• Comparative Potential of Natural Gas, Coal and Biomass Fired Power Plant with Post - combustion CO2 Capture and Compression

      Ali, Usman; Font Palma, Carolina; Akram, Muhammad; Agbonghae, Elvis O.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Elsevier, 2017-06-07)
      The application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon neutral techniques should be adopted to reduce the CO2 emissions from power generation systems. These environmental concerns have renewed interest towards the use of biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels. This study investigates the comparative potential of different power generation systems, including NGCC with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), pulverised supercritical coal and biomass fired power plants for constant heat input and constant fuel flowrate cases. The modelling of all the power plant cases is realized in Aspen Plus at the gross power output of 800 MWe and integrated with a MEA-based CO2 capture plant and a CO2 compression unit. Full-scale detailed modelling of integrated power plant with a CO2 capture and compression system for biomass fuel for two different cases is reported and compared with the conventional ones. The process performance, in terms of efficiency, emissions and potential losses for all the cases, is analysed. In conclusion, NGCC and NGCC with EGR integrated with CO2 capture and compression results in higher net efficiency and least efficiency penalty reduction. Further, coal and biomass fired power plants integrated with CO2 capture and compression results in higher specific CO2 capture and the least specific losses per unit of the CO2 captured. Furthermore, biomass with CO2 capture and compression results in negative emissions.
    • Evaluation of a Micro Gas Turbine With Post-Combustion CO2 Capture for Exhaust Gas Recirculation Potential With Two Experimentally Validated Models

      Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Ali, Usman; Font-Palma, Carolina; Mansouri Majoumerd, Mohammad; Akram, Muhammad; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Assadi, Mohsen (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017-08-17)
      The growing global energy demand is facing concerns raised by increasing greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly CO2. Despite substantial progress in the field of renewable energy in recent years, quick balancing responses and back-up services are still necessary to maintain the grid load and stability, due to increased penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. In a scenario of natural gas availability, gas turbine power may be a substitute for back-up/balancing load. Rapid start-up and shut down, high ramp rate, and low emissions and maintenance have been achieved in commercial gas turbine cycles. This industry still needs innovative cycle configurations, e.g. exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), to achieve higher system performance and lower emissions in the current competitive power generation market. Together with reduced NOx emissions, EGR cycle provides an exhaust gas with higher CO2 concentration compared to the simple gas turbine/combined cycle, favorable for post-combustion carbon capture. This paper presents an evaluation of EGR potential for improved gas turbine cycle performance and integration with a post-combustion CO2 capture process. It also highlights features of two software tools with different capabilities for performance analysis of gas turbine cycles, integrated with post-combustion capture. The study is based on a combined heat and power micro gas turbine (MGT), Turbec T100, of 100kWe output. Detailed models for the baseline MGT and amine capture plant were developed in two software tools, IPSEpro and Aspen Hysys. These models were validated against experimental work conducted at the UK PACT National Core Facilities. Characteristics maps for the compressor and the turbine were used for the MGT modeling. The performance indicators of systems with and without EGR, and when varying the EGR ratio and ambient temperature, were calculated and are presented in this paper.
    • Impact of the operating conditions and position of exhaust gas recirculation on the performance of a micro gas turbine

      Ali, Usman; Font Palma, Carolina; Hughes, Kevin J.; Ingham, Derek B.; Ma, Lin; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; University of Chester/University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2015-06-10)
      Gas turbines are a viable and secure option both economically and environmentally for power and heat generation. The process simulation of the micro gas turbine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and its impact on performance is evaluated. This study is further extended to evaluate the effect of the operating conditions and position of the EGR on the performance of the micro gas turbine. The performance analysis for different configurations of the EGR cycle, as well as flue gas condensation temperature, results in the optimized position of EGR at the compressor inlet with partial condensation resulting in the CO2 enhancement to 3.7 mol%.
    • Part-load performance of direct-firing and co-firing of coal and biomass in a power generation system integrated with a CO2 capture and compression system

      Ali, Usman; Akram, Muhammad; Font Palma, Carolina; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; University of Sheffield; University of Chester; University of Engineering and Technology (Elsevier, 2017-09-18)
      Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is recognised as a key technology to mitigate CO2 emissions and achieve stringent climate targets due to its potential for negative emissions. However, the cost for its deployment is expected to be higher than for fossil-based power plants with CCS. To help in the transition to fully replace fossil fuels, co-firing of coal and biomass provide a less expensive means. Therefore, this work examines the co-firing at various levels in a pulverised supercritical power plant with post-combustion CO2 capture, using a fully integrated model developed in Aspen Plus. Co-firing offers flexibility in terms of the biomass resources needed. This work also investigates flexibility within operation. As a result, the performance of the power plant at various part-loads (40%, 60% and 80%) is studied and compared to the baseline at 100%, using a constant fuel flowrate. It was found that the net power output and net efficiency decrease when the biomass fraction increases for constant heat input and constant fuel flow rate cases. At constant heat input, more fuel is required as the biomass fraction is increased; whilst at constant fuel input, derating occurs, e.g. 30% derating of the power output capacity at firing 100% biomass compared to 100% coal. Co-firing of coal and biomass resulted in substantial power derating at each part-load operation.
    • Process simulation and thermodynamic analysis of a micro turbine with post-combustion CO2 capture and exhaust gas recirculation

      Ali, Usman; Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Font Palma, Carolina; Hughes, Kevin J.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2014-12-31)
      With the effects of the emissions from power plants causing global climate change, the trend towards lower emission systems such as natural gas power plant is increasing. In this paper a Turbec T100 micro gas turbine is studied. The system is assessed thermodynamically using a steady-state model; model results of its alteration with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are presented in this paper. The process simulation with EGR offers a useful assessment when integrated with post-combustion CO2 capture. The EGR model results in the enrichment of the CO2 which decrease the energy demand of the CO2 capture system.
    • Thermodynamic Analysis and Process System Comparison of the Exhaust Gas Recirculated, Steam Injected and Humidified Micro Gas Turbine

      Ali, Usman; Font Palma, Carolina; Hughes, Kevin J.; Ingham, Derek B.; Ma, Lin; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; University of Leeds (ASME Proceedings, 2015-06-15)
      Stringent environmental emission regulations and continuing efforts to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) from the energy sector, in the context of global warming, have promoted interest to improve the efficiency of power generation systems whilst reducing emissions. Further, this has led to the development of innovative gas turbine systems which either result in higher electrical efficiency or the reduction of CO2 emissions. Micro gas turbines are one of the secure, economical and environmentally viable options for power and heat generation. Here, a Turbec T100 micro gas turbine (MGT) is simulated using Aspen HYSYS® V8.4 and validated through experimental data. Due to the consistency and robustness of the steady state model developed, it is further extended to three different innovative cycles: (i) an exhaust gas recirculated (EGR) cycle, in which part of the exhaust gas is dried and re-circulated to the MGT inlet; (ii) a steam injected (STIG) cycle, and (iii) a humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The steam and hot water are generated through the exhaust of the recuperator for the STIG and HAT cycle, respectively. Further, the steam is directly injected into the recuperator for power augmentation, while for the HAT cycle; the compressed air is saturated with water in the humid tower before entering the recuperator. This study evaluates the impact of the EGR ratio, steam to air ratio, and water to air ratio on the performance and efficiency of the system. The comparative potential for each innovative cycle is assessed by thermodynamic properties estimation of process parameters through the models developed to better understand the behavior of each cycle. The thermodynamic assessment indicates that CO2 enrichment occurs for the three innovative cycles. Further, the results indicate that the electrical efficiency increases for the STIG and HAT cycle while it decreases for the EGR cycle. In conclusion, the innovative cycles indicates the possibilities to improve the system performance and efficiency.