Now showing items 559-578 of 621

• #### Terahertz reading of ferroelectric domain wall dielectric switching

Ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) are important nano scale interfaces between two domains. It is widely accepted that ferroelectric domain walls work idly at terahertz (THz) frequencies, consequently discouraging efforts to engineer the domain walls to create new applications that utilise THz radiation. However, the present work clearly demonstrates the activity of domain walls at THz frequencies in a lead free Aurivillius phase ferroelectric ceramic, Ca0.99Rb0.005Ce0.005Bi2Nb2O9, examined using THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The dynamics of domain walls are different at kHz and THz frequencies. At low frequencies, domain walls work as a group to increase dielectric permittivity. At THz frequencies, the defective nature of domain walls serves to lower the overall dielectric permittivity. This is evidenced by higher dielectric permittivity in the THz band after poling, reflecting decreased domain wall density. An elastic vibrational model has also been used to verify that a single frustrated dipole in a domain wall represents a weaker contribution to the permittivity than its counterpart within a domain. The work represents a fundamental breakthrough in understanding dielectric contributions of domain walls at THz frequencies. It also demonstrates that THz probing can be used to read domain wall dielectric switching.
• #### Terahertz Signatures of Hydrate Formation in Alkali Halide Solutions

We systematically studied the ability of 20 alkali halides to form solid hydrates in the frozen state from their aqueous solutions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We experimentally observed the rise of new terahertz absorption peaks in the spectral range of 0.3-3.5 THz in frozen alkali halide solutions. The DFT calculations prove that the rise of observed new peaks in solutions containing Li+, Na+ or F‾ ions indicates the formation of salt hydrates, while that in other alkali halide solutions is caused by the splitting phonon modes of the imperfectly crystallized salts in ice. As a simple empirical rule, the correlation between the terahertz signatures and the ability of 20 alkali halides to form a hydrate has been established.
• #### Theoretical and numerical analysis of unsteady fractional viscoelastic flows in simple geometries.

In this work we discuss the connection between classical and fractional viscoelastic Maxwell models, presenting the basic theory supporting these constitutive equations, and establishing some background on the admissibility of the fractional Maxwell model. We then develop a numerical method for the solution of two coupled fractional differential equations (one for the velocity and the other for the stress), that appear in the pure tangential annular ow of fractional viscoelastic fluids. The numerical method is based on finite differences, with the approximation of fractional derivatives of the velocity and stress being inspired by the method proposed by Sun and Wu for the fractional diffusion-wave equation [ Z.Z. Sun, X. Wu, A fully discrete difference scheme for a diffusion-wave system, Applied Numerical Mathematics 56 (2006) 193-209]. We prove solvability, study numerical convergence of the method, and also discuss the applicability of this method for simulating the rheological response of complex fluids in a real concentric cylinder rheometer. By imposing a torsional step-strain, we observe the different rates of stress relaxation obtained with different values of \alpha and \beta (the fractional order exponents that regulate the viscoelastic response of the complex fluids).
• #### Theory and numerics for multi-term periodic delay differential equations, small solutions and their detection

We summarise a theoretical treatment that analyses whether the equation has small solutions. We consider discrete equations that arise when a numerical method with fixed step size is applied to approximate the solution to (†) and we develop a corresponding theory. Our results show that small solutions can be detected reliably by the numerical scheme. We conclude with some numerical examples.
• #### Thermodynamic Analysis and Process System Comparison of the Exhaust Gas Recirculated, Steam Injected and Humidified Micro Gas Turbine

Stringent environmental emission regulations and continuing efforts to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) from the energy sector, in the context of global warming, have promoted interest to improve the efficiency of power generation systems whilst reducing emissions. Further, this has led to the development of innovative gas turbine systems which either result in higher electrical efficiency or the reduction of CO2 emissions. Micro gas turbines are one of the secure, economical and environmentally viable options for power and heat generation. Here, a Turbec T100 micro gas turbine (MGT) is simulated using Aspen HYSYS® V8.4 and validated through experimental data. Due to the consistency and robustness of the steady state model developed, it is further extended to three different innovative cycles: (i) an exhaust gas recirculated (EGR) cycle, in which part of the exhaust gas is dried and re-circulated to the MGT inlet; (ii) a steam injected (STIG) cycle, and (iii) a humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The steam and hot water are generated through the exhaust of the recuperator for the STIG and HAT cycle, respectively. Further, the steam is directly injected into the recuperator for power augmentation, while for the HAT cycle; the compressed air is saturated with water in the humid tower before entering the recuperator. This study evaluates the impact of the EGR ratio, steam to air ratio, and water to air ratio on the performance and efficiency of the system. The comparative potential for each innovative cycle is assessed by thermodynamic properties estimation of process parameters through the models developed to better understand the behavior of each cycle. The thermodynamic assessment indicates that CO2 enrichment occurs for the three innovative cycles. Further, the results indicate that the electrical efficiency increases for the STIG and HAT cycle while it decreases for the EGR cycle. In conclusion, the innovative cycles indicates the possibilities to improve the system performance and efficiency.
• #### Thermophoresis effect on the free convective flow in a differentially heated square cavity

A numerical analysis is made for thermophoretic transport of small particles through the convective flow in a differentially heated square cavity. The governing gas-particle partial differential equations are solved numerically for some values of the considered parameters to investigate their influence on the flow, heat, and mass transfer patterns. It is found that the effect of thermophoresis can be quite significant in appropriate situations.
• #### Throwing sheep in the bandroom: Visualising a social and economic network of musicians in Cheshire and North Wales

The aim of this session is to apply some of the visual and technological tools of 21st-Century online social networking, e.g. network visualisation using "friend wheels", to a densely interconnected network of jazz and dance band musicians active in the Chester (UK) area in the 1950s, as revealed by research on the "hidden history" of live music in the area. Over 30 interviews with musicians, dancers and promoters have been collected, plus more than 200 photographs from personal collections, and an M.U. diary/address book belonging to local bandleader Wilf Field. The recent dramatic growth of online social networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn and MySpace has led to a revival of interest in the economic importance of social networks; Fraser and Dutta’s "Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom" provides an interesting survey of the issues, and was an inspiration for this session. But working musicians have long known the importance of knowing (and impressing) the "right people" in order to get work. Have social networks changed fundamentally since the advent of Web 2.0, or were they always there, and just a little harder to visualise when held in a pocket diary, rather than displayed on a Facebook wall?
• #### A time discretization scheme for a nonlocal degenerate problem modelling resistance spot welding

In the current work we construct a nonlocal mathematical model describing the phase transition occurs during the resistance spot welding process in the industry of metallurgy. We then consider a time discretization scheme for solving the resulting nonlocal moving boundary problem. The scheme consists of solving at each time step a linear elliptic partial differential equation and then making a correction to account for the nonlinearity. The stability and error estimates of the developed scheme are investigated. Finally some numerical results are presented confirming the efficiency of the developed numerical algorithm.
• #### Titanium Dioxide Engineered for Near-dispersionless High Terahertz Permittivity and Ultra-low-loss

Realising engineering ceramics to serve as substrate materials in high-performance terahertz(THz) that are low-cost, have low dielectric loss and near-dispersionless broadband, high permittivity, is exceedingly demanding. Such substrates are deployed in, for example, integrated circuits for synthesizing and converting nonplanar and 3D structures into planar forms. The Rutile form of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been widely accepted as commercially economical candidate substrate that meets demands for both low-loss and high permittivities at sub-THz bands. However, the relationship between its mechanisms of dielectric response to the microstructure have never been systematically investigated in order to engineer ultra-low dielectric-loss and high value, dispersionless permittivities. Here we show TiO2 THz dielectrics with high permittivity (ca. 102.30) and ultra-low loss (ca. 0.0042). These were prepared by insight gleaned from a broad use of materials characterisation methods to successfully engineer porosities, second phase, crystallography shear-planes and oxygen vacancies during sintering. The dielectric loss achieved here is not only with negligible dispersion over 0.2 - 0.8 THz, but also has the lowest value measured for known high-permittivity dielectrics. We expect the insight afforded by this study will underpin the development of subwavelength-scale, planar integrated circuits, compact high Q-resonators and broadband, slow-light devices in the THz band.
• #### Torsion Units for a Ree group, Tits group and a Steinberg triality group

We investigate the Zassenhaus conjecture for the Steinberg triality group ${}^3D_4(2^3)$, Tits group ${}^2F_4(2)'$ and the Ree group ${}^2F_4(2)$. Consequently, we prove that the Prime Graph question is true for all three groups.
• #### Torsion Units for Some Almost Simple Groups

We prove that the Zassenhaus conjecture is true for $Aut(PSL(2,11))$. Additionally we prove that the Prime graph question is true for $Aut(PSL(2,13))$.
• #### Torsion Units for some Projected Special Linear Groups

In this paper, we investigate the Zassenhaus conjecture for $PSL(4,3)$ and $PSL(5,2)$. Consequently, we prove that the Prime graph question is true for both groups.
• #### Torsion units for some untwisted exceptional groups of lie type

In this paper, we investigate the Zassenhaus conjecture for exceptional groups of lie type $G_2(q)$ for $q=\{3,4\}$. Consequently, we prove that the Prime graph question is true for these groups.
• #### Torsion units in the integral group ring of PSL(3,4)

We investigate the Zassenhaus Conjecture for the integral group ring of the simple group PSL(3,4).
• #### Total war and its effects on the live music industry in Cheshire and North Wales

Given the profound effect which World War II had on the economy of the UK as a whole, it would be surprising if specific areas of that economy – such as live music in the provinces – were not affected as well. How did ‘total war’ affect the live music industry on a local level? Evidence I have collected for a study of musicians active in and around Chester during the period suggests that the large number of military bases in the area, combined with the effects of other wartime factors such as conscription, rationing and the need to maintain both military and civilian morale, did indeed affect the size and nature of the market for live dance music locally. For instance, the large US Air Force base at Burtonwood was a source of work for local musicians, as well as an opportunity to mix with American musicians and music fans. As well as presenting information obtained through interviews with musicians and their relatives, I will also look briefly at what happened to the musicians and the bands after the war, when economic and social conditions changed again, at the same time as advances occurred in music-related technology.
• #### Towards Cyber-User Awareness: Design and Evaluation

Human reliance on interconnected devices has given rise to a massive increase in cyber activities. There are about 17 billion interconnected devices in our World of about 8 billion people. Like the physical world, the cyber world is not void of entities whose activities, malicious or not, could be detrimental to other users who remain vulnerable as a result of their existence within cyberspace. Developments such as the introduction of 5G networks which advances communication speed among interconnected devices, undoubtedly proffer solutions for human living as well as adversely impacting systems. Vulnerabilities in applications embedded in devices, hardware deficiencies, user errors, are some of the loopholes that are exploited. Studies have revealed humans as weakest links in the cyber-chain, submitting that consistent implementation of cyber awareness programs would largely impact cybersecurity. Cyber-active systems have goals that compete with the implementation of cyber awareness programs, within limited resources. It is desirable to have cyber awareness systems that can be tailored around specific needs and considerations for important factors. This paper presents a system that aims to promote user awareness through a flexible, accessible, and cost-effective design. The system implements steps in a user awareness cycle, that considers human-factor (HF) and HF related root causes of cyber-attacks. We introduce a new user testing tool, adaptable for administering cybersecurity test questions for varying levels and categories of users. The tool was implemented experimentally by engaging cyber users within UK. Schemes and online documentations by UK Cybersecurity organisations were harnessed for assessing and providing relevant recommendations to participants. Results provided us with values representing each participants’ notional level of awareness which were subjected to a paired-T test for comparison with values derived in an automated assessment. This pilot study provides valuable details for projecting the efficacy of the system towards improving human influence in cybersecurity.
• #### Towards Organisational Learning Enhancement: Assessing Software Engineering Practice

• Purpose – Issues surrounding knowledge management, knowledge transfer and learning within organisations challenge continuity and resilience in the face of changing environments. While initiatives are principally applied within large organisations, there is scope to assess how the processes are handled within small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and to consider how they might be enhanced. This paper presents an evaluation of practice within an evolving software development unit to determine what has been learned and how the knowledge acquired has been utilised to further organisational development. These results provide the basis for the design and implementation of a proposed support tool to enhance professional practice. • Design/methodology/approach – A small software development unit, which has successfully delivered bespoke systems since its establishment a number of years ago, was selected for analysis. The unit operates as a team whose actions and behaviours were identified and validated by the following means: in-depth interviews were carried out with each member of the team to elicit an understanding of individual and collective development. Interview data were recorded and transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis to identify key themes underpinning knowledge acquisition and utilisation. Samples of project documentation were scrutinised to corroborate interview data. After analysing the data, a focus-group meeting was held to validate the results and to generate further insights into learning within the team. • Findings - Qualitative analysis of the data revealed key changes in thinking and practice within the team as well as insight into the development of individual and collective contextual knowledge, tacit understanding and learning. This analysis informed the proposal of a bespoke, lightweight, web-based system to support knowledge capture and organisational learning (OL). This approach has the potential to promote resilience and to enhance practice in similar small or start-up enterprises. • Research limitations/implications – Purposeful sampling was used in selecting a small software development team. This enabled in-depth interviewing of all members of the team. This offered a rich environment from which to derive awareness and understanding of individual and collective knowledge acquisition and learning. Focusing on a single small enterprise limits the extent to which the findings can be generalised. However, the research provides evidence of effective practice and learning and has identified themes for the development of a support tool. This approach can be extended to similar domains to advance research into learning and development. • Practical implications – Results of the work undertaken so far have generated promising foundations for the proposed support tool. This offers software developers a system within which they can reflect upon, and record, key learning events affecting technical, managerial and professional practice. • Originality/value – Small enterprises have limited resources to support OL. The qualitative research undertaken so far has yielded valuable insight into the successful development of a single software development team. The construction of a support tool to enhance knowledge acquisition and learning has the capacity to consolidate valuable, and potentially scarce, expertise. It also has the potential to facilitate further research to determine how the prototype might be extended or revised to improve its contribution to the team’s development.
• #### Towards sustainable methanol from industrial CO2 sources

This chapter discusses the opportunity of using CO2 from industrial sources to produce sustainable methanol. Some important industrial sectors that could be seen as potential sources of CO2 are reviewed: ammonia, steel, ethanol, ethylene, natural gas, cement and power industries. In most cases, despite a promising potential for CO2 re-use, only few projects have been identified and methanol production from CO2 is still marginal. A model for the CO2-to-methanol process is presented based on CO2-rich gas coming from ammonia production process. This model takes into account the different steps from the CO2 capture to the methanol purification, and heat integration is performed in order to determine the reduction of heat consumption achievable for the global process. Even if the economic relevance of the CO2 re-use into methanol still has to be qualified, it offers an estimation of the process efficiency.
• #### Training Powered Wheelchair Manoeuvres in Mixed Reality

We describe a mixed reality environment that has been designed as an aid for training driving skills for a powered wheelchair. Our motivation is to provide an improvement on a previous virtual reality wheelchair driving simulator, with a particular aim to remove any cybersickness effects. The results of a validation test are presented that involved 35 able bodied volunteers divided into three groups: mixed reality trained, virtual reality trained, and a control group. No significant differences in improvement was found between the groups but there is a notable trend that both the mixed reality and virtual reality groups improved more than the control group. Whereas the virtual reality group experienced discomfort (as measured using a simulator sickness questionnaire), the mixed reality group experienced no side effects.
• #### Translational Medicine: Challenges and new orthopaedic vision (Mediouni-Model)

Background: In North America and three European countries Translational Medicine (TM) funding has taken center stage as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), for example, has come to recognize that delays are common place in completing clinical trials based upon benchside advancements. Recently, there are several illustrative examples whereby the translation of research had untoward outcomes requiring immediate action. Methods: Focus more on three-dimensional (3D) simulation, biomarkers, and Artificial Intelligence may allow orthopaedic surgeons to predict the ideal practices before orthopaedic surgery. Using the best medical imaging techniques may improve the accuracy and precision of tumor resections. Results: This article is directed at the young surgeon scientist and in particular orthopaedic residents and all other junior physicians in training to help them better understand TM and position themselves in career paths and hospital systems that strive for optimal TM. It serves to hasten the movement of knowledge garnered from the benchside and move it quickly to the bedside. Conclusions: Communication is ongoing in a bidirectional format. It is anticipated that more and more medical Centers and institutions will adopt TM models of healthcare delivery.