• An Analytical and Numerical Study of Magnetic Spring Suspension with Energy Recovery Capabilities

      Jia, Yu; Li, Shasha; Shi, Yu; University of Chester; China National Intellectual Property Administration (MDPI, 2018-11-12)
      As the automotive paradigm shifts towards electric, limited range remains a key challenge. Increasing the battery size adds weight, which yields diminishing returns in range per kilowatt-hour. Therefore, energy recovery systems, such as regenerative braking and photovoltaic cells, are desirable to recharge the onboard batteries in between hub charge cycles. While some reports of regenerative suspension do exist, they all harvest energy in a parasitic manner, and the predicted power output is extremely low, since the majority of the energy is still dissipated to the environment by the suspension. This paper proposes a fundamental suspension redesign using a magnetically-levitated spring mechanism and aims to increase the recoverable energy significantly by directly coupling an electromagnetic transducer as the main damper. Furthermore, the highly nonlinear magnetic restoring force can also potentially enhance rider comfort. Analytical and numerical models have been constructed. Road roughness data from an Australian road were used to numerically simulate a representative environment response. Simulation suggests that 10’s of kW to >100 kW can theoretically be generated by a medium-sized car travelling on a typical paved road (about 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than literature reports on parasitic regenerative suspension schemes), while still maintaining well below the discomfort threshold for passengers (<0.315 m/s2 on average).
    • A Compensation Method for Active Phased Array Antennas : Using a Strain-Electromagnetic Coupling Model

      Shi, Yu; Wang, Congsi; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Shuai; Duan, Baoyan; Lian, Peiyuan; Xue, Song; Du, Biao; Gao, Wei; Wang, Zhihai; et al.
      Physical deformation due to service loads seriously degrades the electromagnetic performance of active phased array antennas. However, traditional displacement-based compensation methods are moderately difficult to use because displacement measurements generally require stable references, which are hard to realize for antennas in service. For deformed antennas, strain information is directly related to their displacement, and strain sensors can overcome carrier platform constraints to measure real-time strain without affecting the antenna radiation-field distribution. We thus present a compensation method based on strain information for in-service antennas. First, the minimum number of strain sensors is determined as the main modal-order-based modal effective mass fraction. According to the modal method and analysis of spatial phase-distribution errors related to strain, a coupled strain-electromagnetic model is established to evaluate antenna performance from the measured strain. The corresponding excitation phase from the measured strain is adjusted to compensate antenna performance. Finally, the method is experimentally validated using an X-band active phased array antenna under the influence of typical deformation conditions for both boresightand scanned beams. The results demonstrate that the presented method can effectively compensate for the performance of service antennas directly from the measured strain information.
    • Computational simulation of the damage response for machining long fibre reinforced plastic (LFRP) composite parts: A review

      Wang, Xiaonan; Wang, Fuji; Gu, Tianyu; Jia, Zhenyuan; Shi, Yu; Dalian University of Technology; University of Chester
      Long fibre reinforced plastics (LFRPs) possess excellent mechanical properties and are widely used in the aerospace, transportation and energy sectors. However, their anisotropic and inhomogeneous characteristics as well as their low thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity make them prone to subsurface damage, delamination and thermal damage during the machining process, which seriously reduces the bearing capacity and shortens the service life of the components. To improve the processing quality of composites, finite element (FE) models were developed to investigate the material removal mechanism and to analyse the influence of the processing parameters on the damage. A review of current studies on composite processing modelling could significantly help researchers to understand failure initiation and development during machining and thus inspire scholars to develop new models with high prediction accuracy and computational efficiency as well as a wide range of applications. To this aim, this review paper summarises the development of LFRP machining simulations reported in the literature and the factors that can be considered in model improvement. Specifically, the existing numerical models that simulate the mechanical and thermal behaviours of LFRPs and LFRP-metal stacks in orthogonal cutting, drilling and milling are analysed. The material models used to characterise the constituent phases of the LFRP parts are reviewed. The mechanism of material removal and the damage responses during the machining of LFRP laminates under different tool geometries and processing parameters are discussed. In addition, novel and objective evaluations that concern the current simulation studies are conducted to summarise their advantages. Aspects that could be improved are further detailed, to provide suggestions for future research relating to the simulation of LFRP machining.
    • Delamination Detection via Reconstructed Frequency Response Function of Composite Structures

      Shi, Yu; Alsaadi, Ahmed; Jia, Yu; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-07-05)
      Online damage detection technologies could reduce the weight of structures by allowing the use of less conservative margins of safety. They are also associated with high economical benefits by implementing a condition-based maintenance system. This paper presented a damage detection and location technique based on the dynamic response of glass fibre composite laminate structures (frequency response function). Glass fibre composite laminate plates of 200×200×2.64 mm, which had a predefined delamination, were excited using stationary random vibration waves of 500 Hz band-limited noise input at ≈1.5 g. The response of the structure was captured via Micro-ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) accelerometer to detect damage. The frequency response function requires data from damaged structures only, assuming that healthy structures are homogeneous and smooth. The frequency response of the composite structure was then reconstructed and fitted using the least-squares rational function method. Delamination as small as 20 mm was detected using global changes in the natural frequencies of the structure, the delamination was also located with greater degree of accuracy due to local changes of frequency response of the structure. It was concluded that environmental vibration waves (stationary random vibration waves) can be utilised to monitor damage and health of composite structures effectively.
    • Design and finite element simulation of metal-core piezoelectric fiber/epoxy matrix composites for virus detection

      Wang, Yinli; Shi, Yu; Narita, Fumio; Tohoku University; University of Chester
      Undoubtedly, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has received the greatest concern with a global impact, and this situation will continue for a long period of time. Looking back in history, airborne transimission diseases have caused huge casualties several times. COVID-19 as a typical airborne disease caught our attention and reminded us of the importance of preventing such diseases. Therefore, this study focuses on finding a new way to guard against the spread of these diseases such as COVID-19. This paper studies the dynamic electromechanical response of metal-core piezoelectric fiber/epoxy matrix composites, designed as mass load sensors for virus detection, by numerical modelling. The dynamic electromechanical response is simulated by applying an alternating current (AC) electric field to make the composite vibrate. Furthermore, both concentrated and distributed loads are considered to assess the sensitivity of the biosensor during modelling of the combination of both biomarker and viruses. The design parameters of this sensor, such as the resonant frequency, the position and size of the biomarker, will be studied and optimized as the key values to determine the sensitivity of detection. The novelty of this work is to propose functional composites that can detect the viruses from changes of the output voltage instead of the resonant frequency change using piezoelectric sensor and piezoelectric actuator. The contribution of this detection method will significantly shorten the detection time as it avoids fast Fourier transform (FFT) or discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The outcome of this research offers a reliable numerical model to optimize the design of the proposed biosensor for virus detection, which will contribute to the production of high-performance piezoelectric biosensors in the future.
    • The diagnostic analysis of the fault coupling effects in planet bearing

      Xue, Song; Wang, Congsi; Howard, Ian; Lian, Peiyuan; Chen, Gaige; Wang, yan; Yan, Yuefei; Xu, Qian; Shi, Yu; Jia, Yu; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-11-09)
      The purpose of this paper is to investigate the fault coupling effects in the planet bearing as well as the corresponding vibration signatures in the resultant vibration spectrum. In a planetary gear application, the planet bearing can not only spin around the planet gear axis, but also revolve about the sun gear axis and this rotating mechanism poses a big challenge for the diagnostic analysis of the planet bearing vibration spectrum. In addition, the frequency component interaction and overlap phenomenon in the vibration spectrum caused by the fault coupling effect can even worsen the diagnosis results. To further the understanding of the fault coupling effects in a planet bearing, a 34° of freedom planetary gear model with detailed planet bearing model was established to obtain the dynamic response in the presence of various bearing fault scenarios. The method of modelling the bearing distributed faults and localized faults has been introduced in this paper, which can be further incorporated into the planetary gear model to obtain the faulted vibration signal. The “benchmark” method has been adopted to enhance the planet bearing fault impulses in the vibration signals and in total, the amplitude demodulation results from 20 planet bearing fault scenarios have been investigated and analyzed. The coherence estimation over the vibration frequency domain has been proposed as a tool to quantify the fault impact contribution from different fault modes and the results suggested that the outer raceway fault contributes most to the resultant planet bearing vibration spectrum in all the investigated fault scenarios.
    • Effect of surface micro-pits on mode-II fracture toughness of Ti-6Al-4V/PEEK interface

      Pan, Lei; Pang, Xiaofei; Wang, Fei; Huang, Haiqiang; Shi, Yu; Tao, Jie; Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-08-17)
      Herein, the delamination issue of TiGr(TC4/PEEK/Cf) laminate is addressed by investigating the influence of TC4(Ti-6Al-4V) surface micro-pits on mode-II interfacial fracture toughness of TC4/PEEK interface through experimental and finite element modeling. The micro-pits unit cell, unit strip and the end notched flexure (ENF) models are established based on the finite element simulations and the effect of micro-pit size parameters is studied in detail. The results of micro-pits unit cell model reveal that the presence of micro-pits can effectively buffer the interfacial stress concentration under mode-II loading conditions. Furthermore, the micro-pits unit strip model, with different micro-pit sizes, is analyzed to obtain the interface parameters, which are converted and used in the ENF model. Both the unit strip and ENF models conclude that the presence of interfacial micro-pits effectively improves the mode-II fracture toughness. It is worth mentioning that the utilization of converted interface parameters in ENF model avoided the limitation of micro-pit size and reduced the workload. Finally, the experimental and computational ENF results exhibited excellent consistency and confirmed the reliability of the proposed finite element models. The current study provides useful guidelines for the design and manufacturing of high-performance TC4/PEEK interfaces for a wide range of applications.
    • Effect of Temperature on Electromagnetic Performance of Active Phased Array Antenna

      Wang, Yan; Wang, Congsi; Lian, Peiyuan; Xue, Sone; Liu, Jing; Gao, Wei; Shi, Yu; Wang, Zhihai; Yu, Kunpeng; Peng, Xuelin; et al.
      Active phased array antennas (APAAs) can suffer from the effects of harsh thermal environments, which are caused by the large quantity of power generated by densely packed T/R modules and external thermal impacts. The situation may be worse in the case of limited room and severe thermal loads, due to heat radiation and a low temperature sink. The temperature field of the antenna can be changed. Since large numbers of temperature-sensitive electronic components exist in T/R modules, excitation current output can be significantly affected and the electromagnetic performance of APAAs can be seriously degraded. However, due to a lack of quantitative analysis, it is difficult to directly estimate the effect of temperature on the electromagnetic performance of APAAs. Therefore, this study investigated the electromagnetic performance of APAAs as affected by two key factors—the uniformly distributed temperature field and the temperature gradient field—based on different antenna shapes and sizes, to provide theoretical guidance for their thermal design.
    • Effects of inkjet printed toughener on delamination suppression in drilling of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs)

      Shi, Yu; Wang, Xiaonan; Wang, Fuji; Gu, Tianyu; Xie, Pengheng; Jia, Yu; University of Chester; Dalian University of Technology; Aston University
      Delamination has been recognised as the predominant damage induced during the drilling of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs). It could significantly reduce the bearing capacity and shorten the service life of the designed component. To enhance the delamination resistance of CFRPs for different applications, great affords have been done to improve their interlaminar fracture toughness. However, due to the difficulty in accurately controlling the amount of the toughener applied in the interface, effect of the toughener content on the toughening efficiency is rarely studied. In this work, an experimental research was developed to investigate the performance of the toughener on the improvement of delamination resistance in the drilling of CFRPs and parametrically optimise the toughener content with the consideration of different feed rates. Specifically, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions with various concentrations were selected to add on the CFRP prepreg, and co-cured together with layups. The inkjet printing technology was adopted to deposit the PMMA solutions for precisely controlled toughener contents. Through drilling experiments on the toughened CFRPs, it was found that the optimal content of the PMMA solution was 10 wt% to offer the least delamination, in particular, for the situation under the highest feed rate condition. The toughing mechanisms were also concluded by analysing the histories of the thrust force and torque in the drilling process. The results of this study is significantly contribute to the locally toughening of the composite interfaces and the improvement of the drilling quality, which is specifically helpful to strengthen the joint property for the structural design stage for the aircraft.
    • Energy Harvesting behaviour for Aircraft Composites Structures using Macro-Fibre Composite: Part I–Integration and Experiment

      Shi, Yu; Zhu, Meiling; Hallett, Stephen R; University of Chester; University of Exeter; University of Bristol (Composite Structure, 2016-11-12)
      This paper investigates new ways to integrate piezoelectric energy harvesting elements onto carbon-fibre composite structures, using a new bonding technique with a vacuum bag system and co-curing process, for fabrication onto airframe structures. Dynamic mechanical vibration tests were performed to characterise the energy harvested by the various integration methods across a range of different vibration frequencies and applied mechanical input loadings. An analytical model was also introduced to predict the power harvested under the mechanical vibrations as a benchmark to evaluate the proposed methods. The developed co-curing showed a high efficiency for energy harvesting at a range of low frequencies, where the co-curing method offered a maximum improvement of 14.3% compared to the mechanical bonding approach at a frequency of 10 Hz. Furthermore, co-curing exhibited potential at high frequency by performing the sweep test between frequencies of 1 and 100 Hz. Therefore, this research work offers potential integration technology for energy harvesting in complicated airframe structures in aerospace applications, to obtain the power required for environmental or structural health monitoring.
    • Enhancement in Interfacial Adhesion of Ti/Polyetheretherketone by Electrophoretic Deposition of Graphene Oxide

      Pan, Lei; Lv, Yunfei; Nipon, Roy; Wang, Yifan; Duan, Lixiang; Hu, Jingling; Ding, Wenye; Ma, Wenliang; Tao, Jie; Shi, Yu; et al. (Wiley, 2019-03-24)
      This article discusses about the significance of graphene oxide (GO) deposition on the surface of a titanium plate by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method to improve the adhesive strength of Ti/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interfacial adhesive. Firstly, the anodic EPD method was applied to a water dispersion solution of GO, and then the morphology and the properties of titanium plate surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements before and after GO deposition. Furthermore, the changes in the properties of GO after heating at 390°C were characterized by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. According to the results of single lap tensile shear test, the adhesion strength of Ti/PEEK interface after the anodization and deposition of GO was 34.94 MPa, an increase of 29.2% compared with 27.04 MPa of sample with only anodization. Also, the adhesion strengths were 58.1 and 76.5% higher compared with the samples of only GO deposited (22.1 MPa) and pure titanium (19.8 MPa), respectively.
    • Enhancing interfacial strength between AA5083 and cryogenic adhesive via anodic oxidation and silanization

      Lei, Pan; Zhang, Aiai; Zheng, Zengmin; Duan, Lixiang; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Yu; Tao, Jie; Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-04-27)
      AA5083 aluminum alloy was treated in turn with phosphoric-sulfuric acid anodic oxidation and then with silanization using the silane coupling agent KH560. A chemical bond (Si-O-Al) was created between the aluminum alloy and silane film, and a dehydration condensation reaction occurred between the silane film and cryogenic adhesive to enhance the bonding strength between the aluminum alloy and the cryogenic adhesive. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to explore the interfacial characteristics of the aluminum alloy both with and without the applied treatment. Furthermore, single lap shear tests and durability tests were performed to assess the adhesive strength of the interface between the aluminum alloy and the cryogenic adhesive at low temperature. The most improved interfacial strength using the anodic oxidation and the silanization treatments reached 33.96 MPa at −60 °C. The interface strength with the same treatments after the durability test was 25.4 MPa.
    • A finite element analysis of impact damage in composite laminates

      Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos; University of Chester; University of Manchester (Cambridge University Press, 2012-12-01)
      In this work, stress-based and fracture mechanics criteria were developed to predict initiation and evolution, respectively, of intra- and inter-laminar cracking developed in composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact. The Soutis shear stress-strain semi-empirical model was used to describe the nonlinear shear behaviour of the composite. The damage model was implemented in the finite element (FE) code (Abaqus/Explicit) by a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT). Delamination (or inter-laminar cracking) was modelled using interface cohesive elements and the splitting and transverse matrix cracks that appeared within individual plies were also simulated by inserting cohesive elements between neighbouring elements parallel to the fibre direction in each single layer. A good agreement was obtained when compared the numerically predicted results to experimentally obtained curves of impact force and absorbed energy versus time. A non-destructive technique (NDT), penetrant enhanced X-ray radiography, was used to observe the various damage mechanisms induced by impact. It has been shown that the proposed damage model can successfully capture the internal damage pattern and the extent to which it was developed in these carbon fibre/epoxy composite laminates.
    • Gradient-based optimization method for producing a contoured beam with single-fed reflector antenna

      Lian, Peiyuan; Wang, Congsi; Xiang, Binbin; Shi, Yu; Xue, Song; Xidian University; University of Chester; Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEEE, 2019-03-07)
      A gradient-based optimization method for producing a contoured beam by using a single-fed reflector antenna is presented. First, a quick and accurate pattern approximation formula based on physical optics (PO) is adopted to calculate the gradients of the directivity with respect to reflector's nodal displacements. Because the approximation formula is a linear function of nodal displacements, the gradient can be easily derived. Then, the method of the steepest descent is adopted, and an optimization iteration procedure is proposed. The iteration procedure includes two loops: an inner loop and an outer loop. In the inner loop, the gradient and pattern are calculated by matrix operation, which is very fast by using the pre-calculated data in the outer loop. In the outer loop, the ideal terms used in the inner loop to calculate the gradient and pattern are updated, and the real pattern is calculated by the PO method. Due to the high approximation accuracy, when the outer loop is performed once, the inner loop can be performed many times, which will save much time because the integration is replaced by matrix operation. In the end, a contoured beam covering the continental United States (CONUS) is designed, and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    • Impact Damage Characteristics of Carbon Fibre Metal Laminates: Experiments and Simulation

      Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos; Pinna, Christophe; University of Chester; The University of Sheffield; The University of Manchester
      In this work, the impact response of carbon fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was experimentally and numerically studied with an improved design of the fibre composite lay-up for optimal mechanical properties and damage resistance. Two different stacking sequences (Carall 3–3/2–0.5 and Carall 5–3/2–0.5) were designed and characterised. Damage at relatively low energy impact energies (≤30 J) was investigated using Ultrasonic C-scanning and X–ray Computed Tomography (X-RCT). A 3D finite element model was developed to simulate the impact induced damage in both metal and composite layers using Abaqus/Explicit. Cohesive zone elements were introduced to capture delamination occurring between carbon fibre/epoxy plies and debonding at the interfaces between aluminium and the composite layers. Carall 5–3/2–0.5 was found to absorb more energy elastically, which indicates better resistance to damage. A good agreement is obtained between the numerically predicted results and experimental measurements in terms of force and absorbed energy during impact where the damage modes such as delamination was well simulated when compared to non-destructive techniques (NDT).
    • In situ fabrication of carbon fibre–reinforced polymer composites with embedded piezoelectrics for inspection and energy harvesting applications

      Yan, Xue; Courtney, Charles; Bowen, Chris; Gathercole, Nicholas; Wen, Tao; Jia, Yu; Shi, Yu; Aerospace Research Institute of Material and Processing Technology; University of Bath; University of Chester
      Current in situ damage detection of fibre-reinforced composites typically uses sensors which are attached to the structure. This may make periodic inspection difficult for complex part geometries or in locations which are difficult to reach. To overcome these limitations, we examine the use of piezoelectric materials in the form of macro-fibre composites that are embedded into carbon fibre–reinforced polymer composites. Such a multi-material system can provide an in situ ability for damage detection, sensing or energy harvesting. In this work, the piezoelectric devices are embedded between the carbon fibre prepreg, and heat treated at elevated temperatures, enabling complete integration of the piezoelectric element into the structure. The impact of processing temperature on the properties of the macro-fibre composites are assessed, in particular with respect to the Curie temperature of the embedded ferroelectric. The mechanical properties of the carbon fibre–reinforced polymer composites are evaluated to assess the impact of the piezoelectric on tensile strength. The performance of the embedded piezoelectric devices to transmit and receive ultrasonic signals is evaluated, along with the potential to harvest power from mechanical strain for self-powered systems. Such an approach provides a route to create multi-functional materials.
    • Integration and Characterisation of Piezoelectric Macro-Fibre Composite on Carbon Fibre Composite for Vibration Energy Harvesting

      Shi, Yu; Piao, Chenghe; Fadlaoui, Dounia; Alsaadi, Ahmed; Jia, Yu; University of Chester (IOPScience, 2019-11-01)
      Carbon fibre composite is a strong and a lightweight structural material with applications in automotive, aerospace, medical and industrial applications. The integration of piezoelectric transducer films onto the composite stack can add vibration energy harvesting capabilities to enable net-zero-power autonomous sensing for an otherwise purely mechanical structure. A PZT macro-fibre composite is co-cured with a carbon/epoxy pre-preg in order to manufacture the multi-functional composite plate. Without noticeably increasing profile, adding weight or compromising mechanical integrity, the resultant mechanical plate can recover power from vibrational excitations. With a volume of 13.5 cm3, a peak average power of 9.25 mW was recorded at 2.66 ms −2 . The normalised power density of 97 µW cm −3 m −2 s4 is comparable to some of the state-of-the-art PZT generators reported in the literature.
    • Interface Cohesive Elements to Model Matrix Crack Evolution in Composite Laminates

      Shi, Yu; Pinna, Christophe; Soutis, Constantinos; University of Chester; University of Sheffield; University of Manchester (Springer, 2013-10-02)
      In this paper, the transverse matrix (resin) cracking developed in multidirectional composite laminates loaded in tension was numerically investigated by a finite element (FE) model implemented in the commercially available software Abaqus/Explicit 6.10. A theoretical solution using the equivalent constraint model (ECM) of the damaged laminate developed by Soutis et al. was employed to describe matrix cracking evolution and compared to the proposed numerical approach. In the numerical model, interface cohesive elements were inserted between neighbouring finite elements that run parallel to fibre orientation in each lamina to simulate matrix cracking with the assumption of equally spaced cracks (based on experimental measurements and observations). The stress based traction-separation law was introduced to simulate initiation of matrix cracking and propagation under mixed-mode loading. The numerically predicted crack density was found to depend on the mesh size of the model and the material fracture parameters defined for the cohesive elements. Numerical predictions of matrix crack density as a function of applied stress are in a good agreement to experimentally measured and theoretically (ECM) obtained values, but some further refinement will be required in near future work.
    • Lateral crushing and bending responses of CFRP square tube filled with aluminum honeycomb

      Liu, Qiang; Xu, Xiyu; Ma, Jingbo; Wang, Jinsha; Shi, Yu; Hui, David; Sun Yat-Sen University; Hunan University; University of Chester; University of New Orleans (Elsevier, 2017-03-18)
      This paper aims to investigate the lateral planar crushing and bending responses of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) square tube filled with aluminum honeycomb. The various failure modes and mechanical characteristics of filled tube were experimentally captured and numerically predicted by commercial finite element (FE) package LS-DYNA, comparing to the hollow tubes. The filled aluminum honeycomb effectively improved the stability of progressive collapse during crushing, leading to both hinges symmetrically occurred along the vertical side. The experimental results showed that energy absorbed (EA) and specific energy absorption (SEA) of the filled CFRP tubes could be significantly increased to 6.56 and 4 times, respectively, of those measured for the hollow tubes without fillings under lateral crushing. Although an improvement of 32% of EA and 0.9% of SEA were obtained for the lateral bending, still the design using aluminum honeycomb as filling was remarkably capable to improve the mechanical characteristics of CFRP tube structure. A good agreement was obtained between experimentally measured and numerically predicted load-displacement histories. The FE prediction was also helpful in understanding the initiation and propagation of cracks within the filled CFRP structure.
    • Low-velocity impact of composite laminates: damage evolution

      Shi, Yu; Pinna, Christophe; Soutis, Constantinos; University of Chester; University of Sheffield; University of Manchester (Woodhead Publishing, 2016-02-19)
      This chapter presents modelling procedures used to simulate damage evolution in composite laminates used in aircraft structures when subjected to low-energy-level impact (≤15 J). Damage models for both initiation and evolution are first introduced by considering the individual damage modes of composite laminates in the form of intra- and inter-laminar damage mechanisms. The implementation of these damage criteria into the user subroutine Vumat of the finite element code Abaqus is then described for the simulation of damage development during low-velocity impact tests. Finite element prediction is then compared to experimental load-time measurements and damage extent obtained using X-rays as a non-destructive technique (NDT). Further development of the model is then presented by simulating matrix cracking evolution and splitting using a fracture mechanics-based criterion approach implemented into a cohesive zone element (CZE) formulation. Results from the extended model show clear improvement in terms of the accuracy of damage prediction, with experimental observations of the damage modes operating at ply-level providing further validation of the model. This can be used at an early stage of the design process of optimising laminate configurations used in aircraft structural applications.