• Improved Stability of Polymer Solar Cells in Ambient Air via Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultra-Thin Dielectric Layers

      Polydorou, Ermioni; Botzakaki, Martha A.; Sakellis, Ilias; Soultati, Anastasia; Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Theodoros A.; Briscoe, Joe; Drivas, Charalabos; Seintis, Kostas; Fakis, Mihalis; et al. (Wiley, 2017-07-12)
      Polymer solar cells have attracted tremendous interest in the highly competitive solar energy sector, due to the practical advantages they exhibit, such as being lightweight, flexible, and low cost, in stark contrast to traditional photovoltaic technologies. However, their successful commercialization is still hindered by issues related to device instability. Here, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is employed to deposit conformal ultrathin dielectrics, such as alumina (Al2O3) and zirconia (ZrO2), on top of ZnO electron extraction layers to address problems that arise from the defect-rich nature of these layers. The deposition of dielectrics on ZnO significantly improves its interfacial electronic properties, manifested primarily with the decrease in the work function of ZnO and the concomitant reduction of the electron extraction barrier as well as the reduced recombination losses. Significant efficiency enhancement is obtained with the incorporation of six ALD cycles of Al2O3 into inverted devices, using photoactive layers, that consist of poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60-bisadduct or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b] thiophenediyl}):[6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester. More importantly, upon performing lifetime studies (over a period of 350 h), a strong improvement in polymer solar cell stability is observed when using the ALD-modified ZnO films.