• 2^n Bordered Constructions of Self-Dual codes from Group Rings

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy (Elsevier, 2020-08-04)
      Self-dual codes, which are codes that are equal to their orthogonal, are a widely studied family of codes. Various techniques involving circulant matrices and matrices from group rings have been used to construct such codes. Moreover, families of rings have been used, together with a Gray map, to construct binary self-dual codes. In this paper, we introduce a new bordered construction over group rings for self-dual codes by combining many of the previously used techniques. The purpose of this is to construct self-dual codes that were missed using classical construction techniques by constructing self-dual codes with different automorphism groups. We apply the technique to codes over finite commutative Frobenius rings of characteristic 2 and several group rings and use these to construct interesting binary self-dual codes. In particular, we construct some extremal self-dual codes length 64 and 68, constructing 30 new extremal self-dual codes of length 68.
    • 2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) Explored as a Potential Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Khan, Aamar F.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Smith, Graham C.; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (Khan, Brownson, Banks); University of Chester (Smith); Central South University Changsha (Ji) (Wiley, 2016-09-28)
      Crystalline 2D hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) is explored as a potential electrocatalyst towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) when electrically wired via a drop-casting approach upon a range of carbon based electrode surfaces; namely, glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD), and screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPEs). We consider the ORR in acidic conditions and critically evaluate the performance of unmodified and 2D-hBN modified electrodes, implementing coverage studies (commonly neglected in the literature) in order to ascertain the true impact of this novel nanomaterial. The behaviour of 2D-hBN towards the ORR is shown to be highly dependent upon both the underlying carbon substrate and the coverage/mass utilised. 2D-hBN modified SPEs are found to exhibit the most beneficial response towards the ORR, reducing the peak potential by ca. 0.28 V when compared to an unmodified/bare SPE. Such improvements at this supporting substrate are inferred due to favourable 2D-hBN interaction with ridged surfaces exposing a high proportion of edge regions/sites, where conversely, we show that relatively smooth substrate surfaces (such as GC) are less conducive towards successful 2D-hBN immobilisation. In this paper, we reveal for the first time (in the specific case of using a rough supporting substrate) that 2D-hBN gives rise to beneficial electrochemical behaviour towards the ORR. Unfortunately, this material is not considered an electrocatalyst for use within fuel cells given that the estimated number of electrons transferred during the ORR ranges between 1.90–2.45 for different coverages, indicating that the ORR at 2D-hBN predominantly produces hydrogen peroxide. 2D-hBN does however have potential and should be explored further by those designing, fabricating and consequently electrochemically testing modified electrocatalysts towards the ORR.
    • 2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) Explored for the Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine

      Khan, Aamar F.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Randviir, Edward P.; Smith, Graham C.; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (Khan, Brownson, Randviir, Banks); University of Chester (Smith) (American Chemical Society, 2016-09-23)
      Crystalline 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) nanosheets are explored as a potential electrocatalyst toward the electroanalytical sensing of dopamine (DA). The 2D-hBN nanosheets are electrically wired via a drop-casting modi fication process onto a range of commercially available carbon supporting electrodes, including glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD), and screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPEs). 2D-hBN has not previously been explored toward the electrochemical detection/electrochemical sensing of DA. We critically evaluate the potential electrocatalytic performance of 2D-hBN modified electrodes, the effect of supporting carbon electrode platforms, and the effect of “mass coverage” (which is commonly neglected in the 2D material literature) toward the detection of DA. The response of 2D-hBN modified electrodes is found to be largely dependent upon the interaction between 2D-hBN and the underlying supporting electrode material. For example, in the case of SPEs, modification with 2D-hBN (324 ng) improves the electrochemical response, decreasing the electrochemical oxidation potential of DA by ∼ 90 mV compared to an unmodified SPE. Conversely, modification of a GC electrode with 2D-hBN (324 ng) resulted in an increased oxidation potential of DA by ∼ 80 mV when compared to the unmodified electrode. We explore the underlying mechanisms of the aforementioned examples and infer that electrode surface interactions and roughness factors are critical considerations. 2D-hBN is utilized toward the sensing of DA in the presence of the common interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). 2D-hBN is found to be an effective electrocatalyst in the simultaneous detection of DA and UA at both pH 5.0 and 7.4. The peak separations/resolution between DA and UA increases by ∼ 70 and 50 mV (at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively, when utilizing 108 ng of 2D-hBN) compared to unmodified SPEs, with a particularly favorable response evident in pH 5.0, giving rise to a significant increase in the peak current of DA. The limit of detection (3σ) is found to correspond to 0.65 μM for DA in the presence of UA. However, it is not possible to deconvolute the simultaneous detection of DA and AA. The observed electrocatalytic effect at 2D-hBN has not previously been reported in the literature when supported upon carbon or any other electrode. We provide valuable insights into the modifier −substrate interactions of this material, essential for those designing, fabricating, and consequently performing electrochemical experiments utilizing 2D-hBN and related 2D materials.
    • 2D Molybdenum Disulphide (2D-MoS2) Modified Electrodes Explored Towards the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

      Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (Rowley-Neale, Fearn, Brownson, Banks); University of Chester (Smith); Central South University Changsha (Ji) (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016-07-11)
      Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2)have proven to be an effective lectro- catalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reac-tions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based elec-trodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Conse-quently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the under-lying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca.+0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm−2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR
    • 2D nanosheet molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the hydrogen evolution reaction

      Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Satwell, David A. G.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.; Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitain University, Manchester M 5GD, UK (Rowley-Neale, Brownson, Satwell, Kelly & Banks); Department of Natural Sciences, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Chester CH2 4NU (Smith) (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015-10-06)
      We explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as an electro-catalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). Using four commonly employed commercially available carbon based electrode support materials, namely edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG), glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD) and screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPE), we critically evaluate the reported electro-catalytic performance of unmodified and MoS2 modified electrodes towards the HER. Surprisingly, current literature focuses almost exclusively on the use of GC as an underling support electrode upon which HER materials are immobilised. 2D MoS2 nanosheet modified electrodes are found to exhibit a coverage dependant electrocatalytic effect towards the HER. Modification of the supporting electrode surface with an optimal mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets results in a lowering of the HER onset potential by ca. 0.33, 0.57, 0.29 and 0.31 V at EPPG, GC, SPE and BDD electrodes compared to their unmodified counterparts respectively. The lowering of the HER onset potential is associated with each supporting electrodes individual electron transfer kinetics/properties. The effect of MoS2 coverage is also explored. We reveal that its ability to catalyse the HER is dependent on the mass deposited until a critical mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets is achieved, after which its electrocatalytic benefits and/or surface stability curtail. The active surface site density and turn over frequency for the 2D MoS2 nanosheets is determined, characterised and found to be dependent on both the coverage of 2D MoS2 nanosheets and the underlying/supporting substrate. This work is essential for those designing, fabricating and consequently electrochemically testing 2D nanosheet materials for the HER.
    • 2D‐Hexagonal Boron Nitride Screen‐Printed Bulk‐Modified Electrochemical Platforms Explored towards Oxygen Reduction Reactions

      Khan, Aamar; Ferrari, Alejandro Garcia-Miranda; Hughes, Jack; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E.; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester (MDPI, 2022-04-26)
      A low‐cost, scalable and reproducible approach for the mass production of screen‐printed electrode (SPE) platforms that have varying percentage mass incorporations of 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D‐hBN) (2D‐hBN/SPEs) is demonstrated herein. These novel 2D‐hBN/SPEs are explored as a potential metal‐free electrocatalysts towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) within acidic media where their performance is evaluated. A 5% mass incorporation of 2D‐hBN into the SPEs resulted in the most beneficial ORR catalysis, reducing the ORR onset potential by ca. 200 mV in comparison to bare/unmodified SPEs. Furthermore, an increase in the achievable current of 83% is also exhibited upon the utilisation of a 2D‐hBN/SPE in comparison to its unmodified equivalent. The screen‐printed fabrication approach replaces the less‐reproducible and time‐consuming dropcasting technique of 2D‐hBN and provides an alternative approach for the large‐scale manufacture of novel electrode platforms that can be utilised in a variety of applications
    • 3D printed graphene based energy storage devices

      Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; Central South University Changsha (Springer Nature, 2017-03-03)
      3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (−0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (−0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.
    • A Comprehensive Review of the Composition, Nutritional Value, and Functional Properties of Camel Milk Fat

      Bakry, Ibrahim A; Yang, Lan; Farag, Mohamed A.; orcid: 0000-0001-5139-1863; email: mohamed.alifarag@aucegypt.edu; Korma, Sameh A; Khalifa, Ibrahim; orcid: 0000-0002-7648-2961; email: Ibrahiem.khalifa@fagr.bu.edu.eg; Cacciotti, Ilaria; orcid: 0000-0002-3478-6510; Ziedan, Noha I.; Jin, Jun; Jin, Qingzhe; Wei, Wei; et al. (MDPI, 2021-09-13)
      Recently, camel milk (CM) has been considered as a health-promoting icon due to its medicinal and nutritional benefits. CM fat globule membrane has numerous health-promoting properties, such as anti-adhesion and anti-bacterial properties, which are suitable for people who are allergic to cow’s milk. CM contains milk fat globules with a small size, which accounts for their rapid digestion. Moreover, it also comprises lower amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids concurrent with higher levels of essential fatty acids than cow milk, with an improved lipid profile manifested by reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. In addition, it is rich in phospholipids, especially plasmalogens and sphingomyelin, suggesting that CM fat may meet the daily nutritional requirements of adults and infants. Thus, CM and its dairy products have become more attractive for consumers. In view of this, we performed a comprehensive review of CM fat’s composition and nutritional properties. The overall goal is to increase knowledge related to CM fat characteristics and modify its unfavorable perception. Future studies are expected to be directed toward a better understanding of CM fat, which appears to be promising in the design and formulation of new products with significant health-promoting benefits.
    • A Novel Averaging Principle Provides Insights in the Impact of Intratumoral Heterogeneity on Tumor Progression

      Hatzikirou, Haralampos; orcid: 0000-0002-1270-7885; email: haralampos.hatzikirou@ku.ac.ae; Kavallaris, Nikos I.; Leocata, Marta; orcid: 0000-0002-5261-3699; email: mleocata@luiss.it (MDPI, 2021-10-09)
      Typically stochastic differential equations (SDEs) involve an additive or multiplicative noise term. Here, we are interested in stochastic differential equations for which the white noise is nonlinearly integrated into the corresponding evolution term, typically termed as random ordinary differential equations (RODEs). The classical averaging methods fail to treat such RODEs. Therefore, we introduce a novel averaging method appropriate to be applied to a specific class of RODEs. To exemplify the importance of our method, we apply it to an important biomedical problem, in particular, we implement the method to the assessment of intratumoral heterogeneity impact on tumor dynamics. Precisely, we model gliomas according to a well-known Go or Grow (GoG) model, and tumor heterogeneity is modeled as a stochastic process. It has been shown that the corresponding deterministic GoG model exhibits an emerging Allee effect (bistability). In contrast, we analytically and computationally show that the introduction of white noise, as a model of intratumoral heterogeneity, leads to monostable tumor growth. This monostability behavior is also derived even when spatial cell diffusion is taken into account.
    • A numerical exercise on waste incineration

      Jones, John C. (IOP Publishing, 2022-06-07)
      Abstract: A numerical example for tutorial and possibly design exercise use is described which is concerned with the performance of household waste as a fuel in power generation.
    • Acclimation of Microalgae to Wastewater Environments Involves Increased Oxidative Stress Tolerance Activity

      Osundeko, Olumayowa; Dean, Andrew P.; Davies, Helena; Pittman, Jon K.; University of Chester (Oxford Academic, 2014-09-16)
      A wastewater environment can be particularly toxic to eukaryotic microalgae. Microalgae can adapt to these conditions but the specific mechanisms that allow strains to tolerate wastewater environments are unclear. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the ability to acclimate microalgae to tolerate wastewater is an innate or species-specific characteristic. Six different species of microalgae (Chlamydomonas debaryana, Chlorella luteoviridis, Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus intermedius, Hindakia tetrachotoma, Parachlorella kessleri) that had never previously been exposed to wastewater conditions were acclimated over an eight week period in secondary-treated municipal wastewater. With the exception of C. debaryana, acclimation to wastewater resulted in significantly higher growth rate and biomass productivity. With the exception of C. vulgaris, total chlorophyll content was significantly increased in all acclimated strains, while all acclimated strains showed significantly increased photosynthetic activity. The ability of strains to acclimate was species-specific, with two species, C. luteoviridis and P. kessleri, able to acclimate more efficiently to the stress than C. debaryana and D. intermedius. Metabolic fingerprinting of the acclimated and non-acclimated microalgae using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was able to differentiate strains on the basis of metabolic responses to the stress. In particular, strains exhibiting greater stress response and altered accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates could be distinguished. The acclimation to wastewater tolerance was correlated with higher accumulation of carotenoid pigments and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity.
    • Active Power and DC Voltage Coordinative Control for Cascaded DC–AC Converter With Bidirectional Power Application

      Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yanting; University of Chester (IEEE, 2015-10-31)
      Two stage-cascaded converters are widely used in dc–ac hybrid systems to achieve the bidirectional power transmission. The topology of dual active bridge cascaded with inverter DABCI) is commonly used in this application. This paper proposes a coordinative control method for DABCI and it is able to reduce the dc-link voltage fluctuation between the DAB and inverter, then reduce the stress on the switching devices, as well as improve the system dynamic performance. In the proposed control method, the DAB and inverter are coordinated to control the dc-link voltage and the power, and this responsibility sharing control can effectively suppress the impact of the power variation on the dc-link voltage, without sacrificing stability. The proposed control method is also effective for DABCI in unidirectional power transmission. The effectiveness of the propose control has been validated by both simulations and experiments.
    • Adapting Jake Knapp’s Design Sprint Approach for AR/VR Applications in Digital Heritage

      Southall, Helen; Marmion, Maeve; Davies, Andrew; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2019-04-21)
      Modern digital devices offer huge potential for the delivery of engaging heritage experiences to visitors, offering a better visitor experience, higher visitor numbers, and opportunities for increased tourism income. However, all software development entails risk, including the risk of developing a product which few will want, or be able, to use. Identifying user experience priorities and problems at an early stage is therefore extremely important. This chapter describes work in progress on a shortened version of Jake Knapp’s Design Sprint approach, and its application to designing VR/AR solutions for a specific heritage case study.
    • Addendum to the article: On the Dirichlet to Neumann Problem for the 1-dimensional Cubic NLS Equation on the Half-Line

      Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Kamvissis, Spyridon (IOPSCIENCE Published jointly with the London Mathematical Society, 2016-08-31)
      We present a short note on the extension of the results of [1] to the case of non-zero initial data. More specifically, the defocusing cubic NLS equation is considered on the half-line with decaying (in time) Dirichlet data and sufficiently smooth and decaying (in space) initial data. We prove that for this case also, and for a large class of decaying Dirichlet data, the Neumann data are sufficiently decaying so that the Fokas unified method for the solution of defocusing NLS is applicable.
    • Additively Manufactured Graphitic Electrochemical Sensing Platforms

      Foster, Christopher W; El Bardisy, Hadil M; Down, Michael P; Keefe, Edmund M; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (Foster, El Bardisy, Down, Keefe, Banks), University of Chester (Smith) (Elsevier, 2020-02-01)
      Additive manufacturing (AM)/3D printing technology provides a novel platform for the rapid prototyping of low cost 3D platforms. Herein, we report for the first time, the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and application (electrochemical sensing) of bespoke nanographite (NG)-loaded (25 wt. %) AM printable (via fused deposition modelling) NG/PLA filaments. We have optimised and tailored a variety of NG-loaded filaments and their AM counterparts in order to achieve optimal printability and electrochemical behaviour. Two AM platforms, namely AM macroelectrodes (AMEs) and AM 3D honeycomb (macroporous) structures are benchmarked against a range of redox probes and the simultaneous detection of lead (II) and cadmium (II). This proof-of-concept demonstrates the impact that AM can have within the area of electroanalytical sensors.
    • Addressing problems of student retention and achievement with the help of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

      Scott, Tony; University College Chester (Subject Centre for Information and Computer Sciences, Higher Education Academy, 2004)
      This article discussed methods taken during 2002-2003 to improve retention and achievement in the Introduction to Software Design module. They include e-mail feedback, study guides, and use of the college's VLE.
    • Aerosol Chemistry Resolved by Mass Spectrometry: Linking Field Measurements of Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity to Organic Aerosol Composition

      Vogel, Alexander; Schneider, Johannes; Mueller-Tautges, Christina; Phillips, Gavin J.; Poehlker, Mira L.; Rose, Diana; Zuth, Christoph; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele; Crowley, John N.; et al. (American Chemical Society, 2016-10-06)
      Aerosol hygroscopic properties were linked to its chemical composition by using complementary online mass spectrometric techniques in a comprehensive chemical characterization study at a rural mountaintop station in central Germany in August 2012. In particular, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry ((−)APCI-MS) provided measurements of organic acids, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates in the particle phase at 1 min time resolution. Offline analysis of filter samples enabled us to determine the molecular composition of signals appearing in the online (−)APCI-MS spectra. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) provided quantitative measurements of total submicrometer organics, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium. Inorganic sulfate measurements were achieved by semionline ion chromatography and were compared to the AMS total sulfate mass. We found that up to 40% of the total sulfate mass fraction can be covalently bonded to organic molecules. This finding is supported by both on- and offline soft ionization techniques, which confirmed the presence of several organosulfates and nitrooxy-organosulfates in the particle phase. The chemical composition analysis was compared to hygroscopicity measurements derived from a cloud condensation nuclei counter. We observed that the hygroscopicity parameter (κ) that is derived from organic mass fractions determined by AMS measurements may overestimate the observed κ up to 0.2 if a high fraction of sulfate is bonded to organic molecules and little photochemical aging is exhibited.
    • AFOM: Advanced Flow of Motion Detection Algorithm for Dynamic Camera Videos

      Aribilola, Ifeoluwapo; Asghar, Mamoona; Kanwal, Nadia; Ansari, Mohammad Samar; Lee, Brian; Technological University of the Shannon; National University of Ireland; University of Keele; University of Chester (IEEE, 2022-07-19)
      The surveillance videos taken from dynamic cam-eras are susceptible to multiple security threats like replay attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, pixel correlation attacks etc. Using unsupervised learning, it is a challenge to detect objects in such surveillance videos, as fixed objects may appear to be in motion alongside the actual moving objects. But despite this challenge, the unsupervised learning techniques are efficient as they save object labelling and model training time, which is usually a case with supervised learning models. This paper proposes an effective computer vision-based object identification algorithm that can detect and separate stationary objects from moving objects in such videos. The proposed Advanced Flow Of Motion (AFOM) algorithm takes advantage of motion estimation between two consecutive frames and induces the estimated motion back to the frame to provide an improved detection on the dynamic camera videos. The comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed AFOM outperforms a traditional dense optical flow (DOF) algorithm with an average increased difference of 56 % in accuracy, 61 % in precision, and 73 % in pixel space ratio (PSR), and with minimal higher object detection timing.
    • Aging and Cholesterol Metabolism

      Mc Auley, Mark T.; University of Chester (Springer, 2021-11-03)
      The role cholesterol metabolism has to play in health span is clear, and monitoring the parameters of cholesterol metabolism is key to aging successfully. The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the mechanisms which regulate cholesterol in the body, secondly to discuss how aging effects cholesterol metabolism, and thirdly to unveil how systems biology is leading to an improved understanding of the intersection between aging and the dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism.
    • Aging and computational systems biology

      Mooney, Kathleen M.; Morgan, Amy; Mc Auley, Mark T.; Edgehill University, University of Chester (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-29)
      Aging research is undergoing a paradigm shift, which has led to new and innovative methods of exploring this complex phenomenon. The systems biology approach endeavors to understand biological systems in a holistic manner, by taking account of intrinsic interactions, while also attempting to account for the impact of external inputs, such as diet. A key technique employed in systems biology is computational modeling, which involves mathematically describing and simulating the dynamics of biological systems. Although a large number of computational models have been developed in recent years, these models have focused on various discrete components of the aging process, and to date no model has succeeded in completely representing the full scope of aging. Combining existing models or developing new models may help to address this need and in so doing could help achieve an improved understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms which underpin aging.