• A Tablet-based Virtual Environment for Neurosurgery Training

      John, Nigel W.; Phillips, Nicholas I.; ap Cenydd, Llyr; Coope, David; Carleton-Bland, Nick; Kamaly-Asl, Ian; Grey, William P.; University of Chester, Leeds General Infirmary, Bangor University, University of Manchester, Cardiff University (MIT Press, 2015-10-15)
      The requirement for training surgical procedures without exposing the patient to additional risk is well accepted and is part of a national drive in the UK and internationally. Computer-based simulations are important in this context, including neurosurgical resident training. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a custom built virtual environment in assisting training of a ventriculostomy procedure. The training tool (called VCath) has been developed as an app for a tablet platform to provide easy access and availability to trainees. The study was conducted at the first boot camp organized for all year one trainees in neurosurgery in the UK. The attendees were randomly distributed between the VCath training group and the Control group. Efficacy of performing ventriculostomy for both groups was assessed at the beginning and end of the study using a simulated insertion task. Statistically significant changes in performance of selecting the burr hole entry point, the trajectory length and duration metrics for the VCath group, together with a good indicator of improved normalized jerk (representing the speed and smoothness of arm motion), all suggest that there has been a higher level cognitive benefit to using VCath. The app is successful as it is focused on the cognitive task of ventriculostomy, encouraging the trainee to rehearse the entry point and use anatomical landmarks to create a trajectory to the target. In straight-line trajectory procedures such as ventriculostomy, cognitive task based education is a useful adjunct to traditional methods and may reduce the learning curve and ultimately improve patient safety.
    • The Use of Stereoscopy in a Neurosurgery Training Virtual Environment

      John, Nigel W.; Phillips, Nicholas I.; ap Cenydd, Llyr; Pop, Serban R.; Coope, David; Kamaly-Asl, Ian; de Souza, Christopher; Watt, Simon J.; University of Chester, Leeds General Infirmary, Bangor University, University of Manchester, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiff University (MIT Press, 2017-03-15)
      We have previously investigated the effectiveness of a custom built virtual environment in assisting training of a ventriculostomy procedure, which is a commonly performed procedure by a neurosurgeon and a core task for trainee surgeons. The training tool (called VCath) was initially developed as a low fidelity app for a tablet platform to provide easy access and availability to trainees. Subsequently we have developed a high fidelity version of VCath that uses a stereoscopic display to immerse the trainee in the virtual environment. This paper reports on two studies that have been carried out to compare the low and high fidelity versions of VCath, particularly to assess the value of stereoscopy. Study 1 was conducted at the second annual boot camp organized for all year one trainees in neurosurgery in the UK. Study 2 was performed on lay people, with no surgical experience. Our hypothesis was that using stereoscopy in the training task would be beneficial. Results from Study 1 demonstrated that performance improved for both the control group and the group trained with the tablet version of VCath. The group trained on the high fidelity version of VCath with a stereoscopic display showed no performance improvement. The indication is that our hypothesis is false. In Study 2, six different conditions were investigated that covered the use of training with VCath on a tablet, a mono display at two different sizes, a stereo display at two different sizes, and a control group who received no training. Results from this study with lay people show that stereoscopy can make a significant improvement to the accuracy of needle placement. The possible reasons for these results and the apparent contradiction between the two studies are discussed.