• Assessment of Multi-Domain Energy Systems Modelling Methods

      Stewart, M.; Counsell, John M.; Al-Khaykan, A.; University of Chester (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2017-06-06)
      Emissions are a consequence of electricity generation. A major option for low carbon generation, local energy systems featuring Combined Heat and Power with solar PV (CHPV) has significant potential to increase energy performance, increase resilience, and offer greater control of local energy prices while complementing the UK’s emissions standards and targets. Recent advances in dynamic modelling and simulation of buildings and clusters of buildings using the IDEAS framework have successfully validated a novel multi-vector (simultaneous) control of both heat and electricity approach to integrating the wide range of primary and secondary plant typical of local energy systems designs including CHP, solar PV, gas boilers, absorption chillers and thermal energy storage, and associated electrical and hot water networks, all operating under a single unified control strategy. Results from this work indicate through simulation that integrated control of thermal storage can have a pivotal role in optimizing system performance well beyond the present expectations. Environmental impact analysis and reporting of all energy systems including CHPV LES presently employ a static annual average carbon emissions intensity for grid supplied electricity. This paper focuses on establishing and validating CHPV environmental performance against conventional emissions values and assessment benchmarks to analyze emissions performance without and with an active thermal store in a notional group of non-domestic buildings. Results of this analysis are presented and discussed in context of performance validation and quantifying the reduced environmental impact of CHPV systems with active energy storage in comparison with conventional LES designs.
    • Design and specification of building integrated DC electricity networks

      Stewart, M.; Counsell, John M.; Al-Khaykan, A.; University of Chester (IEEE, 2017-01-19)
      Adoption of millions of small energy efficient, low power digital and DC appliances at home and at work is resulting in a significant and fast growing fraction of a building's electricity actually consumed in low voltage DC form. Building integrated energy systems featuring renewable photovoltaics are also increasingly attractive as part of an overall electricity and emissions reduction strategy. This paper details design and specification of a novel system level method of matching building integrated photovoltaic electricity generation with local low voltage DC appliances in office and other ICT intensive environments such as schools. The chosen scenario considers load components consisting of a diverse range of modern low power ICT and DC appliances, networked and powered by industry certified smart DC distribution technologies. Energy supply to the converged DC, IT and ICT network is described as featuring a roof-mounted or other on-site photovoltaic array in combination with conventional supply from the local grid infrastructure. The direct and strategic benefits of smart DC infrastructures are highlighted as the enabling technology for optimal demand reduction through fully integrated energy management of DC systems in buildings.
    • Hybrid Heat Pump for Micro Heat Network

      Counsell, John M.; Khalid, Yousaf; Stewart, M.; University of Chester (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), 2017-10-17)
      Achieving nearly zero carbon heating continues to be identified by UK government analysis as an important feature of any lowest cost pathway to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Heat currently accounts for 48% of UK energy consumption and approximately one third of UK’s greenhouse gas emissions. Heat Networks are being promoted by UK investment policies as one means of supporting hybrid heat pump based solutions. To this effect the RISE (Renewable Integrated and Sustainable Electric) heating system project is investigating how an all-electric heating sourceshybrid configuration could play a key role in long-term decarbonisation of heat. For the purposes of this study, hybrid systems are defined as systems combining the technologies of an electric driven air source heat pump, electric powered thermal storage, a thermal vessel and micro-heat network as an integrated system. This hybrid strategy allows for the system to store up energy during periods of low electricity demand from the national grid, turning it into a dynamic supply of low cost heat which is utilized only when required. Currently a prototype of such a system is being tested in a modern house integrated with advanced controls and sensors. This paper presents the virtual performance analysis of the system and its design for a micro heat network with multiple dwelling units. The results show that the RISE system is controllable and can reduce carbon emissions whilst being competitive in running costs with a conventional gas boiler heating system.