Browsing Faculty of Science and Engineering by Publisher "Elsevier"
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2^n Bordered Constructions of SelfDual codes from Group RingsSelfdual codes, which are codes that are equal to their orthogonal, are a widely studied family of codes. Various techniques involving circulant matrices and matrices from group rings have been used to construct such codes. Moreover, families of rings have been used, together with a Gray map, to construct binary selfdual codes. In this paper, we introduce a new bordered construction over group rings for selfdual codes by combining many of the previously used techniques. The purpose of this is to construct selfdual codes that were missed using classical construction techniques by constructing selfdual codes with diﬀerent automorphism groups. We apply the technique to codes over ﬁnite commutative Frobenius rings of characteristic 2 and several group rings and use these to construct interesting binary selfdual codes. In particular, we construct some extremal selfdual codes length 64 and 68, constructing 30 new extremal selfdual codes of length 68.

Additively Manufactured Graphitic Electrochemical Sensing PlatformsAdditive manufacturing (AM)/3D printing technology provides a novel platform for the rapid prototyping of low cost 3D platforms. Herein, we report for the first time, the fabrication, characterisation (physicochemical and electrochemical) and application (electrochemical sensing) of bespoke nanographite (NG)loaded (25 wt. %) AM printable (via fused deposition modelling) NG/PLA filaments. We have optimised and tailored a variety of NGloaded filaments and their AM counterparts in order to achieve optimal printability and electrochemical behaviour. Two AM platforms, namely AM macroelectrodes (AMEs) and AM 3D honeycomb (macroporous) structures are benchmarked against a range of redox probes and the simultaneous detection of lead (II) and cadmium (II). This proofofconcept demonstrates the impact that AM can have within the area of electroanalytical sensors.

Airlift Bioreactor for Biological Applications with Microbubble Mediated Transport ProcessesAirlift bioreactors can provide an attractive alternative to stirred tanks, particularly for bioprocesses with gaseous reactants or products. Frequently, however, they are susceptible to being limited by gasliquid mass transfer and by poor mixing of the liquid phase, particularly when they are operating at high cell densities. In this work we use CFD modelling to show that microbubbles generated by fluidic oscillation can provide an effective, low energy means of achieving high interfacial area for mass transfer and improved liquid circulation for mixing. The results show that when the diameter of the microbubbles exceeded 200 μm, the “downcomer” region, which is equivalent to about 60 % of overall volume of the reactor, is free from gas bubbles. The results also demonstrate that the use of microbubbles not only increases surface area to volume ratio, but also increases mixing efficiency through increasing the liquid velocity circulation around the draft tube. In addition, the depth of downward penetration of the microbubbles into the downcomer increases with decreasing bubbles size due to a greater downward drag force compared to the buoyancy force. The simulated results indicate that the volume of dead zone increases as the height of diffuser location is increased. We therefore hypothesise that poor gas bubble distribution due to the improper location of the diffuser may have a markedly deleterious effect on the performance of the bioreactor used in this work.

An algorithm to detect small solutions in linear delay differential equationsThis preprint discusses an algorithm that provides a simple reliable mechanism for the detection of small solutions in linear delay differential equations.

An Altered Four Circulant Construction for SelfDual Codes from Group Rings and New Extremal Binary Selfdual Codes IWe introduce an altered version of the four circulant construction over group rings for selfdual codes. We consider this construction over the binary field, the rings F2 + uF2 and F4 + uF4; using groups of order 4 and 8. Through these constructions and their extensions, we find binary selfdual codes of lengths 16, 32, 48, 64 and 68, many of which are extremal. In particular, we find forty new extremal binary selfdual codes of length 68, including twelve new codes with \gamma=5 in W68,2, which is the first instance of such a value in the literature.

An analysis of the L1 scheme for stochastic subdiffusion problem driven by integrated spacetime white noiseWe consider the strong convergence of the numerical methods for solving stochastic subdiffusion problem driven by an integrated spacetime white noise. The time fractional derivative is approximated by using the L1 scheme and the time fractional integral is approximated with the Lubich's first order convolution quadrature formula. We use the Euler method to approximate the noise in time and use the truncated series to approximate the noise in space. The spatial variable is discretized by using the linear finite element method. Applying the idea in Gunzburger \et (Math. Comp. 88(2019), pp. 17151741), we express the approximate solutions of the fully discrete scheme by the convolution of the piecewise constant function and the inverse Laplace transform of the resolvent related function. Based on such convolution expressions of the approximate solutions, we obtain the optimal convergence orders of the fully discrete scheme in spatial multidimensional cases by using the Laplace transform method and the corresponding resolvent estimates.

An analytic approach to the normalized Ricci flowlike equation: RevisitedIn this paper we revisit Hamilton’s normalized Ricci flow, which was thoroughly studied via a PDE approach in Kavallaris and Suzuki (2010). Here we provide an improved convergence result compared to the one presented Kavallaris and Suzuki (2010) for the critical case λ=8πλ=8π. We actually prove that the convergence towards the stationary normalized Ricci flow is realized through any time sequence.

Analytical and numerical investigation of mixedtype functional differential equationsThis journal article is concerned with the approximate solution of a linear nonautonomous functional differential equation, with both advanced and delayed arguments.

Analytical and numerical treatment of oscillatory mixed differential equations with differentiable delays and advancesThis article discusses the oscillatory behaviour of the differential equation of mixed type.

Avoiding ambient air and light induced degradation in highefficiency polymer solar cells by the use of hydrogendoped zinc oxide as electron extraction materialPolymer solar cells have undergone rapid development in recent years. Their limited stability to environmental influence and during illumination, however, still remains a major stumbling block to the commercial application of this technology. Several attempts have been made to address the instability issue, mostly concentrated on the insertion of charge transport interlayers in the device stack. Although zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most common electron transport materials in those cells, the presence of defects at the surface and grain boundaries significantly affects the efficiency and stability of the working devices. To address these issues, we herein employ hydrogendoping of ZnO electron extraction material. It is found that devices based on photoactive layers composed of blends of poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with electron acceptors possessing different energy levels, such as [6,6]phenylC70butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) or indeneC60 bisadduct (IC60BA) essentially enhanced their photovoltaic performance when using the hydrogendoped ZnO with maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaching values of 4.62% and 6.65%, respectively, which are much higher than those of the cells with the pristine ZnO (3.08% and 4.51%). Most significantly, the degradation of nonencapsulated solar cells when exposed to ambient or under prolonged illumination is studied and it is found that devices based on undoped ZnO showed poor environmental stability and significant photodegradation while those using hydrogendoped ZnO interlayers exhibited high longterm ambient stability and maintained nearly 80–90% of their initial PCE values after 40 h of 1.5 AM illumination. All mechanisms responsible for this enhanced stability are elucidated and corresponding models are proposed. This work successfully addresses and tackles the instability problem of polymer solar cells and the key findings pave the way for the upscaling of these and, perhaps, of related devices such as perovskite solar cells.

Bacillus Spores and Their Relevant Chemicals Studied by Terahertz Time Domain SpectroscopyTerahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy has been used to investigate 0.2 to 2.2 terahertz (THz) transmission responses of Bacillus spores and their related chemical components. Whilst no THz signatures could be clearly associated with either sporulated cells or their chief chemical components, differing degrees of signal attenuation and frequencydependent light scattering were observed depending on spore composition and culture media. The observed monotonic increase in absorption by spores over this THz spectral domain is mainly from Mie scattering and also from remnant water bound to the spores.

A barrier and technoeconomic analysis of smallscale bCHP (biomass combined heat and power) schemes in the UK.bCHP (Biomass combined heat and power) systems are highly efficient at smallerscales when a significant proportion of the heat produced can be effectively utilised for hot water, space heating or industrial heating purposes. However, there are many barriers to project development and this has greatly inhibited deployment in the UK. Project viability is highly subjective to changes in policy, regulation, the finance market and the low cost fossil fuel incumbent. The paper reviews the barriers to smallscale bCHP project development in the UK along with a case study of a failed 1.5 MWel bCHP scheme. The paper offers possible explanations for the project’s failure and suggests adaptations to improve the project resilience. Analysis of the project’s: capital structuring; contract length and bankability; feedstock type and price uncertainty, and; plant oversizing highlight the negative impact of the existing project barriers on project development. The research paper concludes with a discussion on the effects of these barriers on the case study project and this industry more generally. A greater understanding of the technoeconomic effects of some barriers for smallscale bCHP schemes is demonstrated within this paper, along with some methods for improving the attractiveness and resilience of projects of this kind.

Benchmarking of a micro gas turbine model integrated with postcombustion CO2 captureThe deployment of postcombustion CO2 capture on largescale gasfired power plants is currently progressing, hence the integration of the power and capture plants requires a good understanding of operational requirements and limitations to support this effort. This article aims to assist research in this area, by studying a micro gas turbine (MGT) integrated with an aminebased postcombustion CO2 capture unit. Both processes were simulated using two different software tools –IPSEpro and Aspen Hysys, and validated against experimental tests. The two MGT models were benchmarked at the nominal condition, and then extended to partloads (50 and 80 kWe), prior to their integration with the capture plant at flue gas CO2 concentrations between 5 and 10 mol%. Further, the performance of the MGT and capture plant when gas turbine exhaust gases were recirculated was assessed. Exhaust gas recirculation increases the CO2 concentration, and reduces the exhaust gas flowrate and specific reboiler duty. The benchmarking of the two models revealed that the IPSEpro model can be easily adapted to new MGT cycle modifications since turbine temperatures and rotational speeds respond to reaching temperature limits; whilst a detailed ratebased approach for the capture plant in Hysys resulted in closely aligned simulation results with experimental data.

Bioinspired bactericidal surfaces with polymer nanocone arraysInfections resulting from bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of medical devices are challenging to treat and can cause significant patient morbidity. Recently, it has become apparent that regulation of surface nanotopography can render surfaces bactericidal. In this study, poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocone arrays are generated through a polystyrene nanospheremask colloidal lithographic process. It is shown that modification of the mask diameter leads to a direct modification of centretocentre spacing between nanocones. By altering the oxygen plasma etching time it is possible to modify the height, tip width and base diameter of the individual nanocone features. The bactericidal activity of the nanocone arrays was investigated against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is shown that surfaces with the most densely populated nanocone arrays (centertocenter spacing of 200 nm), higher aspect ratios (>3) and tip widths <20 nm kill the highest percentage of bacteria (∼30%).

Blending loworder stabilised finite element methods: a positivity preserving local projection method for the convectiondiffusion equationIn this work we propose a nonlinear blending of two loworder stabilisation mechanisms for the convection–diffusion equation. The motivation for this approach is to preserve monotonicity without sacrificing accuracy for smooth solutions. The approach is to blend a firstorder artificial diffusion method, which will be active only in the vicinity of layers and extrema, with an optimal order local projection stabilisation method that will be active on the smooth regions of the solution. We prove existence of discrete solutions, as well as convergence, under appropriate assumptions on the nonlinear terms, and on the exact solution. Numerical examples show that the discrete solution produced by this method remains within the bounds given by the continuous maximum principle, while the layers are not smeared significantly.

Bordered Constructions of SelfDual Codes from Group Rings and New Extremal Binary SelfDual CodesWe introduce a bordered construction over group rings for selfdual codes. We apply the constructions over the binary field and the ring $\F_2+u\F_2$, using groups of orders 9, 15, 21, 25, 27, 33 and 35 to find extremal binary selfdual codes of lengths 20, 32, 40, 44, 52, 56, 64, 68, 88 and best known binary selfdual codes of length 72. In particular we obtain 41 new binary extremal selfdual codes of length 68 from groups of orders 15 and 33 using neighboring and extensions. All the numerical results are tabulated throughout the paper.

Capsule membranes encapsulated with smart nanogels for facile detection of trace lead(II) ions in waterA novel method based on capsule membranes encapsulated with smart nanogels is successfully developed for facilely detecting trace lead(II) (Pb2+) ions, which are hazardous to both human health and the environment because of their toxicity. The capsule membrane system is composed of a semipermeable calcium alginate membrane and encapsulated poly(Nisopropylacrylamidecoacryloylamidobenzo18crown6) (PNB) nanogels. The semipermeable membrane allows Pb2+ ions and water to pass through quickly, but rejects the encapsulated nanogels and polymers totally. As soon as Pb2+ ions appear in the aqueous environment and enter into the capsule, they can be specifically recognized by encapsulated PNB nanogels via forming 18crown6/Pb2+ complexes that cause a Pb2+induced phase transition of PNB nanogels from hydrophobic to hydrophilic state. As a result, the osmotic pressure inside the capsule membrane increases remarkably, and thus the elastic capsule membrane isothermally swells upon the presence of Pb2+ ions in the environmental aqueous solution. The Pb2+induced swelling degree of the capsule membrane is dependent on the concentration of Pb2+ ions ([Pb2+]) in water. Thus, the [Pb2+] value in water is able to be easily detected by directly measuring the Pb2+induced isothermal swelling ratio of the capsule membrane, which we demonstrate by using 15 prepared capsule membranes arranged in a line. The Pb2+induced swelling ratios of the capsule membrane groups are easily observed with the naked eye, and the detection limit of the [Pb2+] in water is 109 mol L1. Such a proposed method provides an easy and efficient strategy for facile detection of trace threat analytes in water.

Characteristic functions of differential equations with deviating argumentsThe material here is motivated by the discussion of solutions of linear homogeneous and autonomous differential equations with deviating arguments. If $a, b, c$ and $\{\check{\tau}_\ell\}$ are real and ${\gamma}_\natural$ is realvalued and continuous, an example with these parameters is \begin{equation} u'(t) = \big\{a u(t) + b u(t+\check{\tau}_1) + c u(t+\check{\tau}_2) \big\} { \red +} \int_{\check{\tau}_3}^{\check{\tau}_4} {{\gamma}_\natural}(s) u(t+s) ds \tag{\hbox{$\rd{\star}$}} . \end{equation} A wide class of equations ($\rd{\star}$), or of similar type, can be written in the {\lq\lq}canonical{\rq\rq} form \begin{equation} u'(t) =\DSS \int_{\tau_{\rd \min}}^{\tau_{\rd \max}} u(t+s) d\sigma(s) \quad (t \in \Rset), \hbox{ for a suitable choice of } {\tau_{\rd \min}}, {\tau_{\rd \max}} \tag{\hbox{${\rd \star\star}$}} \end{equation} where $\sigma$ is of bounded variation and the integral is a RiemannStieltjes integral. For equations written in the form (${\rd{\star\star}}$), there is a corresponding characteristic function \begin{equation} \chi(\zeta) ):= \zeta  \DSS \int_{\tau_{\rd \min}}^{\tau_{\rd \max}} \exp(\zeta s) d\sigma(s) \quad (\zeta \in \Cset), \tag{\hbox{${\rd{\star\star\star}}$}} \end{equation} %%($ \chi(\zeta) \equiv \chi_\sigma (\zeta)$) whose zeros (if one considers appropriate subsets of equations (${\rd \star\star}$)  the literature provides additional information on the subsets to which we refer) play a r\^ole in the study of oscillatory or nonoscillatory solutions, or of bounded or unbounded solutions. We show that the related discussion of the zeros of $\chi$ is facilitated by observing and exploiting some simple and fundamental properties of characteristic functions.

Chemical changes in PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells using XPS and TOFSIMS and use of inverted device structure for improving lifetime performanceAnalysis of the degradation routes for poly[(4,4bis(2ethylhexyl)cyclopenta[2,1b;3,4b′]dithiophene)2,6diylalt2,1,3benzothiadiazole4,7diyl] (PCPDTBT)based solar cells under illumination and in the presence of air have been conducted using a combination of Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), TimeOfFlight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOFSIMs) and solar cell device data. After ageing, XPS studies show that PCPDTBT appears as an oxygencontaining polymer, with data indicating that a breakup in the aromatic rings, formation of sulphates at the thiophene ring, chain scission in the polymer backbone and also loss of side chains. XPS studies have also been conducted on PhenylC71butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) films and show a breakage of the fullerene cage, loss of molecular shape and oxidation of carbon atoms in the fullerene cage and side chains after ageing. XPS studies on active layers blends of PCPDTBT and PCBM also show significant changes in the vertical composition during ageing, with increased enrichment of PCPDTBT observed at the top surface and that the use of a processing additive (ODT) has a negative impact on the morphological stability. Based on these studies, it shown that inverted structures are better suited than noninverted devices for PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells. An additional advantage of inverted devices is shown using TOFSIMS; electrode degradation during ageing experiments leads to migration of indium and tin ions into the active layer in noninverted devices, but is eliminated for inverted devices.

Cholesterol metabolism: A review of how ageing disrupts the biological mechanisms responsible for its regulationCholesterol plays a vital role in the human body as a precursor of steroid hormones and bile acids, in addition to providing structure to cell membranes. Whole body cholesterol metabolism is maintained by a highly coordinated balancing act between cholesterol ingestion, synthesis, absorption, and excretion. The aim of this review is to discuss how ageing interacts with these processes. Firstly, we will present an overview of cholesterol metabolism. Following this, we discuss how the biological mechanisms which underpin cholesterol metabolism are effected by ageing. Included in this discussion are lipoprotein dynamics, cholesterol absorption/synthesis and the enterohepatic circulation/synthesis of bile acids. Moreover, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathological progression of atherosclerosis and also discuss how cholesterol biosynthesis is effected by both the mammalian target of rapamycin and sirtuin pathways. Next, we examine how diet and alterations to the gut microbiome can be used to mitigate the impact ageing has on cholesterol metabolism. We conclude by discussing how mathematical models of cholesterol metabolism can be used to identify therapeutic interventions.