• A mathematical model of microbial folate biosynthesis and utilisation: implications for antifolate development

      Salcedo-Sora, J. Enrique; Mc Auley, Mark T.; Liverpool Hope University, University of Chester (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016-01-15)
      The metabolic biochemistry of folate biosynthesis and utilisation has evolved into a complex network of reactions. Although this complexity represents challenges to the field of folate research it has also provided a renewed source for antimetabolite targets. A range of improved folate chemotherapy continues to be developed and applied particularly to cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, new or better antifolates against infectious diseases remain much more elusive. In this paper we describe the assembly of a generic deterministic mathematical model of microbial folate metabolism. Our aim is to explore how a mathematical model could be used to explore the dynamics of this inherently complex set of biochemical reactions. Using the model it was found that: (1) a particular small set of folate intermediates are overrepresented, (2) inhibitory profiles can be quantified by the level of key folate products, (3) using the model to scan for the most effective combinatorial inhibitions of folate enzymes we identified specific targets which could complement current antifolates, and (4) the model substantiates the case for a substrate cycle in the folinic acid biosynthesis reaction. Our model is coded in the systems biology markup language and has been deposited in the BioModels Database (MODEL1511020000), this makes it accessible to the community as a whole.
    • Mathematical modelling of metabolic regulation in aging

      Mc Auley, Mark T.; Mooney, Kathleen M.; Angell, Peter J.; Wilkinson, Stephen J.; University of Chester ; Liverpool Hope University ; Edge Hill University ; University of Chester (MDPI, 2015-04-27)
      The underlying cellular mechanisms that characterize aging are complex and multifaceted. However, it is emerging that aging could be regulated by two distinct metabolic hubs. These hubs are the pathway defined by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and that defined by the NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzyme, SIRT1. Recent experimental evidence suggests that there is crosstalk between these two important pathways; however, the mechanisms underpinning their interaction(s) remains poorly understood. In this review, we propose using computational modelling in tandem with experimentation to delineate the mechanism(s). We briefly discuss the main modelling frameworks that could be used to disentangle this relationship and present a reduced reaction pathway that could be modelled. We conclude by outlining the limitations of computational modelling and by discussing opportunities for future progress in this area.
    • Mathematically modelling the dynamics of cholesterol metabolism and ageing

      Morgan, Amy; Mooney, Kathleen M.; Wilkinson, Stephen J.; Pickles, Neil; Mc Auley, Mark T.; University of Chester, Edgehill University (Elsevier, 2016-07-30)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. This conditionbecomes increasingly prevalent during ageing; 34.1% and 29.8% of males and females respectively, over 75years of age have an underlying cardiovascular problem. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism isinextricably correlated with cardiovascular health and for this reason low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are routinely used as biomarkers of CVD risk. Theaim of this work was to use mathematical modelling to explore how cholesterol metabolism is affectedby the ageing process. To do this we updated a previously published whole-body mathematical model ofcholesterol metabolism to include an additional 96 mechanisms that are fundamental to this biologicalsystem. Additional mechanisms were added to cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, reversecholesterol transport (RCT), bile acid synthesis, and their enterohepatic circulation. The sensitivity of themodel was explored by the use of both local and global parameter scans. In addition, acute cholesterolfeeding was used to explore the effectiveness of the regulatory mechanisms which are responsible formaintaining whole-body cholesterol balance. It was found that our model behaves as a hypo-responderto cholesterol feeding, while both the hepatic and intestinal pools of cholesterol increased significantly.The model was also used to explore the effects of ageing in tandem with three different cholesterolester transfer protein (CETP) genotypes. Ageing in the presence of an atheroprotective CETP genotype,conferring low CETP activity, resulted in a 0.6% increase in LDL-C. In comparison, ageing with a genotypereflective of high CETP activity, resulted in a 1.6% increase in LDL-C. Thus, the model has illustrated theimportance of CETP genotypes such as I405V, and their potential role in healthy ageing.