• Additively Manufactured Graphitic Electrochemical Sensing Platforms

      Foster, Christopher W; El Bardisy, Hadil M; Down, Michael P; Keefe, Edmund M; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E; Manchester Metropolitan University (Foster, El Bardisy, Down, Keefe, Banks), University of Chester (Smith) (Elsevier, 2020-02-01)
      Additive manufacturing (AM)/3D printing technology provides a novel platform for the rapid prototyping of low cost 3D platforms. Herein, we report for the first time, the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and application (electrochemical sensing) of bespoke nanographite (NG)-loaded (25 wt. %) AM printable (via fused deposition modelling) NG/PLA filaments. We have optimised and tailored a variety of NG-loaded filaments and their AM counterparts in order to achieve optimal printability and electrochemical behaviour. Two AM platforms, namely AM macroelectrodes (AMEs) and AM 3D honeycomb (macroporous) structures are benchmarked against a range of redox probes and the simultaneous detection of lead (II) and cadmium (II). This proof-of-concept demonstrates the impact that AM can have within the area of electroanalytical sensors.
    • Next Generation Additive Manufacturing: Tailorable Graphene/Polylactic(acid) Filaments Allow the Fabrication of 3D Printable Porous Anodes for Utilisation within Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Foster, Christopher W.; Zou, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Yunling; Down, Michael P.; Liauw, Christopher M.; Ferrari, Alejandro Garcia-Miranda; Ji, Xiaobo; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.; et al. (Wiley, 2019-04-02)
      Herein, we report the fabrication and application of Li-ion anodes for utilisation within Li-ion batteries, which are fabricated via additive manufacturing/3D printing (fused depo- sition modelling) using a bespoke graphene/polylactic acid (PLA) filament, where the graphene content can be readily tailored and controlled over the range 1–40 wt. %. We demon- strate that a graphene content of 20 wt. % exhibits sufficient conductivity and critically, effective 3D printability for the rapid manufacturing of 3D printed freestanding anodes (3DAs); simplifying the components of the Li-ion battery negating the need for a copper current collector. The 3DAs are physicochemcally and electrochemically characterised and possess sufficient conductivity for electrochemical studies. Critically, it is found that if the 3DAs are used in Li-ion batteries the specific capacity is very poor but can be significantly improved through the use of a chemical pre-treatment. Such treatment induces an increased porosity, which results in a 200-fold increase (after anode stabilisation) of the specific capacity (ca. 500 mAhg-1 at a current density of 40 mAg-1). This work significantly enhances the field of additive manufacturing/3D printed graphene based energy storage devices demonstrating that useful 3D printable batteries can be realised
    • Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing of Complete Standalone Sodium-Ion Energy Storage Architectures

      Down, Michael P.; Martinez-Perinan, Emiliano; Foster, Christopher W.; Lorenzo, Encarnacion; Smith, Graham C.; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (Down, Martinez-Perinan, Foster, Banks), Universidad Autonoma Madrid (Lorenzo), University of Chester (Smith) (Wiley, 2019-02-10)
      The first entirely AM/3D-printed sodium-ion (full-cell) battery is reported herein, presenting a paradigm shift in the design and prototyping of energy- storage architectures. AM/3D-printing compatible composite materials are developed for the first time, integrating the active materials NaMnO2 and TiO2 within a porous supporting material, before being AM/3D- printed into a proof-of-concept model based upon the basic geometry of commercially existing AA battery designs. The freestanding and completely AM/3D-fabricated device demonstrates a respectable performance of 84.3 mAh g-1 with a current density of 8.43 mA g-1; note that the structure is typically comprised of 80% thermoplastic, but yet, still works and functions as an energy-storage platform. The AM/3D-fabricated device is critically benchmarked against a battery developed using the same active materials, but fabricated via a traditional manufacturing method utilizing an ink-based/doctor-bladed methodology, which is found to exhibit a specific capacity of 98.9 mAh m-2 (116.35 mAh g-1). The fabrication of fully AM/3D-printed energy-storage architectures compares favorably with traditional approaches, with the former providing a new direction in battery manufacturing. This work represents a paradigm shift in the technological and design considerations in battery and energy-storage architectures