• 3D printed graphene based energy storage devices

      Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; Central South University Changsha (Springer Nature, 2017-03-03)
      3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (−0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (−0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.
    • Adapting Jake Knapp’s Design Sprint Approach for AR/VR Applications in Digital Heritage

      Southall, Helen; Marmion, Maeve; Davies, Andrew; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2019-04-21)
      Modern digital devices offer huge potential for the delivery of engaging heritage experiences to visitors, offering a better visitor experience, higher visitor numbers, and opportunities for increased tourism income. However, all software development entails risk, including the risk of developing a product which few will want, or be able, to use. Identifying user experience priorities and problems at an early stage is therefore extremely important. This chapter describes work in progress on a shortened version of Jake Knapp’s Design Sprint approach, and its application to designing VR/AR solutions for a specific heritage case study.
    • Computer Modelling for Nutritionists

      Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; University of Chester
      This book is about computational modelling of nutrient focused biological systems. The book is aimed at students, researchers, and those with an interest in learning how to build a computational model. The book is the product of many years of teaching computational modelling to undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers with limited, or no background in computational modelling. What I learned from these experiences is those new to modelling are invariably apprehensive about it, and approach it with a degree of trepidation, or even scepticism. However, from tentative initial steps, they quickly realize that modelling is not as challenging, or as academically intimidating as they initially perceive it; and after gaining familiarity with the essential components of model building they rapidly become cognisant, that it offers an alternative lens to view a biological system, and learn new insights about its underlying dynamic behaviour. In this book I provide a practical introduction to modelling, for those who are interested in exploring the dynamics of nutrient based systems. My rationale for undertaking this project is based on my experience of interacting with nutritionists in recent years. As a result of many fruitful discussions I identified a growing need for a book of this nature, which is specifically tailored to nutritionists. My aims are to provide the reader with a solid grounding in computational modelling, and how it dovetails within the burgeoning field of systems biology. For the reader this will involve learning how a model is assembled, what software tools are available for model building, what the different paradigms are for simulating a model, and how to analyse and interpret the output from in silico simulations. The only expectation I make of you, as a reader, is that you are enthusiastic about learning how to use new software tools. In exchange for your engagement I will provide you with ample practical exercises, which will help to consolidate your learning, and will make your computational modelling journey a rewarding and enjoyable experience.
    • Self-assembled nanostructures in ionic liquids facilitate charge storage at electrified interfaces

      Mao, Xianwen; Brown, Paul; Cervinka, Citrad; Hazell, Gavin; Li, Hua; Ren, Yinying; Chen, Di; Atkin, Rob; Eastoe, Julian; Grillo, Isabelle; et al. (Springer Nature, 2019-08-12)
      Driven by the potential applications of ionic liquids (ILs) in many emerging electrochemical technologies, recent research efforts have been directed at understanding the complex ion ordering in these systems, to uncover novel energy storage mechanisms at IL–electrode interfaces. Here, we discover that surface-active ILs (SAILs), which contain amphiphilic structures inducing self-assembly, exhibit enhanced charge storage performance at electrified surfaces. Unlike conventional non amphiphilic ILs, for which ion distribution is dominated by Coulombic interactions, SAILs exhibit significant and competing van der Waals interactions owing to the non-polar surfactant tails, leading to unusual interfacial ion distributions. We reveal that, at an intermediate degree of electrode polarization, SAILs display optimum performance, because the low-charge-density alkyl tails are effectively excluded from the electrode surfaces, whereas the formation of non-polar domains along the surface suppresses undesired overscreening effects. This work represents a crucial step towards understanding the unique interfacial behaviour and electrochemical properties of amphiphilic liquid systems showing long-range ordering, and offers insights into the design principles for high-energy-density electrolytes based on spontaneous self-assembly behaviour.