Browsing Theses by Authors
A multidisciplinary approach to structuring in reduced triacylglycerol based systemsBonwick, Graham A.; Young, Niall; Wassell, Paul (University of Chester, 2013-05)This study (Wassell & Young 2007; Wassell et al., 2010a) shows that behenic (C22:0) fatty acid rich Monoacylglycerol (MAG), or its significant inclusion, has a pronounced effect on crystallisation (Wassell et al., 2010b; 2012; Young et al., 2008) and interfacial kinetics (3.0; 4.0). New interfacial measurements demonstrate an unusual surface-interactive relationship of long chain MAG compositions, with and without Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR). A novel MAG synthesised from Moringa oleifera Triacylglycerol (TAG) influenced textural behaviour of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions and anhydrous TAG systems (4.0: 5.0; 6.0). Emulsifier mixtures of PGPR and MAG rich in C18:1 / 18:2 and C16:0 / C18:0 do not decrease interfacial tension compared with PGPR alone. Only those containing MAG with significant proportion of C22:0 impacted interfacial behaviour. A mixture of C22:0 based MAG and PGPR results with decreasing tension from ~20°C and is initially dominated by PGPR, then through rearrangement, the surface is rapidly dominated by C22:0 fatty acids. A Moringa oleifera based MAG showed unusual decreased interfacial behaviour not dissimilar to PGPR. All other tested MAG (excluding a C22:0 based MAG), irrespective of fatty acid composition resulted with high interfacial tension values across the measured temperature spectrum (50°C to 5°C). A relative decrease of interfacial tension, with decreased temperature, was greater, the longer the chain length (Krog & Larsson 1992). Moreover, results from bulk and interfacial rheology showed that the presence of C22:0 based MAG has a pronounced effect on both elastic modulus (G’) and viscous modulus (G’’). Through a multidisciplinary approach, results were verified in relevant product applications. By means of ultrasonic velocity profiling with pressure difference (UVP-PD) technique, it was possible to examine the effect of a C22:0 based MAG in an anhydrous TAG system whilst in a dynamic non-isothermal condition (3.0). The non-invasive UVP-PD technique conclusively validated structural events. The application of a Moringa oleifera based MAG in low TAG (35% - 41%), W/O emulsions, results in high emulsion stability without a co-surfactant (PGPR). The bi-functional behaviour of Moringa oleifera based MAG is probably attributed to miscibility (Ueno et al., 1994) of its fatty acids, ranging ~30% of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), with ~70% of C18:1 (5.0). It is concluded that the surface-interactive behaviour of Moringa oleifera based MAG, is attributed to approximately 10% of its SAFA commencing from C20:0. When examined separately and compared, results showed that physical effect of a Moringa oleifera based MAG was not dissimilar to PGPR, influencing the crystallisation kinetics of the particular anhydrous TAG system. When either was combined with a C22:0 rich MAG, enhanced gelation onset and strong propensity to form dendrite structure occurred (5.0). Macrobeam and synchrotron radiation microbeam small angle x-ray diffraction (SR-μ-SAXD) was utilized (6.0) to assess behavior of C22:0 rich MAG, with and without PGPR (Wassell et al., 2012). The C22:0 based MAG combined with PGPR promoted TAG crystallisation as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polarised optical microscopy (POM) observations indicated that C22:0 based MAG eliminates formation of large crystal aggregates, resulting in the likely formation of tiny Pickering TAG / MAG crystals (6.0). It is concluded that the presence and interactive behaviour of Pickering surface-active MAG, is strongly linked to increased fatty acid chain length, which induce increased textural resilience owing to viscoelasticity (4.0; 5.0). A multidisciplinary approach was able to verify structuring behaviour (4.0; 5.0), using multiple analyses (Wassell et al., 2010b; 2012; Young et al., 2008). Novel structuring solutions in reduced TAG based systems have been provided (4.0; 5.0). This study both enhances current understanding of structuring in low TAG W/O emulsions and has led to novel MAG compositions, which address emulsification, structuring and texture in TAG based food systems (Wassell et al., 2010a; 2012a; 2012b; 2012c; 2012d; 2012e; Bech et al., 2013).