A multidisciplinary approach to structuring in reduced triacylglycerol based systems
AdvisorsBonwick, Graham A.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThis study (Wassell & Young 2007; Wassell et al., 2010a) shows that behenic (C22:0) fatty acid rich Monoacylglycerol (MAG), or its significant inclusion, has a pronounced effect on crystallisation (Wassell et al., 2010b; 2012; Young et al., 2008) and interfacial kinetics (3.0; 4.0). New interfacial measurements demonstrate an unusual surface-interactive relationship of long chain MAG compositions, with and without Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR). A novel MAG synthesised from Moringa oleifera Triacylglycerol (TAG) influenced textural behaviour of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions and anhydrous TAG systems (4.0: 5.0; 6.0). Emulsifier mixtures of PGPR and MAG rich in C18:1 / 18:2 and C16:0 / C18:0 do not decrease interfacial tension compared with PGPR alone. Only those containing MAG with significant proportion of C22:0 impacted interfacial behaviour. A mixture of C22:0 based MAG and PGPR results with decreasing tension from ~20°C and is initially dominated by PGPR, then through rearrangement, the surface is rapidly dominated by C22:0 fatty acids. A Moringa oleifera based MAG showed unusual decreased interfacial behaviour not dissimilar to PGPR. All other tested MAG (excluding a C22:0 based MAG), irrespective of fatty acid composition resulted with high interfacial tension values across the measured temperature spectrum (50°C to 5°C). A relative decrease of interfacial tension, with decreased temperature, was greater, the longer the chain length (Krog & Larsson 1992). Moreover, results from bulk and interfacial rheology showed that the presence of C22:0 based MAG has a pronounced effect on both elastic modulus (G’) and viscous modulus (G’’). Through a multidisciplinary approach, results were verified in relevant product applications. By means of ultrasonic velocity profiling with pressure difference (UVP-PD) technique, it was possible to examine the effect of a C22:0 based MAG in an anhydrous TAG system whilst in a dynamic non-isothermal condition (3.0). The non-invasive UVP-PD technique conclusively validated structural events. The application of a Moringa oleifera based MAG in low TAG (35% - 41%), W/O emulsions, results in high emulsion stability without a co-surfactant (PGPR). The bi-functional behaviour of Moringa oleifera based MAG is probably attributed to miscibility (Ueno et al., 1994) of its fatty acids, ranging ~30% of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), with ~70% of C18:1 (5.0). It is concluded that the surface-interactive behaviour of Moringa oleifera based MAG, is attributed to approximately 10% of its SAFA commencing from C20:0. When examined separately and compared, results showed that physical effect of a Moringa oleifera based MAG was not dissimilar to PGPR, influencing the crystallisation kinetics of the particular anhydrous TAG system. When either was combined with a C22:0 rich MAG, enhanced gelation onset and strong propensity to form dendrite structure occurred (5.0). Macrobeam and synchrotron radiation microbeam small angle x-ray diffraction (SR-μ-SAXD) was utilized (6.0) to assess behavior of C22:0 rich MAG, with and without PGPR (Wassell et al., 2012). The C22:0 based MAG combined with PGPR promoted TAG crystallisation as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polarised optical microscopy (POM) observations indicated that C22:0 based MAG eliminates formation of large crystal aggregates, resulting in the likely formation of tiny Pickering TAG / MAG crystals (6.0). It is concluded that the presence and interactive behaviour of Pickering surface-active MAG, is strongly linked to increased fatty acid chain length, which induce increased textural resilience owing to viscoelasticity (4.0; 5.0). A multidisciplinary approach was able to verify structuring behaviour (4.0; 5.0), using multiple analyses (Wassell et al., 2010b; 2012; Young et al., 2008). Novel structuring solutions in reduced TAG based systems have been provided (4.0; 5.0). This study both enhances current understanding of structuring in low TAG W/O emulsions and has led to novel MAG compositions, which address emulsification, structuring and texture in TAG based food systems (Wassell et al., 2010a; 2012a; 2012b; 2012c; 2012d; 2012e; Bech et al., 2013).
CitationWassell, P. & Young, N. W. G. (2007). Food applications of trans fatty acid substitutes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42, 503–517.
Wassell, P. Bonwick, G., Smith, C. J., Almiron-Roig, E., & Young, N. W. G. (2010). Towards a multidisciplinary approach to structuring in reduced saturated fat-based systems – A review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 45, 642–655.
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Wassell, P., Wiklund, J,. Stading, M., Bonwick, G., Smith, C. J., Almiron-Roig, E., & Young, N. W. G. (2010). Ultrasound Doppler based in-line viscosity and solid fat profile measurement of fat blends. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45, 877‐883.
Wassell, P., Okamura, A., Young, N.W.G., Bonwick, G., Smith, C., Sato, K., & Ueno, S. (2012). Synchrotron radiation macrobeam and microbeam X-ray diffraction studies of interfacial crystallization of fats in water-in-oil emulsions. Langmuir 28 (13), 5539-5547.
Young, N. W. G., & Wassell, P. (2010). Margarines and spreads. In G. L. Hasenhuettl & R. W. Hartel (Eds.), Food emulsifiers and their applications (pp. 307-326). 2nd ed. New York: Springer.
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Wassell, P. (2010, March). Ultrasound Doppler based in-line viscosity and solid fat profile measurement of fat blends. Lecture given at Hiroshima International Forum on Functionality of Lipids Hiroshima University, Japan, 24 -27 March 2010.
Levenstam Bragd, E., Wiklund, J., Wassell, P., & Young, N. W. G. (2010, April). Ultrasonic based methods for acoustic characterization, in-line viscosity and solid fat content (SFC) measurements of fat blends. Paper given at 7th International Symposium on Ultrasound Doppler techniques. Annual European Rheology conference at Göteborg, Sweden, 7-9 April 2010.
Bhattacharya, K., Wassell, P., Wiklund, J., Stading, M., Bonwick, G., Smith, C., Almiron-Roig, E., & Young, N. W. G. (2011, September). Ultrasound Doppler based in-line viscosity and solid fat profile measurement of fat blends. Paper given at 9th Euro Fed Lipid Congress in Rotterdam, 18-21 September 2011.
Okamura, A., Wassell, P., Young, N.W.G., Bonwick, G., Smith, C., Almiron-Ruig, E., Sato, K., & Ueno, S. (2011, September). Influence of emulsifiers in W/O low fat spreads for fat crystallization. Poster presentation at 9th Euro Fed Lipid Congress at Rotterdam, 18-21 September 2011.
Okamura, A., Wassell, P., Young, N.W.G., Bonwick, G., Smith, C., Almiron-Ruig, E., Sato, K., & Ueno, S. (2011, November).Influences of emulsifiers in W/O low fat spreads on fat crystallization. Poster presentation at AAOCS biennial conference at Sebel Playford Adelaide, 9-11 November 2011 .
PublisherUniversity of Chester
TypeThesis or dissertation
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