detailed account of the implementation and operation of services.  To develop an understanding regarding the applicability of evidence-based practice and the IAPT delivery model in a clinical setting, for the provision of psychological therapies. I conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with practitioners delivering and implementing services, across seven sites, and clients, across three sites. The design and analysis followed an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, focusing on personal meaning and sense-making processes. The objective of the interview was to understand the implementation process regarding the IAPT delivery model, exploring how this influences personal experiences and client engagement. Additionally, participant narrative was set in context using open-access data collected and published by the programme. The analysis generated three master themes for practitioners delivering and implementing services including: ‘A Call to Action’ describing how participants regarded this process as a genuine opportunity to make a real impact in mental healthcare; ‘Contextual Influences on Service Operation’ which explores the activities in becoming a locally determined, adaptable and relevant service; and a ‘Focus on Relationships’ outlining the relational and collaborative work involved during implementation. For the client group, three master themes were generated including: ‘A Personal Journey: From Discovery to Advocacy’ illustrating the changing experiences involved during service access and engagement; ‘Perception of Self’ which portrays how individuals made sense of their engagement by judging what it meant to them; 5 and ‘Outside Factors’ which explores the role of others and the physical journey made in getting to services. The analysis suggested that both groups made sense of their experiences in complex and varied ways. Heavily influencing the implementation of the IAPT delivery model is the over-arching need to boost throughput and quantity, possibly at a cost of quality. Additionally, it is argued that the use of routine outcome monitoring in services is useful for reflecting on the implementation process and engaging clients. The key to successful implementation appears to be about achieving integration, requiring a whole-systems based approach that considers the mediating pathways into and out of services. In light of the findings and literature, the thesis proposes several recommendations for future practice and further research.
  • The perceptions and experiences of e-learning within undergraduate healthcare education: A case study

    Brownsell, Michael D. (University of Chester, 2016-03)
    Introduction: The use of e-learning in healthcare education is being increasingly advocated and used, but can prove challenging. The need to explore educator’s experience and student perspectives in relation to this area of pedagogy was identified as a relevant area of study Study Aim: To explore and critically analyse the perspectives and experiences of healthcare educators and students regarding e-learning. Design: A mixed methods exploratory case study of one HEI’s use of e-learning. Methods: Quantitative descriptive data was collected through educator and student questionnaires from 34 academics and 127 students across four university departments delivering undergraduate healthcare related programmes. A sample of 12 module web spaces and associated documentation was reviewed. The data sets were considered in relation to the thematic analysis of 16 semi-structured educator interviews and 6 healthcare student focus groups. Results: Educator and student needs are interwoven during undergraduate healthcare provision. Differing educational philosophies, practices and culture across the cases created opportunities and challenges with e-learning. Two differing, yet potentially complimentary definitions of e-learning existed within and across the four departments which produced either congruence or conflict toward the varied e-learning approaches. Student respondents selectively engaged in what was primarily educator controlled e-learning. Conclusions: The findings highlighted the need for agreement and understanding of philosophical and pedagogical underpinnings which define and shape e-learning by educators and students, along with an awareness of differing professional cultures across which e-learning is required to operate. Originality / Value: The findings of this study offer a deeper understanding of the effect on educator and student engagement in e-learning of differing higher education and professional practice education cultures. A model is offered as a response to particular issues faced by the study respondents; whilst non-generalisable the model may serve as an enlightening guide for educators who are introducing or applying constructivist e-learning practices within undergraduate healthcare provision and benefit the student experience.
  • Retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Wirral peninsula: complexity science

    Nwaneri, Chukwuemeka (University of Chester, 2014)
    T2DM continues to be a public health burden with its increasing incidence, prevalence, and mortality risks. The aim of this thesis was to examine a population-based cohort of 22,000 people with T2DM diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 within the Wirral Peninsula, UK with the aim of: Assessing factors relating to all-cause, cardivascular-, malignancy-, and non-cardiovascular mortality; evaluating the role of glycaemic control, socioeconomic status, smoking, dyslipidaemia, blood pressure, obesity, and nephropathy, as predicting risk factors for mortality; assessing the influence of age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes, year of diagnosis and gender on mortality; examining the life expectancy and mortality patterns and measuring the years of life lost as a result of a diagnosis of T2DM; applying Complexity Science to the dynamic interplay of the various factors in T2DM that lead to unpredictability in health outcomes.
  • Social Work Discourses: An Exploratory Study

    Roscoe, Karen D. (University of Chester, 2014-04)
    This study aims to critically analyse and explore how social workers (operating in the adult social work practice domain) draw on wider social (and social work) discourses in accounting for the work that they do. Utilising purposeful samples of students and qualified social work practitioners, this exploratory study of discourses analyses the implications this has on the construction of the social work identity, role and practice (action). Driven by a series of research questions, the objectives of this research were: 1) To critically analyse and explore the discourses on which students and social work practitioners draw on in their accounts of social work practice; 2) To identify and critically analyse the subject positions and discursive practices (collective ways of speaking) of social workers in respect of these discourses; 3) To critically analyse how and in what way social workers at different stages of the career trajectory draw differently upon these discourses; 4) To critically analyse and evaluate the implications for practice and service users of the respondents’ subject positioning and the discursive practices that they employ; 5) Develop a critically reflexive method (model) for social work education and research in order to make recommendations for research, education and critical social work practice (in the context of self-awareness). As this study involves several people in the exploration of adult social work (Community Care policy context), it will contribute to knowledge of the meaning given to contemporary social work. It does so by expanding the concept of discourse analysis to the wider social context in which the overall narrative (story) is ‘told’. This research aims to understand how respondents draw on discourses in particular ways and includes an analysis of the contradictions and gaps within the overall narrative of social work. Stemming from wider pre-determined narratives that are available in social work cultures, this study not only analyses the words themselves by utilising discourse analytic tools, but demonstrates new ways in which to apply critical discourse analysis in the exploration of accounts of social work. In this examination, this research critically analyses and evaluates the implications these discourses can have on identity construction (personal and professional self), as well as on those social work intends to benefit (service users).
  • From Ascertainment to Assessment: The Development of a Social Work Role in Local Authorities, 1950-1993

    Burt, Michael (University of Chester, 2015)
    The social work literature of the last two decades has drawn attention to the increasing importance of the assessment role of social workers. However, there has been limited historical analysis of the development of the assessment function in social work. This study examines the way in which the assessment role of social workers in England and Wales developed between 1950 and 1993. Historical narrative has been used to develop the themes of this study, addressing the significance of interrelated events and the range of political, economic and social influences on the changes which took place. It uses archival sources as primary material, including the archive of Lancashire County Council which is employed as a case study. This study traces the stages of development of social policy for the assessment function of social workers in local authorities. It draws attention to the diverse approaches of separate occupational groups of social workers to making enquiries and investigations about the circumstances of people who experienced social problems in the 1950s. Principles of social assessment which emerged during the 1960s are explored, together with their wider application to all client groups during the 1970s and the development of assessment as a priority activity within the newly established Social Services Departments (SSDs). The importance of the development of criteria and models of assessment in the late 1970s and 1980s and their inclusion as part of the social work process in planning documents produced by SSDs in the 1980s is discussed. The significance of the children’s and adults’ legislation and accompanying documentation at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s in giving local authorities a lead role in the co-ordination of assessments is addressed. Although conventional interpretations of the history of social work have suggested that a high point in the development of social work was reached in the early 1970s, archival material points to the function of social assessment being at a particularly early stage of its development. As a consequence of the changes which took place, the thesis argues that assessment was a unifying influence on social work as a single occupational group and emerging profession.
  • Perceptions of care and caring: An orthopaedic perspective

    Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Mason, Tom; Flynn, Sandra D. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester)Countess of Chester NHS Trust, 2013-05)
    “Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn life around,” (Leo F Buscaglia 1924-1998). Caring is a universal phenomenon (Leininger, 1988a, 1991) that influences the way we think, feel and act and is the focus of debate worldwide. Studied since the days of Florence Nightingale and reflected in the literature are numerous theoretical opinions in the search for a comprehensive understanding of caring in the health experience of human beings (Newman et al., 1991). This ethnographic thesis has a caring science perspective (caring in orthopaedics) with the aim of acquiring a greater understanding of perceptions of caring in an orthopaedic clinical setting from both patient and health care professional perspectives. There is a wealth of literature relating to caring which attempts to define and interpret its meaning from several theoretical perspectives. In respect of institutional or professional caring, nursing has historically been synonymous with the notion of care and caring, modest research has been attributed to caring amongst other health care professionals in the wider context. The study used a sequential exploratory mixed methods design and was underpinned by Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Care in order to discover and illuminate the essential caring behaviours valued by both care givers and care recipients. A total of 30 patients and 53 health care professionals consisting of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists participated in the study through a three stage approach consisting of questionnaires, observation and semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed both similarities and differences between patients and health care professionals relating to the importance of positive caring behaviours revealed during caring interactions. The questionnaires disclosed that patients statistically rated caring behaviours demonstrated by health care professionals lower than the professionals rated themselves. The data analysis from the participant observation and semi-structured interviews established that although all of the caring caratives according to Watson’s Theory of Care were evident in caring interactions they varied as to the number of times they were exhibited by the respected health care professional groups. Overall patient perception of caring focused upon behaviours related to the caring carative ‘assurance of human presence’ whilst health care professionals considered caring behaviours relating to the caring carative ‘respectful deference’ as the most important. This thesis highlights the need of the patient to feel ‘cared for’ and ‘cared about’ and in today’s modern health care system caring should not be monopolised by one profession but instead the caring concept embraced and the caring dais shared by other professions.
  • Justice of truth? Alleged offenders with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system

    Lovell, Andy; Hellenbach, Michael (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2011-09)
    This PhD study examines how people who are intellectually impaired are processed within the criminal justice system. In this context it analyses the understanding of intellectual disabilities, criminal justice decision-making processes, and the constructon of crime and punishment by professionals involved in criminal justice. Despite significant changes in mental health legislation and greater awareness by professionals of issues around intellectually disabled offenders, previous research has demonstrated that this population remains disadvantaged when coming into contact with the criminal justice system. The study focuses on how the criminal justice system maintains its traditional way of operating when engaging with people who are impaired in their intellectual capacities and who, therefore, often have difficulties in processing information and understanding complex situations. The study draws on qualitative data generated through thirty five unstructured interviews with custody sergeants, forensic examiners, prosecutors, magistrates, judges and probation officers from three regions in the North West of England: Cheshire, Merseyside and Greater Manchester. Through those interviews, the provision of support to alleged offenders is examined and the process of legal representation evaluated. By analysing decision-making processes around vulnerable defendants, two conflicting views that influence cimrinal justice professionals in their strategic behaviour were identified: protecting offenders' rights and protecting the public from criminal behaviour. It is argued that the criminal justice system draws its normative and enforcement powers from a 'discourse of truth' that concentrates on capacity and intent. Defendants who are classified as vulnerable because of impaired intellectual functioning whereby capacity to reason and intellectual disability are functionally separated. This way, an alleged offender's vulnerability becomes a manageable object within the criminal justice system and is integrated into a person's risk management. The disjointed discourse around intellectual disabilities increases the risk that people with an impaired level of intellectual functioning become drawn into the mainstream criminal justice system and, therefore, further compromises the empowerment and social inclusion of this population.
  • Using a feminist standpoint to explore women’s disclosure of domestic violence and their interaction with statutory agencies

    Mason, Tom; Keeling, June J. (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2011-11)
    This thesis explores women’s disclosure of domestic violence, and is based on the findings of two research studies. The first study explored prevalence rates of domestic violence reported by women following childbirth. The subsequent narrative study explored women’s experiences of disclosure and their interactions with statutory agencies. The research was influenced by a feminist epistemology, recognizing the marginalisation of the women’s experiences from a subjugated relationship, addressing the power relationship between the researcher and participants and because of the significant disparity between gendered lives. The study was conducted in two parts. A survey of five hundred women in the immediate postnatal period within a large NHS Hospital participated in the first part of the study. The second study involved narrative interviews with fifteen women living within their own community who talked about their experiences of domestic violence and issues surrounding disclosure. Women’s stories about disclosure including the responses they received were influenced by cultural narratives. The theories of social power have been utilized as an explanatory framework and provide the theoretical basis of the analysis. The study found low levels of disclosure at two specific points along the pregnancy/childbirth continuum; during booking in clinic and in the immediate postnatal period. Furthermore, the findings revealed three specific tactics used by perpetrators to engage women in the early relational stage with the intentionality of exerting control and subjugation. These have been termed feeling special, feeling vulnerable and commitment. Whilst women talked of coercion and subjugation by their partners, they also talked of how their interactions with statutory agencies limited their agency. The significance of this study is that the thesis was able to challenge contemporary policies developed by statutory agencies in the provision of support to women who experience domestic violence. The thesis develops some understanding of the nature and role of cultural narratives and patterns of disclosure before suggesting new directions to further advance the findings presented. Finally, the thesis proposes recommendations to improve training for statutory agencies in providing a response to women disclosing domestic violence, suggesting a new direction in thinking about the facilitation of this training.
  • Practice change and development: An insider view - a grounded theory study on the nature of nursing practice change

    Mason, Tom; Fallows, Stephen; Thomas, Mike; Meredith, Linda (University of Liverpool (University of Chester)University of Chester, 2012-04)
    Change is a common feature of nursing, influenced by prevailing governments as part of their political agendas. These changes have impacted both on the context within which nursing takes place as well as on the actual role of the nurse. For change agents who are implementing these changes, it is imperative that they are aware of how nurses respond to change in order that they can plan the most effective strategies. This thesis investigated how nurses understand their own practice changes, the process that they undergo, how resistance to change manifests and if nursing rituals have an impact on the process. Finally the thesis made recommendations based on the findings to facilitate effective practice change and development. The study was conducted in two parts. In-depth interviews with eight nurses from one acute NHS Trust made up the first part of the study. A further two interviews were conducted with eleven mental health nurses from an early intervention team in one NHS Mental Health Partnership Trust, and this constituted the second part of the study. Constructivist grounded theory was the research method employed in the design of the study. An underpinning theoretical framework of structural anthropology with specific reference to the work of Levi-Strauss was used to present the final grounded theory. The study found that nurses understood the process of practice change as a spiral with the most significant aspects of practice change at the bottom. These were the day-to-day changes that may or may not lead to permanent change. At the top of the hierarchy and of least significance were the changes imposed by their employing organisations or nationally. The overall personal process of practice change and development was identified from the study as a process that centres on the experiences that participants have in their workplace, a process of sense making, learning and intuition. A Practice Change Model in the form of a continuum was developed that described how nurses respond to practice change and development. The significance of this study is that the thesis was able to identify strategies for promoting effective practice change and development, aimed at nurses in practice, change agents at an organisational and national level, and the clinical link role within higher education.
  • Internal representation in nurse education: Imagery and identity

    Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; Smith, Dave; Wheeler, Timothy J.; Parry, Clare E. (University of Chester, 2010-10)
    The main aim of this thesis was to examine internal representation in the context of nurse education using two main output variables - namely imagery and identity. The initial basic argument for the thesis was that procedures to facilitate the acquisition of psychomotor skills that have been developed in sports science could fruitfully be applied to the development of skills in other areas, such as nurse education. Study one approached this through the use of an imagery training programme - PETTIER (Holmes & Collins, 2001) on an undergraduate nursing curriculum. PETTIER served as the independent variable with the dependent variable - performance - being measured through Obje&tive Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Unexpected results revealed no significant differences between the control and experimental groups, with the control group actually performing better overall. Given this, the explicit choice was made to pursue investigation into the other plausible factors affecting behaviour, in order to explicate and underpin the results obtained. Study two investigated students' perceptions of and preparation for the OSCEs using a skills training questionnaire. Results revealed common concerns, specifically related to skills practice. Furthermore these concerned the amount of practice time provided; the practice environment; and the amount of support and training during teaching. In light of these findings, study three pursued a contrasting and comparative investigation from the professionals' perspective on the curriculum. This specifically examined perceptions of the assessment structure and expectations within the curriculum; the content of the curriculum; levels of support and provision for training; and the application of theory and practice. This aimed to identify any coherent or conflicting views between the students' receiving the curriculum and the staff delivering the curriculum. Results revealed coherency in the professional view that theory and practice were equally as important for nurse education. However, students commonly perceived practice as the most important aspect. Also, some students often struggled to apply theory to practice and vice versa. In light of this it became apparent that students may in fact identify differently with the content of the curriculum. Therefore, appraisal of the content may have different significance for students and affect behaviour differently both internally and/or externally. Study four investigated this using Identity Structure Analysis (ISA)/lpseus (Weinreich & Saunderson, 2003).This explored how students applied themselves to the various aspects of nursing in the contexts of healthcare and broader affiliations, and how these fitted into students' broader sense of identity. It also looked at typologies within nursing and whether identity fitted into three distinct categories depending on construals. Study five followed this up using two individual case studies. The purpose of this was to encapsulate meaning behind individual construals and typologies and explicate the findings of ISA/lpseus and the implications for nurse education. Results found that construals are grounded in experiences which can affect development, behaviour and identity towards nursing and the broader affiliations in individuals' lives. In conclusion identity in nursing should be investigated further in order to provide stronger evidence in regards to typologies and how these may be influencing students' behaviour and development in nurse education. Such research could have important implications for the future of nurse education and be a positive step towards future curriculum revisions.
  • Constructions of meaning and personal identity in the decision-making of community safety professionals

    Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Wheeler, Timothy J.; Bendall, Mark; Warren, Jeremy J. (University of Chester, 2010-09)
    This thesis takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the impact that constructions of meaning and personal identity have upon the processes of professional decision-making, in the delivery of community safety services. The research draws upon the previous work undertaken in the fields of psychology, sociology, social anthropology, criminology and community safety. The research was composed of five separate studies. Study one was a Delphi exercise to determine consensus of meaning for different community terms in common usage for policy makers, practitioners and academics. The research was able to define consensual meanings for ten of the thirteen terms presented, including crime prevention, crime reduction and community safety. Consensus was not achieved for the terms community engagement, respect and quality of life and suggestions are made which may account for this result. Study two utilised repertory grids to investigate the ways that community safety professionals might construe the decisions that they have to make as part of their duties. Studies three and four utilised bespoke ISA/lpseus instruments, whose structures were informed by the results from Study Two. These instruments were used to further explore the construals and worldviews of a variety of community safety professionals through six process postulates. It was found that whilst an individual's initial job role or gender did not have significant impact upon their professional decision-making, the training that they had received in community safety and the time that they had spent working in the field did have a significant impact upon their professional decision-making. It was also found that the groups of community safety professionals differed in their attitudes towards those members of society who are the target of community safety activity. Study five involved the generation and piloting of a survey instrument whose various sections were designed to validate the findings generated from the previous studies, as well as providing further data on the decision-making processes of those working within community safety. The final chapter presents the Warren Person Process Priority (WaPPP) layered model of decision-making that was derived from the data collected to inform the current thesis. The outer Person layer is defined by the four-way typology derived from the Procedural / Free-form and Cautious / Adventurous bi-polar constructs of identity types that were identified from the ISA/lpseus studies. The middle layer of the model describes a number of different decision-making processes that professionals may follow when making a judgement or coming to a conclusion. The order of the processes was given by the results of the survey pilot. The central portion of the model presents a number of factors that may impact upon professional decision-making, determined from the ethnographic work that informed the ISA/lpseus studies. The order of these factors was determined from the preparatory data collection instrument that was used with the ISA/lpseus studies and confirmed by the results of the survey pilot. Suggestions are made for further research that may expand upon the results presented in this thesis. These include a larger version of the Delphi, with an international panel of experts; correlation of the ISA/lpseus instruments with other validated instruments for the measurement of personality, identity and decision-making and an expansion of the survey pilot.

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