• Reverse microemulsion synthesis of layered gadolinium hydroxide

      Xu, Yadong; Suthar, Jugal; Egbu, Raphael; Weston, Andrew J.; Fogg, Andrew M.; Williams, Gareth R.; University College London; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-11-05)
      A reverse microemulsion approach has been explored for the synthesis of layered gadolinium hydroxide (LGdH) nanoparticles in this work. This method uses oleylamine as a multifunctional agent, acting as surfactant, oil phase and base. 1-butanol is additionally used as a co-surfactant. A systematic study of the key reaction parameters was undertaken, including the volume ratio of surfactant (oleylamine) to water, the reaction time, synthesis temperature, and the amount of co-surfactant (1-butanol) added. It proved possible to obtain pristine LGdH materials at temperatures of 120 °C or below with an oleylamine: water ratio of 1:4. Using larger amounts of surfactant or higher temperatures caused the formation of Gd(OH)3, either as the sole product or as a major impurity phase. The LGdH particles produced have sizes of ca. 200 nm, with this size being largely independent of temperature or reaction time. Adjusting the amount of 1-butanol co-surfactant added permits the size to be varied between 200 and 300 nm.
    • A review of organic waste enrichment for inducing palatability of black soldier fly larvae: Wastes to valuable resources

      Raksasat, Ratchaprapa; Lim, Jun Wei; Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Kiatkittipong, Kunlanan; Ho, Yeek Chia; Lam, Man Kee; Font Palma, Carolina; Zaid, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd; Cheng, Chin Kui; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS; Silpakorn University; King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang; University of Chester; Khalifa University
      The increase of annual organic wastes generated worldwide has become a major problem for many countries since the mismanagement could bring about negative effects on the environment besides, being costly for an innocuous disposal. Recently, insect larvae have been investigated to valorize organic wastes. This entomoremediation approach is rising from the ability of the insect larvae to convert organic wastes into its biomass via assimilation process as catapulted by the natural demand to complete its lifecycle. Among the insect species, black soldier fly or Hermetia illucens is widely researched since the larvae can grow in various environments while being saprophagous in nature. Even though black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) can ingest various decay materials, some organic wastes such as sewage sludge or lignocellulosic wastes such as waste coconut endosperm are destitute of decent nutrients that could retard the BSFL growth. Hence, blending with nutrient-rich low-cost substrates such as palm kernel expeller, soybean curd residue, etc. is employed to fortify the nutritional contents of larval feeding substrates prior to administering to the BSFL. Alternatively, microbial fermentation can be adopted to breakdown the lignocellulosic wastes, exuding essential nutrients for growing BSFL. Upon reaching maturity, the BSFL can be harvested to serve as the protein and lipid feedstock. The larval protein can be made into insect meal for farmed animals, whilst the lipid source could be extracted and transesterified into larval biodiesel to cushion the global energy demands. Henceforth, this review presents the influence of various organic wastes introduced to feed BSFL, targeting to reduce wastes and producing biochemicals from mature larvae through entomoremediation. Modification of recalcitrant organic wastes via fermentation processes is also unveiled to ameliorate the BSFL growth. Lastly, the sustainable applications of harvested BSFL biomass are as well covered together with the immediate shortcomings that entail further researches.
    • A Review of Piezoelectric and Magnetostrictive Biosensor Materials for Detection of COVID‐19 and Other Viruses

      Narita, Fumio; Wang, Zhenjin; Kurita, Hiroki; Li, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Jia, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos; Tohoku University; Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; University of Chester; Aston University; University of Manchester
      The spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has changed the lives of people around the world with a huge impact on economies and societies. The development of wearable sensors that can continuously monitor the environment for viruses may become an important research area. Here, the state of the art of research on biosensor materials for virus detection is reviewed. A general description of the principles for virus detection is included, along with a critique of the experimental work dedicated to various virus sensors, and a summary of their detection limitations. The piezoelectric sensors used for the detection of human papilloma, vaccinia, dengue, Ebola, influenza A, human immunodeficiency, and hepatitis B viruses are examined in the first section; then the second part deals with magnetostrictive sensors for the detection of bacterial spores, proteins, and classical swine fever. In addition, progress related to early detection of COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is discussed in the final section, where remaining challenges in the field are also identified. It is believed that this review will guide material researchers in their future work of developing smart biosensors, which can further improve detection sensitivity in monitoring currently known and future virus threats.
    • The role of DNA methylation in ageing and cancer

      Morgan, Amy; Davies, Trevor J.; Mc Auley, Mark T.; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2018-04-30)
      The aim of the present review paper is to survey the literature related to DNA methylation, and its association with cancer and ageing. The review will outline the key factors, including diet, which modulate DNA methylation. Our rationale for conducting this review is that ageing and diseases, including cancer, are often accompanied by aberrant DNA methylation, a key epigenetic process, which is crucial to the regulation of gene expression. Significantly, it has been observed that with age and certain disease states, DNA methylation status can become disrupted. For instance, a broad array of cancers are associated with promoter-specific hypermethylation and concomitant gene silencing. This review highlights that hypermethylation, and gene silencing, of the EN1 gene promoter, a crucial homeobox gene, has been detected in various forms of cancer. This has led to this region being proposed as a potential biomarker for diseases such as cancer. We conclude the review by describing a recently developed novel electrochemical method that can be used to quantify the level of methylation within the EN1 promoter and emphasise the growing trend in the use of electrochemical techniques for the detection of aberrant DNA methylation.
    • The role of Mathematical Modelling in understanding Aging

      Mc Auley, Mark T.; Morgan, Amy; Mooney, Kathleen M.; University of Chester, Edgehill University (CRC Press, 2017-10-25)
      Mathematical models have played key roles in developing our understanding of aging. The first pioneering mathematical models evaluated aging from an evolutionary perspective, generating meaningful insights into why aging occurs and laid the foundations for our current understanding of aging. More recently mathematical models have been used to gain a deeper understanding of the intracellular mechanisms associated with intrinsic aging. This chapter will outline what mathematical modelling is, and the advantages it has over more conventional approaches used in biogerontology. The steps involved in assembling a model will also be described and the leading theoretical frameworks underpinning them will be outlined. Moreover, we discuss in detail a variety of aging focused mechanistic mathematical models which have been developed in recent years. The chapter concludes by challenging the community to develop a unified mechanistic mathematical model which can be used to examine aging in a more integrated fashion.
    • Rotary bistable and Parametrically Excited Vibration Energy Harvesting

      Kurmann, Lukas; Jia, Yu; Hoffmann, Daniel; Manoli, Yiannos; Woias, Peter; University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland; University of Chester; Hahn-Schickard; University of Freiburg (IOP Publishing, 2016-12-06)
      Parametric resonance is a type of nonlinear vibration phenomenon [1], [2] induced from the periodic modulation of at least one of the system parameters and has the potential to exhibit interesting higher order nonlinear behaviour [3]. Parametrically excited vibration energy harvesters have been previously shown to enhance both the power amplitude [4] and the frequency bandwidth [5] when compared to the conventional direct resonant approach. However, to practically activate the more profitable regions of parametric resonance, additional design mechanisms [6], [7] are required to overcome a critical initiation threshold amplitude. One route is to establish an autoparametric system where external direct excitation is internally coupled to parametric excitation [8]. For a coupled two degrees of freedom (DoF) oscillatory system, principal autoparametric resonance can be achieved when the natural frequency of the first DoF f1 is twice that of the second DoF f2 and the external excitation is in the vicinity of f1. This paper looks at combining rotary and translatory motion and use autoparametric resonance phenomena.
    • Scaling-up ultrasound standing wave enhanced sedimentation filters

      Prest, Jeff E.; Treves Brown, Bernard J.; Fielden, Peter R.; Wilkinson, Stephen J.; Hawkes, Jeremy J.; Lancaster University ; University of Manchester ; Lancaster University ; University of Chester ; University of Manchester (Elsevier, 2014-08-21)
      Particle concentration and filtration is a key stage in a wide range of processing industries and also one that can be present challenges for high throughput, continuous operation. Here we demonstrate some features which increase the efficiency of ultrasound enhanced sedimentation and could enable the technology the potential to be scaled up. In this work, 20 mm piezoelectric plates were used to drive 100 mm high chambers formed from single structural elements. The coherent structural resonances were able to drive particles (yeast cells) in the water to nodes throughout the chamber. Ultrasound enhanced sedimentation was used to demonstrate the efficiency of the system (>99% particle clearance). Sub-wavelength pin protrusions were used for the contacts between the resonant chamber and other elements. The pins provided support and transferred power, replacing glue which is inefficient for power transfer. Filtration energies of ∼4 J/ml of suspension were measured. A calculation of thermal convection indicates that the circulation could disrupt cell alignment in ducts >35 mm high when a 1K temperature gradient is present; we predict higher efficiencies when this maximum height is observed. For the acoustic design, although modelling was minimal before construction, the very simple construction allowed us to form 3D models of the nodal patterns in the fluid and the duct structure. The models were compared with visual observations of particle movement, Chladni figures and scanning laser vibrometer mapping. This demonstrates that nodal planes in the fluid can be controlled by the position of clamping points and that the contacts could be positioned to increase the efficiency and reliability of particle manipulations in standing waves.
    • Second generation PEM fuel cells and the indirect reduction of oxygen

      Davies, Trevor J.; University of Chester (2015-05-21)
      2015 is a breakthrough year for fuel cell technology.
    • Segregation of Anhydrite in Sintered Naturally Occurring Rock Salt

      Swanson, Claudia H.; Boehme, Susanne; Guenster, Jens; University of Chester; Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung (Solution Mining Research Institute, 2015-09)
      This study examines the sintering of naturally occurring rock salt in dependence of pressure and temperature as is desired for storage and other applications in saline environments where rock salt is thermodynamically stable and shows a mechanical behavior compatible to the surrounding host material. Rock salt consists mainly of sodium chloride with small impurities of less soluble compounds such as anhydrite, CaSO4 . A special interest in the sintering process of naturally occurring rock salt is the segregation of anhydrite to the grain boundaries between individual sodium chloride crystals. Our study has shown that sintering naturally occurring rock salt at different pressures will influence the segregation of anhydrite. Experiments support a greater segregation of anhydrite resulting from an increased pressure treatment. As the solubility of anhydrite is less than sodium chloride, the sintered samples of naturally occurring rock salt show greater stability towards dissolution than pure sodium chloride.
    • Self-assembled nanostructures in ionic liquids facilitate charge storage at electrified interfaces

      Mao, Xianwen; Brown, Paul; Cervinka, Citrad; Hazell, Gavin; Li, Hua; Ren, Yinying; Chen, Di; Atkin, Rob; Eastoe, Julian; Grillo, Isabelle; et al. (Springer Nature, 2019-08-12)
      Driven by the potential applications of ionic liquids (ILs) in many emerging electrochemical technologies, recent research efforts have been directed at understanding the complex ion ordering in these systems, to uncover novel energy storage mechanisms at IL–electrode interfaces. Here, we discover that surface-active ILs (SAILs), which contain amphiphilic structures inducing self-assembly, exhibit enhanced charge storage performance at electrified surfaces. Unlike conventional non amphiphilic ILs, for which ion distribution is dominated by Coulombic interactions, SAILs exhibit significant and competing van der Waals interactions owing to the non-polar surfactant tails, leading to unusual interfacial ion distributions. We reveal that, at an intermediate degree of electrode polarization, SAILs display optimum performance, because the low-charge-density alkyl tails are effectively excluded from the electrode surfaces, whereas the formation of non-polar domains along the surface suppresses undesired overscreening effects. This work represents a crucial step towards understanding the unique interfacial behaviour and electrochemical properties of amphiphilic liquid systems showing long-range ordering, and offers insights into the design principles for high-energy-density electrolytes based on spontaneous self-assembly behaviour.
    • Self-Dual Codes using Bisymmetric Matrices and Group Rings

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Korban, Adrian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; University of Chester ; Sampoerna University ; University of Chester: Uzhgorod National University (Elsevier, 2020-08-14)
      In this work, we describe a construction in which we combine together the idea of a bisymmetric matrix and group rings. Applying this construction over the ring F4 + uF4 together with the well known extension and neighbour methods, we construct new self-dual codes of length 68: In particular, we find 41 new codes of length 68 that were not known in the literature before.
    • Self-supervised monocular image depth learning and confidence estimation

      Chen, Long; Tang, Wen; Wan, Tao Ruan; John, Nigel W.; Bournemouth University; University of Bradford; University of Chester
      We present a novel self-supervised framework for monocular image depth learning and confidence estimation. Our framework reduces the amount of ground truth annotation data required for training Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which is often a challenging problem for the fast deployment of CNNs in many computer vision tasks. Our DepthNet adopts a novel fully differential patch-based cost function through the Zero-Mean Normalized Cross Correlation (ZNCC) to take multi-scale patches as matching and learning strategies. This approach greatly increases the accuracy and robustness of the depth learning. Whilst the proposed patch-based cost function naturally provides a 0-to-1 confidence, it is then used to self-supervise the training of a parallel network for confidence map learning and estimation by exploiting the fact that ZNCC is a normalized measure of similarity which can be approximated as the confidence of the depth estimation. Therefore, the proposed corresponding confidence map learning and estimation operate in a self-supervised manner and is a parallel network to the DepthNet. Evaluation on the KITTI depth prediction evaluation dataset and Make3D dataset show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art results.
    • The sharp interface limit for the stochastic Cahn-Hilliard Equation

      Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Bloemker, Dirk; Karali, Georgia D.; Universiy of Chester (IMS Journals, 2018-02-19)
      We study the two and three dimensional stochastic Cahn-Hilliard equation in the sharp interface limit, where the positive parameter \eps tends to zero, which measures the width of transition layers generated during phase separation. We also couple the noise strength to this parameter. Using formal asymptotic expansions, we identify the limit. In the right scaling we indicate that the solutions of stochastic Cahn-Hilliard converge to a solution of a Hele-Shaw problem with stochastic forcing. In the case when the noise is sufficiently small, we rigorously prove that the limit is a deterministic Hele-Shaw problem. Finally, we discuss which estimates are necessary in order to extend the rigorous result to larger noise strength.
    • Shock Reliability Enhancement for MEMS Vibration Energy Harvesters with Nonlinear Air Damping as Soft Stopper

      Chen, Shao-Tuan; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin A.; University of Cambridge; University of Chester (IOP Publishing, 2017-09-20)
      This paper presents a novel application of utilising nonlinear air damping as soft mechanical stopper to increase the shock reliability for MEMS vibration energy harvesters. Theoretical framework for nonlinear air damping is constructed for MEMS vibration energy harvesters operating in different air pressure levels, and characterisation experiments are conducted to establish the relationship between air pressure and nonlinear air damping coefficient for rectangular cantilever MEMS micro cantilevers with different proof masses. Design guidelines on choosing the optimal air pressure level for different MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on the trade-off between harvestable energy and the device robustness is presented, and random excitation experiments are performed to verify the robustness of MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as soft stoppers to limit the maximum deflection distance and increase the shock reliability of the device.
    • A Silanol-Functionalized Polyoxometalate with Excellent Electron Transfer Mediating Behavior to ZnO and TiO 2 Cathode Interlayers for Highly Efficient and Extremely Stable Polymer Solar Cells

      Tountas, Marinos; Topal, Yasemin; Verykios, Apostolos; Soultati, Anastasia; Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Theodoros A.; Auras, Florian; Seintis, Kostas; Fakis, Mihalis; Palilis, Leonidas C.; et al. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017-12-21)
      Combining high efficiency and long lifetime under ambient conditions still poses a major challenge towards commercialization of polymer solar cells. Here we report a facile strategy that can simultaneously enhance the efficiency and temporal stability of inverted photovoltaic architectures. Inclusion of a silanol-functionalized organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate derived from a PW9O34 lacunary phosphotungstate anion, namely (nBu4N)3[PW9O34(tBuSiOH)3], significantly increases the effectiveness of the electron collecting interface, which consists of a metal oxide such as titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, and leads to a high efficiency of 6.51% for single-junction structures based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct (P3HT:IC60BA) blends. The above favourable outcome stems from a large decrease in the work function, an effective surface passivation and a decrease in the surface energy of metal oxides which synergistically result in the outstanding electron transfer mediating capability of the functionalized polyoxometalate. In addition, the insertion of a silanol-functionalized polyoxometalate layer significantly enhances the ambient stability of unencapsulated devices which retain nearly 90% of their original efficiencies (T90) after 1000 hours.
    • Simulation of grain boundary diffusion creep: Analysis of some new numerical techniques

      Ford, Judith M.; Ford, Neville J.; Wheeler, John (Royal Society, 2004)
    • Simultaneous determination of dopamine, uric acid and estriol in maternal urine samples based on the synergetic effect of reduced graphene oxide, silver nanowires and silver nanoparticles in their ternary 3D nanocomposite

      Zhao, Qian; Faraj, Yousef; Liu, Lu Yue; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Liu, Zhuang; Ju, Xiao Jie; Wei, Jie; Chu, Liang Yin; University of Chester; Sichuan University
      A facile and efficient electrochemical biosensing platform based on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite consists of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with the insertion of silver nanowires (AgNWs) followed by the anchoring of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is constructed as RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs/SPCE for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and estriol (EST). The morphology characteristic and surface elemental composition of RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs nanocomposite are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry are utilized to explore the electrochemical performances of the constructed electrodes. Due to abundant active sites and excellent electrocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite, the RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs/SPCE sensor exhibits well-resolved oxidation peaks and enhanced oxidation peak currents in the ternary mixture of DA, UA and EST with respective linear response ranges of 0.6 to 50 μM, 1 to 100 μM and 1 to 90 μM and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.16 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.58 μM, respectively. Moreover, the constructed biosensor exhibits good selectivity, reproducibility and stability, and excellent performance in determining DA, UA and EST in synthetic urine samples with excellent recovery. The results reveal that the RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs nanocomposite is a promising candidate for advanced electrode material in electrochemical sensing field and possesses great application prospects in further sensing researches.
    • A single parameter approach to enhance the microstructural and mechanical properties of beta Ti-Nb alloy via open-air fiber laser nitriding

      Chan, Chi-Wai; Chang, Xianwen; Bozorgzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Smith, Graham C; Lee, Seunghwan; Queen's University Belfast, Technical University of Denmark, University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-12-13)
      In this study, the idea of applying open-air laser nitriding to improve the microstructural and mechanical properties of beta Ti-45 at.% Nb alloy was demonstrated. Surface cracking after laser nitriding is one of the main reasons impeding direct translation of the laser nitriding technique from the laboratories to industries as cracks can be the weak points to initiate mechanical and corrosion failures in long-term usage. With proper selection of duty cycle (DC) between 40% (modulated mode) and 100% (continuous wave, CW mode) to control the laser energy input and laser-material-gas interaction time, the cracking problems of laser nitriding can be alleviated and even solved. A crack-free and uniformly gold-coloured nitrided surface was successfully obtained at the DC of 40% in this study. The morphology, microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the nitrided samples were studied and analysed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers micro-hardness tests. The OM results indicated that minimum overlapping between the laser tracks would give desirable results to obtain the crack-free surface. The measurements from the SEM micrographs indicated the depth of the laser-nitrided areas ranged between 22 and 43 µm. The XRD findings showed that a clear conversion of the TiNb surface to a nitride as a result of laser nitriding was observed. The maximum hardness, as measured by the Vickers method in cross-sections, lay in the range of 780 to 870 HV after laser nitriding. To summarise, control of DC to obtain a crack free and quality surface via fiber laser nitriding in open air is a simpler and quicker approach in comparison with the conventional substrate preheating and nitrogen (N) dilution approaches. The single-parameter approach is more efficient than parameter optimisation via design of experiments (DOE) employed in conventional methods.
    • Sketching Designs Using the Five Design-Sheet Methodology

      Roberts, Jonathan C.; Headleand, Christopher J.; Ritsos, Panagiotis D.; University of Bangor, University of Bangor, University of Chester (IEEE, 2015-08-12)
      Sketching designs has been shown to be a useful way of planning and considering alternative solutions. The use of lo-fidelity prototyping, especially paper-based sketching, can save time, money and converge to better solutions more quickly. However, this design process is often viewed to be too informal. Consequently users do not know how to manage their thoughts and ideas (to first think divergently, to then finally converge on a suitable solution). We present the Five Design Sheet (FdS) methodology. The methodology enables users to create information visualization interfaces through lo-fidelity methods. Users sketch and plan their ideas, helping them express different possibilities, think through these ideas to consider their potential effectiveness as solutions to the task (sheet 1); they create three principle designs (sheets 2,3 and 4); before converging on a final realization design that can then be implemented (sheet 5). In this article, we present (i) a review of the use of sketching as a planning method for visualization and the benefits of sketching, (ii) a detailed description of the Five Design Sheet (FdS) methodology, and (iii) an evaluation of the FdS using the System Usability Scale, along with a case-study of its use in industry and experience of its use in teaching.
    • SLAM-based dense surface reconstruction in monocular Minimally Invasive Surgery and its application to Augmented Reality

      Chen, Long; Tang, Wen; John, Nigel W.; Wan, Tao R.; Zhang, Jian Jun; Bournemouth University; University of Chester; University of Bradford (Elsevier, 2018-02-08)
      Background and Objective While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations. However, previous research attempts of using AR technology in monocular MIS surgical scenes have been mainly focused on the information overlay without addressing correct spatial calibrations, which could lead to incorrect localization of annotations and labels, and inaccurate depth cues and tumour measurements. In this paper, we present a novel intra-operative dense surface reconstruction framework that is capable of providing geometry information from only monocular MIS videos for geometry-aware AR applications such as site measurements and depth cues. We address a number of compelling issues in augmenting a scene for a monocular MIS environment, such as drifting and inaccurate planar mapping. Methods A state-of-the-art Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) algorithm used in robotics has been extended to deal with monocular MIS surgical scenes for reliable endoscopic camera tracking and salient point mapping. A robust global 3D surface reconstruction framework has been developed for building a dense surface using only unorganized sparse point clouds extracted from the SLAM. The 3D surface reconstruction framework employs the Moving Least Squares (MLS) smoothing algorithm and the Poisson surface reconstruction framework for real time processing of the point clouds data set. Finally, the 3D geometric information of the surgical scene allows better understanding and accurate placement AR augmentations based on a robust 3D calibration. Results We demonstrate the clinical relevance of our proposed system through two examples: a) measurement of the surface; b) depth cues in monocular endoscopy. The performance and accuracy evaluations of the proposed framework consist of two steps. First, we have created a computer-generated endoscopy simulation video to quantify the accuracy of the camera tracking by comparing the results of the video camera tracking with the recorded ground-truth camera trajectories. The accuracy of the surface reconstruction is assessed by evaluating the Root Mean Square Distance (RMSD) of surface vertices of the reconstructed mesh with that of the ground truth 3D models. An error of 1.24mm for the camera trajectories has been obtained and the RMSD for surface reconstruction is 2.54mm, which compare favourably with previous approaches. Second, in vivo laparoscopic videos are used to examine the quality of accurate AR based annotation and measurement, and the creation of depth cues. These results show the potential promise of our geometry-aware AR technology to be used in MIS surgical scenes. Conclusions The results show that the new framework is robust and accurate in dealing with challenging situations such as the rapid endoscopy camera movements in monocular MIS scenes. Both camera tracking and surface reconstruction based on a sparse point cloud are eff active and operated in real-time. This demonstrates the potential of our algorithm for accurate AR localization and depth augmentation with geometric cues and correct surface measurements in MIS with monocular endoscopes.