Now showing items 243-262 of 624

• #### High temperature performance of a piezoelectric micro cantilever for vibration energy harvesting

Energy harvesters withstanding high temperatures could provide potentially unlimited energy to sensor nodes placed in harsh environments, where manual maintenance is difficult and costly. Experimental results on a classical microcantilever show a 67% drop of the maximum power when the temperature is increased up to 160 °C. This decrease is investigated using a lumped-parameters model which takes into account variations in material parameters with temperature, damping increase and thermal stresses induced by mismatched thermal coefficients in a composite cantilever. The model allows a description of the maximum power evolution as a function of temperature and input acceleration. Simulation results further show that an increase in damping and the apparition of thermal stresses are contributing to the power drop at 59% and 13% respectively.
• #### High-Order Numerical Methods for Solving Time Fractional Partial Differential Equations

In this paper we introduce a new numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation. The time discretization is based on Diethelm’s method where the Hadamard finite-part integral is approximated by using the piecewise quadratic interpolation polynomials. The space discretization is based on the standard finite element method. The error estimates with the convergence order O(τ^(3−α) +h^2 ),0
• #### A high-order scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative and its application to solve the fractional diffusion wave equation

A new high-order finite difference scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative $\frac{1}{2} \big ( \, _{0}^{C}D^{\alpha}_{t}f(t_{k})+ \, _{0}^{C}D^{\alpha}_{t}f(t_{k-1}) \big ), k=1, 2, \dots, N,$ with the convergence order $O(\Delta t^{4-\alpha}), \, \alpha\in(1,2)$ is obtained when $f^{\prime \prime \prime} (t_{0})=0$, where $\Delta t$ denotes the time step size. Based on this scheme we introduce a finite difference method for solving fractional diffusion wave equation with the convergence order $O(\Delta t^{4-\alpha} + h^2)$, where $h$ denotes the space step size. Numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
• #### A higher order numerical method for time fractional partial differential equations with nonsmooth data

Gao et al. (2014) introduced a numerical scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative with the convergence rate $O(k^{3-\alpha}), 0< \alpha <1$ by directly approximating the integer-order derivative with some finite difference quotients in the definition of the Caputo fractional derivative, see also Lv and Xu (2016), where $k$ is the time step size. Under the assumption that the solution of the time fractional partial differential equation is sufficiently smooth, Lv and Xu (2016) proved by using energy method that the corresponding numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation has the convergence rate $O(k^{3-\alpha}), 0< \alpha <1$ uniformly with respect to the time variable $t$. However, in general the solution of the time fractional partial differential equation has low regularity and in this case the numerical method fails to have the convergence rate $O(k^{3- \alpha}), 0 < \alpha <1$ uniformly with respect to the time variable $t$. In this paper, we first obtain a similar approximation scheme to the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative with the convergence rate $O(k^{3- \alpha}), 0 < \alpha <1$ as in Gao \et \cite{gaosunzha} (2014) by approximating the Hadamard finite-part integral with the piecewise quadratic interpolation polynomials. Based on this scheme, we introduce a time discretization scheme to approximate the time fractional partial differential equation and show by using Laplace transform methods that the time discretization scheme has the convergence rate $O(k^{3- \alpha}), 0 < \alpha <1$ for any fixed $t_{n}>0$ for smooth and nonsmooth data in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Numerical examples are given to show that the theoretical results are consistent with the numerical results.
• #### Higher Order Numerical Methods for Fractional Order Differential Equations

This thesis explores higher order numerical methods for solving fractional differential equations.
• #### Higher order numerical methods for solving fractional differential equations

In this paper we introduce higher order numerical methods for solving fractional differential equations. We use two approaches to this problem. The first approach is based on a direct discretisation of the fractional differential operator: we obtain a numerical method for solving a linear fractional differential equation with order 0 < α < 1. The order of convergence of the numerical method is O(h^(3−α)). Our second approach is based on discretisation of the integral form of the fractional differential equation and we obtain a fractional Adams-type method for a nonlinear fractional differential equation of any order α >0. The order of convergence of the numerical method is O(h^3) for α ≥ 1 and O(h^(1+2α)) for 0 < α ≤ 1 for sufficiently smooth solutions. Numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
• #### Higher Order Time Stepping Methods for Subdiffusion Problems Based on Weighted and Shifted Grünwald–Letnikov Formulae with Nonsmooth Data

Two higher order time stepping methods for solving subdiffusion problems are studied in this paper. The Caputo time fractional derivatives are approximated by using the weighted and shifted Gr\"unwald-Letnikov formulae introduced in Tian et al. [Math. Comp. 84 (2015), pp. 2703-2727]. After correcting a few starting steps, the proposed time stepping methods have the optimal convergence orders $O(k^2)$ and $O(k^3)$, respectively for any fixed time $t$ for both smooth and nonsmooth data. The error estimates are proved by directly bounding the approximation errors of the kernel functions. Moreover, we also present briefly the applicabilities of our time stepping schemes to various other fractional evolution equations. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the proven theoretical results.
• #### High‐order ADI orthogonal spline collocation method for a new 2D fractional integro‐differential problem

We use the generalized L1 approximation for the Caputo fractional deriva-tive, the second-order fractional quadrature rule approximation for the inte-gral term, and a classical Crank-Nicolson alternating direction implicit (ADI)scheme for the time discretization of a new two-dimensional (2D) fractionalintegro-differential equation, in combination with a space discretization by anarbitrary-order orthogonal spline collocation (OSC) method. The stability of aCrank-Nicolson ADI OSC scheme is rigourously established, and error estimateis also derived. Finally, some numerical tests are given
• #### How do numerical methods perform for delay differential equations undergoing a Hopf bifurcation?

This paper discusses the numerical solution of delay differential equations undergoing a Hopf birufication. Three distinct and complementary approaches to the analysis are presented.
• #### How effective is Ant Colony Optimisation at Robot Path Planning

This project involves investigation of the problem robot path planning using ant colony optimisation heuristics to construct the quickest path from the starting point to the end. The project has developed a simulation that successfully simulates as well as demonstrates visually through a graphical user interface, robot path planning using ant colony optimisation. The simulation shows an ability to traverse an unknown environment from a start point to an end and successfully construct a route for others to follow both when the terrain is dynamic and static
• #### HOx cycling during the Cyprus Photochemistry Experiment

Abstract from attached
• #### Hybrid Heat Pump for Micro Heat Network

Achieving nearly zero carbon heating continues to be identified by UK government analysis as an important feature of any lowest cost pathway to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Heat currently accounts for 48% of UK energy consumption and approximately one third of UK’s greenhouse gas emissions. Heat Networks are being promoted by UK investment policies as one means of supporting hybrid heat pump based solutions. To this effect the RISE (Renewable Integrated and Sustainable Electric) heating system project is investigating how an all-electric heating sourceshybrid configuration could play a key role in long-term decarbonisation of heat. For the purposes of this study, hybrid systems are defined as systems combining the technologies of an electric driven air source heat pump, electric powered thermal storage, a thermal vessel and micro-heat network as an integrated system. This hybrid strategy allows for the system to store up energy during periods of low electricity demand from the national grid, turning it into a dynamic supply of low cost heat which is utilized only when required. Currently a prototype of such a system is being tested in a modern house integrated with advanced controls and sensors. This paper presents the virtual performance analysis of the system and its design for a micro heat network with multiple dwelling units. The results show that the RISE system is controllable and can reduce carbon emissions whilst being competitive in running costs with a conventional gas boiler heating system.
• #### Identification of the initial function for discretized delay differential equations

In the present work, we analyze a discrete analogue for the problem of the identification of the initial function for a delay differential equation (DDE) discussed by Baker and Parmuzin in 2004. The basic problem consists of finding an initial function that gives rise to a solution of a discretized DDE, which is a close fit to observed data.
• #### Identification of the initial function for nonlinear delay differential equations

We consider a 'data assimilation problem' for nonlinear delay differential equations. Our problem is to find an initial function that gives rise to a solution of a given nonlinear delay differential equation, which is a close fit to observed data. A role for adjoint equations and fundamental solutions in the nonlinear case is established. A 'pseudo-Newton' method is presented. Our results extend those given by the authors in [(C. T. H. Baker and E. I. Parmuzin, Identification of the initial function for delay differential equation: Part I: The continuous problem & an integral equation analysis. NA Report No. 431, MCCM, Manchester, England, 2004.), (C. T. H. Baker and E. I. Parmuzin, Analysis via integral equations of an identification problem for delay differential equations. J. Int. Equations Appl. (2004) 16, 111–135.)] for the case of linear delay differential equations.
• #### Identifying Criegee intermediates as potential oxidants in the troposphere

Criegee intermediates (CI) are formed during the ozonolysis of unsaturated compounds and have been intensively studied in the last few years due to their possible role as oxidants in the troposphere. Stabilised CI (SCI) are now known to react very rapidly, k(298 K) = 10-12 to 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, with a large number of trace gases (SO2, NO2, organic acids, water dimers). Still, it remains challenging to assess their effective oxidative capacity, as CI chemistry is complex, spans a large range of rate coefficients for different SCI conformers reacting with water dimers and trace gases, and in addition no reliable measurement technique able to detect ambient SCI concentrations is currently available. In this study, we examine the extensive dataset from the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 and the HOPE 2012 field campaigns, aided by literature data, to estimate the abundance of SCI in the lower troposphere. The budget of SCI is analyzed using four different approaches: 1) based on an observed yet unexplained H2SO4 production; 2) from the measured concentrations of unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOC); 3) from OH reactivity measurements; 4) from the unexplained production rate of OH. A SCI concentration range between 5 x 103 and 2 x 106 molecule cm-3 is calculated for the two environments. The central weighted estimate of the SCI concentration over the boreal forest of ~ 5 x 104 molecules cm-3 implies a significant impact on the conversion of SO2 into H2SO4. In addition, we present measurements obtained using our inlet pre-injector laser-induced fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (IPI-LIF-FAGE) for the above-mentioned campaigns. A recent laboratory study performed with the same instrumental setup showed that the IPI-LIF-FAGE system is sensitive to the detection of the OH formed from unimolecular decomposition of SCI. Building on these measurements, the background OH (OHbg) measured during the two field campaigns is investigated in comparison with many other trace gases to assess if the observations in controlled conditions are transferable to ambient conditions.
• #### Identifying Criegee intermediates as potential oxidants in the troposphere

We analysed the extensive dataset from the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 and the HOPE 2012 field campaigns in the boreal forest and rural environments of Finland and Germany, respectively, and estimated the abundance of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCI) in the lower troposphere. Based on laboratory tests, we propose that the background OH signal observed in our IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument during the afore-mentioned campaigns is caused at least partially by SCI. This hypothesis is based on observed correlations with temperature and with concentrations of unsaturated volatile organic compounds and ozone. The background OH concentration also complements the previously underestimated production rate of sulfuric acid and is consistent with its scavenging through the addition of sulphur dioxide. A central estimate of the SCI concentration of ~ 5 × 104 molecules cm−3 (with an order of magnitude uncertainty) is calculated for the two environments. This implies a very low ambient concentration of SCI, though, over the boreal forest, significant for the conversion of SO2 into H2SO4. The large uncertainties in these calculations, owing to the many unknowns in the chemistry of Criegee intermediates, emphasise the need to better understand these processes and their potential effect on the self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere.
• #### Imaging of gas–liquid annular flows for underbalanced drilling using electrical resistance tomography

The underbalanced drilling technique, which is also known as managed-pressure drilling, is playing an important role in oil and gas sector, as it reduces common conventional drilling problems such as minimal drilling rates and formation damage, differential sticking and lost circulation. Flow regime monitoring is one of the key topics in annular multiphase flow research, particularly for underbalanced drilling technique. Prediction of the prevailing flow regime in an annulus is of particular importance in the design and installation of underbalanced drilling facilities. Especially, for establishing a suitable pressure drop model based on the characteristics of the active flow regime. The methods of flow regime prediction (or visualisation) in an annulus that are currently in use are very limited, this is evidently due to poor accuracy or they are simply not applicable to underbalanced drilling operation in practice. Therefore, this paper presents a monitoring method, in which Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is used to rapidly image the prevailing flow regime in an annulus with a metallic inner pipe. Experiments were carried out using an air–waterflow loop with a test section 50 mm diameter flow pipe. The two-phase air–waterflow regimes are visualised in the upward vertical annulus with a radius ratio (r/R) 0.4.This paper highlights the visualisation results of only three flow regimes, namely bubble flow, transitional bubble-slug flow and slug flow. The flow regimes are visualised through axial images stacked from50 mm diameter-pixels of 2D tomograms reconstructed with the Conjugate Gradient Method (SCG). Gas volume fraction profiles within the annular flow channel are also illustrated. The profiles are extracted using the Modified Sensitivity coefficient Back-Projection (MSBP) method with a sensitivity matrix generated from a realistic phantom in the finite element method software. The results are compared with visual observations (e.g. photographs) of the active flow regime at the time of ERT measurements.
• #### Impact Damage Characteristics of Carbon Fibre Metal Laminates: Experiments and Simulation

In this work, the impact response of carbon fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was experimentally and numerically studied with an improved design of the fibre composite lay-up for optimal mechanical properties and damage resistance. Two different stacking sequences (Carall 3–3/2–0.5 and Carall 5–3/2–0.5) were designed and characterised. Damage at relatively low energy impact energies (≤30 J) was investigated using Ultrasonic C-scanning and X–ray Computed Tomography (X-RCT). A 3D finite element model was developed to simulate the impact induced damage in both metal and composite layers using Abaqus/Explicit. Cohesive zone elements were introduced to capture delamination occurring between carbon fibre/epoxy plies and debonding at the interfaces between aluminium and the composite layers. Carall 5–3/2–0.5 was found to absorb more energy elastically, which indicates better resistance to damage. A good agreement is obtained between the numerically predicted results and experimental measurements in terms of force and absorbed energy during impact where the damage modes such as delamination was well simulated when compared to non-destructive techniques (NDT).
• #### Impact of Functionalized Polystyrenes as the Electron Injection Layer on Gold and Aluminum Surfaces: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study

At metal/organic interfaces, insertion of an organic monolayer can significantly modify the surface properties of the substrate, especially in terms of charge injection across the interface. Here, we study the formation of an insulating monolayer of morpholine or amine-functionalized polystyrene on Al(111) and Au(111) surfaces and its impact on surface work-function and charge injection. First principles calculations based on density functional theory have been carried out and point to a significant decrease of the work-function for the modified metal surfaces, in very good agreement with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements performed on the Au(111) surface. In addition, a bilayer cathode consisting of a thin film of high work-function metal, such as Al and Au, and a layer of amine-functionalized polystyrene is also fabricated and tested in organic light-emitting diodes. Such bilayer structures exhibit substantially enhanced efficiency when compared to controls without the functionalized polymers. Our combined theoretical and experimental investigation gives insight into how a thin layer of a commodity polymer can be used to transform rather high work-function metals into high-performance cathodes providing efficient electron injection.
• #### Impact of the operating conditions and position of exhaust gas recirculation on the performance of a micro gas turbine

Gas turbines are a viable and secure option both economically and environmentally for power and heat generation. The process simulation of the micro gas turbine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and its impact on performance is evaluated. This study is further extended to evaluate the effect of the operating conditions and position of the EGR on the performance of the micro gas turbine. The performance analysis for different configurations of the EGR cycle, as well as flue gas condensation temperature, results in the optimized position of EGR at the compressor inlet with partial condensation resulting in the CO2 enhancement to 3.7 mol%.