• Non-Exhaust Vehicle Emissions of Particulate Matter and VOC from Road Traffic: A Review

      Harrison, Roy; Allan, James; Caruthers, David; Heal, Matthew; Lewis, Alastair; Marner, Ben; Murrells, Tim; Williams, Andrew; University of Birmingham; University of Manchester; Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants; University of Edinburgh; University of York; Air Quality Consultants; Ricardo Energy and Environment; University of Chester; King Abdulaziz University (Elsevier, 2021-07-01)
      As exhaust emissions of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from road vehicles have progressively come under greater control, non-exhaust emissions have become an increasing proportion of the total emissions, and in many countries now exceed exhaust emissions. Non-exhaust particle emissions arise from abrasion of the brakes and tyres and wear of the road surface, as well as from resuspension of road dusts. The national emissions, particle size distributions and chemical composition of each of these sources is reviewed. Most estimates of airborne concentrations derive from the use of chemical tracers of specific emissions; the tracers and airborne concentrations estimated from their use are considered. Particle size distributions have been measured both in the laboratory and in field studies, and generally show particles to be in both the coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fractions, with a larger proportion in the former. The introduction of battery electric vehicles is concluded to have only a small effect on overall road traffic particle emissions. Approaches to numerical modelling of non-exhaust particles in the atmosphere are reviewed. Abatement measures include engineering controls, especially for brake wear, improved materials (e.g. for tyre wear) and road surface cleaning and dust suppressants for resuspension. Emissions from solvents in screen wash and de-icers now dominate VOC emissions from traffic in the UK, and exhibit a very different composition to exhaust VOC emissions. Likely future trends in non-exhaust particle emissions are described.
    • Predicting the critical heat flux in pool boiling based on hydrodynamic instability induced irreversible hot spots

      Zhao, Huayong; Williams, Andrew; Loughborough University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-03-07)
      A new model, based on the experimental observation reported in the literature that CHF is triggered by the Irreversible Hot Spots (IHS), has been developed to predict the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling. The developed Irreversible Hot Spot (IHS) model can predict the CHF when boiling methanol on small flat surfaces and long horizontal cylinders of different sizes to within 5% uncertainty. It can also predict the effect of changing wettability (i.e. contact angle) on CHF to within 10% uncertainty for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. In addition, a linear empirical correlation has been developed to model the bubble growth rate as a function of the system pressure. The IHS model with this linear bubble growth coefficient correlation can predict the CHF when boiling water on both flat surfaces and long horizontal cylinders to within 5% uncertainty up to 10 bar system pressure, and the CHF when boiling methanol on a flat surface to within 10% uncertainty up to 5 bar. The predicted detailed bubble grow and merge process from various sub-models are also in good agreement with the experimental results reported in the literature.