Now showing items 183-202 of 672

• #### Enhancement in Interfacial Adhesion of Ti/Polyetheretherketone by Electrophoretic Deposition of Graphene Oxide

This article discusses about the significance of graphene oxide (GO) deposition on the surface of a titanium plate by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method to improve the adhesive strength of Ti/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interfacial adhesive. Firstly, the anodic EPD method was applied to a water dispersion solution of GO, and then the morphology and the properties of titanium plate surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements before and after GO deposition. Furthermore, the changes in the properties of GO after heating at 390°C were characterized by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. According to the results of single lap tensile shear test, the adhesion strength of Ti/PEEK interface after the anodization and deposition of GO was 34.94 MPa, an increase of 29.2% compared with 27.04 MPa of sample with only anodization. Also, the adhesion strengths were 58.1 and 76.5% higher compared with the samples of only GO deposited (22.1 MPa) and pure titanium (19.8 MPa), respectively.
• #### Enhancement of Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Beta Titanium Alloy by Laser Technology

The relatively high elastic modulus coupled with the presence of toxic vanadium (V) in Ti6Al4V alloy has long been a concern in orthopaedic applications. To solve the problem, a variety of non-toxic and low modulus beta-titanium (beta-Ti) alloys have been developed. Among the beta-Ti alloy family, the quaternary Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta (TZNT) alloys have received the highest attention as a promising replacement for Ti6Al4V due to their lower elastic modulus and outstanding long term stability against corrosion in biological environments. However, the inferior wear resistance of TNZT is still a problem that must be resolved before commercialising in the orthopaedic market. In this work, a newly-developed laser surface treatment technique was employed to improve the surface properties of Ti-35.3Nb-7.3Zr-5.7Ta alloy. The surface microstructure and composition of the laser-treated TNZT surface were examined by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wear and corrosion resistance were evaluated by pin-on-plate sliding test and anodic polarisation test in Hanks’ solution. The experimental results were compared with the untreated (or base) TNZT material. The research findings showed that the laser surface treatment technique reported in this work can effectively improve the wear and corrosion resistance of TNZT. The enhancement of such surface properties was due to the formation of a smooth and hard layer on the substrate surface. The laser-formed layer was metallurgically bonded to the substrate, and had no concern of coating delamination or peel-off.
• #### Enhancing interfacial strength between AA5083 and cryogenic adhesive via anodic oxidation and silanization

AA5083 aluminum alloy was treated in turn with phosphoric-sulfuric acid anodic oxidation and then with silanization using the silane coupling agent KH560. A chemical bond (Si-O-Al) was created between the aluminum alloy and silane film, and a dehydration condensation reaction occurred between the silane film and cryogenic adhesive to enhance the bonding strength between the aluminum alloy and the cryogenic adhesive. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to explore the interfacial characteristics of the aluminum alloy both with and without the applied treatment. Furthermore, single lap shear tests and durability tests were performed to assess the adhesive strength of the interface between the aluminum alloy and the cryogenic adhesive at low temperature. The most improved interfacial strength using the anodic oxidation and the silanization treatments reached 33.96 MPa at −60 °C. The interface strength with the same treatments after the durability test was 25.4 MPa.
• #### Enhancing the antibacterial performance of orthopaedic implant materials by fibre laser surface engineering

Implant failure caused by bacterial infection is extremely difficult to treat and usually requires the removal of the infected components. Despite the severe consequence of bacterial infection, research into bacterial infection of orthopaedic implants is still at an early stage compared to the effort on enhancing osseointegration, wear and corrosion resistance of implant materials. In this study, the effects of laser surface treatment on enhancing the antibacterial properties of commercially pure (CP) Ti (Grade 2), Ti6Al4V (Grade 5) and CoCrMo alloy implant materials were studied and compared for the first time. Laser surface treatment was performed by a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with a near-infrared wavelength of 1064 nm in a nitrogen-containing environment. Staphylococcus aureus, commonly implicated in infection associated with orthopaedic implants, was used to investigate the antibacterial properties of the laser-treated surfaces. The surface roughness and topography of the laser-treated materials were analysed by a 2D roughness testing and by AFM. The surface morphologies before and after 24 h of bacterial cell culture were captured by SEM, and bacterial viability was determined using live/dead staining. Surface chemistry was analysed by XPS and surface wettability was measured using the sessile drop method. The findings of this study indicated that the laser-treated CP Ti and Ti6Al4V surfaces exhibited a noticeable reduction in bacterial adhesion and possessed a bactericidal effect. Such properties were attributable to the combined effects of reduced hydrophobicity, thicker and stable oxide films and presence of laser-induced nano-features. No similar antibacterial effect was observed in the laser-treated CoCrMo.
• #### Entropy-driven cell decision-making predicts "fluid-to-solid" transition in multicellular systems

Cellular decision making allows cells to assume functionally different phenotypes in response to microenvironmental cues, with or without genetic change. It is an open question, how individual cell decisions influence the dynamics at the tissue level. Here, we study spatio-temporal pattern formation in a population of cells exhibiting phenotypic plasticity, which is a paradigm of cell decision making. We focus on the migration/resting and the migration/proliferation plasticity which underly the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the go or grow dichotomy. We assume that cells change their phenotype in order to minimize their microenvironmental entropy following the LEUP (Least microEnvironmental Uncertainty Principle) hypothesis. In turn, we study the impact of the LEUP-driven migration/resting and migration/proliferation plasticity on the corresponding multicellular spatiotemporal dynamics with a stochastic cell-based mathematical model for the spatio-temporal dynamics of the cell phenotypes. In the case of the go or rest plasticity, a corresponding mean-field approximation allows to identify a bistable switching mechanism between a diffusive (fluid) and an epithelial (solid) tissue phase which depends on the sensitivity of the phenotypes to the environment. For the go or grow plasticity, we show the possibility of Turing pattern formation for the "solid" tissue phase and its relation with the parameters of the LEUP-driven cell decisions.
• #### Enumerating 3-generated axial algebras of Monster type

An axial algebra is a commutative non-associative algebra generated by axes, that is, primitive, semisimple idempotents whose eigenvectors multiply according to a certain fusion law. The Griess algebra, whose automorphism group is the Monster, is an example of an axial algebra. We say an axial algebra is of Monster type if it has the same fusion law as the Griess algebra. The 2-generated axial algebras of Monster type, called Norton-Sakuma algebras, have been fully classified and are one of nine isomorphism types. In this paper, we enumerate a subclass of 3-generated axial algebras of Monster type in terms of their groups and shapes. It turns out that the vast majority of the possible shapes for such algebras collapse; that is they do not lead to non-trivial examples. This is in sharp contrast to previous thinking. Accordingly, we develop a method of minimal forbidden configurations, to allow us to efficiently recognise and eliminate collapsing shapes.
• #### Error estimates of high-order numerical methods for solving time fractional partial differential equations

Error estimates of some high-order numerical methods for solving time fractional partial differential equations are studied in this paper. We first provide the detailed error estimate of a high-order numerical method proposed recently by Li et al. \cite{liwudin} for solving time fractional partial differential equation. We prove that this method has the convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha})$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1)$ when the first and second derivatives of the solution are vanish at $t=0$, where $\tau$ is the time step size and $\alpha$ is the fractional order in the Caputo sense. We then introduce a new time discretization method for solving time fractional partial differential equations, which has no requirements for the initial values as imposed in Li et al. \cite{liwudin}. We show that this new method also has the convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha})$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. The proofs of the error estimates are based on the energy method developed recently by Lv and Xu \cite{lvxu}. We also consider the space discretization by using the finite element method. Error estimates with convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha} + h^2)$ are proved in the fully discrete case, where $h$ is the space step size. Numerical examples in both one- and two-dimensional cases are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
• #### Error estimates of a continuous Galerkin time stepping method for subdiffusion problem

A continuous Galerkin time stepping method is introduced and analyzed for subdiffusion problem in an abstract setting. The approximate solution will be sought as a continuous piecewise linear function in time $t$ and the test space is based on the discontinuous piecewise constant functions. We prove that the proposed time stepping method has the convergence order $O(\tau^{1+ \alpha}), \, \alpha \in (0, 1)$ for general sectorial elliptic operators for nonsmooth data by using the Laplace transform method, where $\tau$ is the time step size. This convergence order is higher than the convergence orders of the popular convolution quadrature methods (e.g., Lubich's convolution methods) and L-type methods (e.g., L1 method), which have only $O(\tau)$ convergence for the nonsmooth data. Numerical examples are given to verify the robustness of the time discretization schemes with respect to data regularity.
• #### Error estimates of a high order numerical method for solving linear fractional differential equations

In this paper, we first introduce an alternative proof of the error estimates of the numerical methods for solving linear fractional differential equations proposed in Diethelm [6] where a first-degree compound quadrature formula was used to approximate the Hadamard finite-part integral and the convergence order of the proposed numerical method is O(∆t 2−α ), 0 < α < 1, where α is the order of the fractional derivative and ∆t is the step size. We then use the similar idea to prove the error estimates of a high order numerical method for solving linear fractional differential equations proposed in Yan et al. [37], where a second-degree compound quadrature formula was used to approximate the Hadamard finite-part integral and we show that the convergence order of the numerical method is O(∆t 3−α ), 0 < α < 1. The numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
• #### Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate

We present an estimation of the uptake coefficient (γ) and yield of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) (f) for the heterogeneous processing of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) using simultaneous measurements of particle and trace gas composition at a semi-rural, non-coastal, mountain site in the summer of 2011. The yield of ClNO2 varied between (0.035 ± 0.027) and (1.38 ± 0.60) with a campaign average of (0.49 ± 0.35). The large variability in f reflects the highly variable chloride content of particles at the site. Uptake coefficients were also highly variable with minimum, maximum and average γ values of 0.004, 0.11 and 0.028 ± 0.029, respectively, with no significant correlation with particle composition, but a weak dependence on relative humidity. The uptake coefficients obtained are compared to existing parameterizations based on laboratory datasets and with other values obtained by analysis of field data.
• #### Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate

We present an estimation of the uptake coefficient (γ) and yield of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) (f) for the heterogeneous processing of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) using simultaneous measurements of particle and trace gas composition at a semi-rural, non-coastal, mountain site in the summer of 2011. The yield of ClNO2 varied between (0.035 ± 0.027) and (1.38 ± 0.60) with a campaign average of (0.49 ± 0.35). The large variability in f reflects the highly variable chloride content of particles at the site. Uptake coefficients were also highly variable with minimum, maximum and average γ values of 0.004, 0.11 and 0.028 ± 0.029, respectively, with no significant correlation with particle composition, but a weak dependence on relative humidity. The uptake coefficients obtained are compared to existing parameterisations based on laboratory datasets and with other values obtained by analysis of field data.
• #### Estimating the atmospheric concentration of Criegee intermediates and their possible interference in a FAGE-LIF instrument

We analysed the extensive dataset from the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 and the HOPE 2012 field campaigns in the boreal forest and rural environments of Finland and Germany, respectively, and estimated the abundance of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCI) in the lower troposphere. Based on laboratory tests, we propose that the background OH signal observed in our IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument during the afore-mentioned campaigns is caused at least partially by SCI. This hypothesis is based on observed correlations with temperature and with concentrations of unsaturated volatile organic compounds and ozone. Just like SCI, the background OH concentration can be removed through the addition of sulfur dioxide. SCI also adds to the previously underestimated production rate of sulfuric acid. An average estimate of the SCI concentration of ~ 5.0 x 104 molecules cm-3 (with an order of magnitude uncertainty) is calculated for the two environments. This implies a very low ambient concentration of SCI, though, over the boreal forest, significant for the conversion of SO2 into H2SO4. The large uncertainties in these calculations, owing to the many unknowns in the chemistry of Criegee intermediates, emphasise the need to better understand these processes and their potential effect on the self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere.
• #### Evaluating current practice and proposing a system to enhance knowledge assets within a small software development unit

Knowledge management and knowledge transfer within organisations challenge continuity and resilience in the face of changing environments. While issues are principally addressed within large organisations, there is scope to evaluate how knowledge assets are managed within small and medium enterprises and to consider how the process might be enhanced. The research reported here aimed to evaluate practice within an evolving software development unit to understand how knowledge has been acquired and utilised to further organisational development. In-depth interviews were carried out with members of the unit to elicit an understanding of individual and collective learning. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed key changes in thinking and practice as well as insight into the development of individuals' contextual knowledge and tacit understanding. This analysis led to the proposal of a bespoke, lightweight web-based system to support knowledge capture and organisational learning. This work is still in progress but it is anticipated that the results will provide a potentially novel and beneficial method for enhancing knowledge assets in small enterprises and consolidating valuable, and potentially scarce, expertise.
• #### Evaluating LevelEd AR: An Indoor Modelling Application for Serious Games Level Design

We developed an application that makes indoor modelling accessible by utilizing consumer grade technology in the form of Apple’s ARKit and a smartphone to assist with serious games level design. We compared our system to that of a tape measure and a system based on an infra-red depth sensor and application. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of each system over four different measuring tasks of increasing complexity. Our results suggest that our application is more accurate than the depth sensor system and as accurate and more time efficient as the tape measure over several tasks. Participants also showed a preference to our LevelEd AR application over the depth sensor system regarding usability.
• #### Evaluation of a Micro Gas Turbine With Post-Combustion CO2 Capture for Exhaust Gas Recirculation Potential With Two Experimentally Validated Models

The growing global energy demand is facing concerns raised by increasing greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly CO2. Despite substantial progress in the field of renewable energy in recent years, quick balancing responses and back-up services are still necessary to maintain the grid load and stability, due to increased penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. In a scenario of natural gas availability, gas turbine power may be a substitute for back-up/balancing load. Rapid start-up and shut down, high ramp rate, and low emissions and maintenance have been achieved in commercial gas turbine cycles. This industry still needs innovative cycle configurations, e.g. exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), to achieve higher system performance and lower emissions in the current competitive power generation market. Together with reduced NOx emissions, EGR cycle provides an exhaust gas with higher CO2 concentration compared to the simple gas turbine/combined cycle, favorable for post-combustion carbon capture. This paper presents an evaluation of EGR potential for improved gas turbine cycle performance and integration with a post-combustion CO2 capture process. It also highlights features of two software tools with different capabilities for performance analysis of gas turbine cycles, integrated with post-combustion capture. The study is based on a combined heat and power micro gas turbine (MGT), Turbec T100, of 100kWe output. Detailed models for the baseline MGT and amine capture plant were developed in two software tools, IPSEpro and Aspen Hysys. These models were validated against experimental work conducted at the UK PACT National Core Facilities. Characteristics maps for the compressor and the turbine were used for the MGT modeling. The performance indicators of systems with and without EGR, and when varying the EGR ratio and ambient temperature, were calculated and are presented in this paper.
• #### Evaluation of EIT Systems and Algorithms for Handling Full Void Fraction Range in Two-phase Flow Measurement

In the aqueous-based two-phase flow, if the void fraction of dispersed phase exceeds 0.25, the conventional Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) produces a considerable error due to the linear approximation of Sensitivity Back-projection method, which limits the EIT’s wider application in process industry. In this paper, an EIT sensing system which is able to handle full void fraction range in two-phase flow is reported. This EIT system employs a voltage source, conducts true mutual impedance measurement and reconstructs online image with the Modified Sensitivity Back-Projection (MSBP) algorithm. The capability of Maxwell relationship to convey full void fraction is investigated. The limitation of linear sensitivity back-projection method is analysed. The modified sensitivity back-projection algorithm is used to derive relative conductivity change in the evaluation. Series of static and dynamic experiments demonstrate the mean void fraction obtained using this EIT system has a good agreement with reference void fractions over the range from 0 to 1, which would significantly extend the applications of EIT in process measurement.
• #### Evaluation of the Performance and Economic Viability of a Novel Low Temperature Carbon Capture Process

A novel Advanced Cryogenic Carbon Capture (A3C) process is being developed due to its potential to achieve high CO2 capture efficiencies using low cost but high intensity heat transfer to deliver a much reduced energy consumption and process equipment size. These characteristics, along with the absence of process chemicals, offer the potential for application across a range of sectors. This work presents a techno-economic evaluation for applications ranging from 3% to 30% CO2 content.
• #### Evaluation of the performance and economic viability of a novel low temperature carbon capture process

A novel Advanced Cryogenic Carbon Capture (A3C) process is being developed using low cost but high intensity heat transfer to achieve high CO2 capture efficiencies with a much reduced energy consumption and process equipment size. These characteristics, along with the purity of CO2 product and absence of process chemicals, offer the potential for application across a range of sectors. This work presents a techno-economic evaluation for applications ranging from 3% to 35%vol. CO2 content. The A3C process is evaluated against an amine-based CO2 capture process for three applications; an oil-fired boiler, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and a biogas upgrading plant. The A3C process has shown a modest life cost advantage over the mature MEA technology for the larger selected applications, and substantially lower costs in the smaller biogas application. Enhanced energy recovery and optimization offer significant opportunities for further reductions in cost.
• #### Evaporation of liquid nitrogen droplets in superheated immiscible liquids

Liquid nitrogen or other cryogenic liquids have the potential to replace or augment current energy sources in cooling and power applications. This can be done by the rapid evaporation and expansion processes that occur when liquid nitrogen is injected into hotter fluids in mechanical expander systems. In this study, the evaporation process of single liquid nitrogen droplets when submerged into n-propanol, methanol, n-hexane, and n-pentane maintained at 294 K has been investigated experimentally and numerically. The evaporation process is quantified by tracking the growth rate of the resulting nitrogen vapour bubble that has an interface with the bulk liquid. The experimental data suggest that the bubble volume growth is proportional to the time and the bubble growth rate is mainly determined by the initial droplet size. A comparison between the four different bulk liquids indicates that the evaporation rate in n-pentane is the highest, possibly due to its low surface tension. A scaling law based on the pure diffusion-controlled evaporation of droplet in open air environment has been successfully implemented to scale the experimental data. The deviation between the scaling law predictions and the experimental data for 2-propanol, methanol and n-hexane vary between 4% and 30% and the deviation for n-pentane was between 24% and 65%. The more detailed bubble growth rates have been modelled by a heuristic one-dimensional, spherically symmetric quasi-steady-state confined model, which can predict the growth trend well but consistently underestimate the growth rate. A fixed effective thermal conductivity is then introduced to account for the complex dynamics of the droplet inside the bubble and the subsequent convective processes in the surrounding vapour, which leads to a satisfactory quantitative prediction of the growth rate.
• #### Evidence for the Perception of Time Distortion During Episodes of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare perceptual disorder associated with sensation of one or several visual and/or auditory perceptual distortions including size of body parts, size of external objects, or passage of time (either speeding up or slowing down). Cause for AIWS is yet to be widely agreed, and the implications are widely varied. One of the research difficulties is the brevity of each episode, typically not exceeding few tens of minutes. This article presents a male adult in late 20s who has apparently experienced AIWS episodes since childhood, and infection has been ruled out. Reaction speed tests were conducted during and after AIWS episodes, across a span of 13 months. Statistically significant evidence is present for delayed response time during AIWS episodes when the patient claims to experience a sensation of time distortion: where events seem to move faster and people appear to speak quicker.