• Mass-Producible 2D-MoS2‑Impregnated Screen-Printed Electrodes

      Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Banks, Craig E.; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; (American Chemical Society, 2017-06-02)
      Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (2D-MoS2) screen-printed electrodes (2D-MoS2-SPEs) have been designed, fabricated, and evaluated toward the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) within acidic aqueous media. A screen-printable ink has been developed that allows for the tailoring of the 2D-MoS2 content/mass used in the fabrication of the 2D-MoS2-SPEs, which critically affects the observed ORR performance. In comparison to the graphite SPEs (G-SPEs), the 2D-MoS2-SPEs are shown to exhibit an electrocatalytic behavior toward the ORR which is found, critically, to be reliant upon the percentage mass incorporation of 2D-MoS2 in the 2D-MoS2-SPEs; a greater percentage mass of 2D-MoS2 incorporated into the 2D-MoS2-SPEs results in a significantly less electronegative ORR onset potential and a greater signal output (current density). Using optimally fabricated 2D-MoS2-SPEs, an ORR onset and a peak current of approximately +0.16 V [vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE)] and −1.62 mA cm–2, respectively, are observed, which exceeds the −0.53 V (vs SCE) and −635 μA cm–2 performance of unmodified G-SPEs, indicating an electrocatalytic response toward the ORR utilizing the 2D-MoS2-SPEs. An investigation of the underlying electrochemical reaction mechanism of the ORR within acidic aqueous solutions reveals that the reaction proceeds via a direct four-electron process for all of the 2D-MoS2-SPE variants studied herein, where oxygen is electrochemically favorably reduced to water. The fabricated 2D-MoS2-SPEs are found to exhibit no degradation in the observed achievable current over the course of 1000 repeat scans. The production of such inks and the resultant mass-producible 2D-MoS2-SPEs mitigates the need to modify post hoc an electrode via the drop-casting technique that has been previously shown to result in a loss of achievable current over the course of 1000 repeat scans. The 2D-MoS2-SPEs designed, fabricated, and tested herein could have commercial viability as electrocatalytic fuel cell electrodes because of being economical as a result of their scales of economy and inherent tailorability. The technique utilized herein to produce the 2D-MoS2-SPEs could be adapted for the incorporation of different 2D nanomaterials, resulting in SPEs with the inherent advantages identified above.