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Surface treatments to modulate bioadhesion: A critical reviewOn account of the recent increase in importance of biological and microbiological adhesion in industries such as healthcare and food manufacturing many researchers are now turning to the study of materials, wettability and adhesion to develop the technology within these industries further. This is highly significant as the stem cell industry alone, for example, is currently worth £3.5 million in the United Kingdom (UK) alone. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art techniques used for surface treatment with regards to modulating biological adhesion including laser surface treatment, plasma treatment, micro/nano printing and lithography, specifically highlighting areas of interest for further consideration by the scientific community. What is more, this review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the current techniques enabling the assessment of the most attractive means for modulating biological adhesion, taking in to account cost effectiveness, complexity of equipment and capabilities for processing and analysis.