Faculty of Science and Engineering
Based at Thornton Science Park, the new Faculty of Science and Engineering is located in a major research and innovation hub for the North West which is only a 20minute bus trip from the main Chester Campus. The Faculty offers degrees in engineering and science disciplines using a strongly interdisciplinary teaching philosophy.
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Structural speciation in chemical reactivity profiling of binaryternary systems of Ni(II) with iminodialcohol and aromatic chelatorsThe importance of structural speciation in the control of chemical reactivity in Ni(II) binaryternary systems, involving (O,O,N)containing substrates (1,1’iminodi2propanol), and aromatic chelators (2,2’bipyridine, 1,10phenanthroline), prompted the systematic synthesis of new crystalline materials characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UVVisible, Luminescence, TGA, magnetic susceptibility, and Xray crystallography. The structures contain mononuclear octahedral assemblies, the lattice architecture of which exemplifies reaction conditions under which conformational variants and solventassociated latticeimposed complexes are assembled. Transformations between complex species denote their association with reactivity pathways, suggesting alternate synthetic methodologies for their isolation. Theoretical work (Hirshfeld, Electrostatic Potential, DFT) signifies the impact of crystal structure on energy profiles of the generated species. The arisen physicochemical profiles of all compounds portray a wellconfigured interwoven network of pathways, projecting strong connection between structural speciation and Ni(II) reactivity patterns in organicsolvent media. The collective results provide welldefined parameterized profiles, poised to influence the synthesis of new Ni(II)iminodialcohol materials with specified structuralmagnetooptical properties.

Experimental exploration of cryogenic CO2 capture utilising a moving bedIt is widely accepted that climate change is a result of the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The continued combustion of fossil fuels and subsequent emission of CO2 is leading to an increase in global temperatures, which has led to interest in decarbonising the energy sector. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a method of reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants by capturing CO2 from exhaust gases and storing it in underground gas stores. Carbon capture using chemical solvents is the most matured technology for capturing emissions from the energy sector, however as the energy sector continues to decarbonise with the arrival of renewable sources focus is shifting to other industries to reduce their carbon footprint. Solvent carbon capture has disadvantages including requiring large equipment and large amounts of heat to regenerate solvent for capture, meaning it would be difficult to scale the technology down and apply it to other industrial applications. Cryogenic carbon capture (CCC) is one proposed method of CCS at smaller scale, which captures CO2 by freezing CO2 out of the exhaust gases as CO2 forms a frost on a heat transfer surface. One disadvantage of CCC is the accumulation of CO2 frost reduces the efficiency of the capture process. The process must be periodically shut down to regenerate the heat transfer surface and collect CO2 that has been frozen out of exhaust gases. This thesis proposes to overcome the frost accumulation through the use of a moving packed bed of small spherical metal beads as the heat transfer surface. As CO2 is fed into a capture column and freezes onto the metal beads, the metal beads are removed from the column, regenerated to recover the CO2, then cooled and recirculated back into the capture column. This prevents the accumulation of frost and allows continuous CO2 capture. There are many difficulties identified in this project, primarily a lack of knowledge on CO2 frost formation and how heat transfer in a moving bed affects frost formation. The research done on a purpose built experimental rig is critical in improving the future design work of a next generation moving bed CCC system. The frost accumulation in a capture column is known as a frost front, which advanced through the capture column at a fixed velocity until the column is saturated with frost. Experimental results had shown that the frost front velocity is predictable for varying CO2 concentrations and gas flow rates, with frost front velocities between 0.460.78 mm/s for CO2 concentrations between 418% v/v and 0.360.98 mm/s for gas flow rates between 50120 LPM. These frost front velocity experiments in a fixed packed bed allowed the design of a moving packed bed column to set the bed flow rate to match the frost front velocity. The moving bed experiments show that the excessive accumulation of CO2 frost within the capture column can be prevented by utilising the moving bed. The successful development of a moving bed CCC system would result in a cost effective solution to the requirements of certain smaller applications that need to capture CO2, which make up a significant portion of emissions. In particular this technology is very economical for biogas upgrading, where the CO2 content of biogas must be removed before the gas can be introduced to the UK’s larger gas network. There is also a growing interest for use in shipping and other maritime applications, capturing CO2 from ship exhaust emissions during transit.

Oscillatory and stability of a mixed type difference equation with variable coefficientsThe goal of this paper is to study the oscillatory and stability of the mixed type difference equation with variable coefficients \[ \Delta x(n)=\sum_{i=1}^{\ell}p_{i}(n)x(\tau_{i}(n))+\sum_{j=1}^{m}q_{j}(n)x(\sigma_{i}(n)),\quad n\ge n_{0}, \] where $\tau_{i}(n)$ is the delay term and $\sigma_{j}(n)$ is the advance term and they are positive real sequences for $i=1,\cdots,l$ and $j=1,\cdots,m$, respectively, and $p_{i}(n)$ and $q_{j}(n)$ are real functions. This paper generalise some known results and the examples illustrate the results.

Spatial discretization for stochastic semilinear subdiffusion driven by integrated multiplicative spacetime white noiseSpatial discretization of the stochastic semilinear subdiffusion driven by integrated multiplicative spacetime white noise is considered. The spatial discretization scheme discussed in Gy\"ongy \cite{gyo_space} and Anton et al. \cite{antcohque} for stochastic quasilinear parabolic partial differential equations driven by multiplicative spacetime noise is extended to the stochastic subdiffusion. The nonlinear terms $f$ and $\sigma$ satisfy the global Lipschitz conditions and the linear growth conditions. The space derivative and the integrated multiplicative spacetime white noise are discretized by using finite difference methods. Based on the approximations of the Green functions which are expressed with the MittagLeffler functions, the optimal spatial convergence rates of the proposed numerical method are proved uniformly in space under the suitable smoothness assumptions of the initial values.

Error estimates of a continuous Galerkin time stepping method for subdiffusion problemA continuous Galerkin time stepping method is introduced and analyzed for subdiffusion problem in an abstract setting. The approximate solution will be sought as a continuous piecewise linear function in time $t$ and the test space is based on the discontinuous piecewise constant functions. We prove that the proposed time stepping method has the convergence order $O(\tau^{1+ \alpha}), \, \alpha \in (0, 1)$ for general sectorial elliptic operators for nonsmooth data by using the Laplace transform method, where $\tau$ is the time step size. This convergence order is higher than the convergence orders of the popular convolution quadrature methods (e.g., Lubich's convolution methods) and Ltype methods (e.g., L1 method), which have only $O(\tau)$ convergence for the nonsmooth data. Numerical examples are given to verify the robustness of the time discretization schemes with respect to data regularity.

Multimetric Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Remote Learning in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering During the COVID19 Pandemic: Indicators and Guidance for Future PreparednessThis data set contains data collected from 5 universities in 5 countries about the effectiveness of elearning during the COVID19 pandemic, specifically tailored to mechanical and industrial engineering students. A survey was administered in May, 2020 at these universities simultaneously, using Google Forms. The survey had 41 questions, including 24 questions on a 5point Likert scale. The survey questions gathered data on their program of study, year of study, university of enrolment and mode of accessing their online learning content. The Likert scale questions on the survey gathered data on the effectiveness of digital delivery tools, student preferences for remote learning and the success of the digital delivery tools during the pandemic. All students enrolled in modules taught by the authors of this study were encouraged to fill the survey up. Additionally, remaining students in the departments associated with the authors were also encouraged to fill up the form through emails sent on mailing lists. The survey was also advertised on external websites such as survey circle and facebook. Crucial insights have been obtained after analysing this data set that link the student demographic profile (gender, program of study, year of study, university) to their preferences for remote learning and effectiveness of digital delivery tools. This data set can be used for further comparative studies and was useful to get a snapshot of student preferences and elearning effectiveness during the COVID19 pandemic, which required the use of elearning tools on a wider scale than previously and using new modes such as video conferencing that were set up within a short timeframe of a few days or weeks.

Group Codes, Composite Group Codes and Constructions of SelfDual CodesThe main research presented in this thesis is around constructing binary selfdual codes using group rings together with some wellknown code construction methods and the study of group codes and composite group codes over different alphabets. Both these families of codes are generated by the elements that come from group rings. A search for binary selfdual codes with new weight enumerators is an ongoing research area in algebraic coding theory. For this reason, we present a generator matrix in which we employ the idea of a bisymmetric matrix with its entries being the block matrices that come from group rings and give the necessary conditions for this generator matrix to produce a selfdual code over a fi nite commutative Frobenius ring. Together with our generator matrix and some wellknown code construction methods, we find many binary selfdual codes with parameters [68, 34, 12] that have weight enumerators that were not known in the literature before. There is an extensive literature on the study of different families of codes over different alphabets and speci fically finite fi elds and finite commutative rings. The study of codes over rings opens up a new direction for constructing new binary selfdual codes with a rich automorphism group via the algebraic structure of the rings through the Gray maps associated with them. In this thesis, we introduce a new family of rings, study its algebraic structure and show that each member of this family is a commutative Frobenius ring. Moreover, we study group codes over this new family of rings and show that one can obtain codes with a rich automorphism group via the associated Gray map. We extend a well established isomorphism between group rings and the subring of the n x n matrices and show its applications to algebraic coding theory. Our extension enables one to construct many complex n x n matrices over the ring R that are fully de ned by the elements appearing in the first row. This property allows one to build generator matrices with these complex matrices so that the search field is practical in terms of the computational times. We show how these complex matrices are constructed using group rings, study their properties and present many interesting examples of complex matrices over the ring R. Using our extended isomorphism, we de ne a new family of codes which we call the composite group codes or for simplicity, composite Gcodes. We show that these new codes are ideals in the group ring RG and prove that the dual of a composite Gcode is also a composite Gcode. Moreover, we study generator matrices of the form [In  Ω(v)]; where In is the n x n identity matrix and Ω(v) is the composite matrix that comes from the extended isomorphism mentioned earlier. In particular, we show when such generator matrices produce selfdual codes over finite commutative Frobenius rings. Additionally, together with some generator matrices of the type [In  Ω(v)] and the wellknown extension and neighbour methods, we fi nd many new binary selfdual codes with parameters [68, 34, 12]. Lastly in this work, we study composite Gcodes over formal power series rings and finite chain rings. We extend many known results on projections and lifts of codes over these alphabets. We also extend some known results on γadic codes over the infi nite ring R∞

Layer Dynamics for the one dimensional $\eps$dependent CahnHilliard / AllenCahn EquationWe study the dynamics of the onedimensional εdependent CahnHilliard / AllenCahn equation within a neighborhood of an equilibrium of N transition layers, that in general does not conserve mass. Two different settings are considered which differ in that, for the second, we impose a massconservation constraint in place of one of the zeromass flux boundary conditions at x = 1. Motivated by the study of Carr and Pego on the layered metastable patterns of AllenCahn in [10], and by this of Bates and Xun in [5] for the CahnHilliard equation, we implement an Ndimensional, and a massconservative N−1dimensional manifold respectively; therein, a metastable state with N transition layers is approximated. We then determine, for both cases, the essential dynamics of the layers (ode systems with the equations of motion), expressed in terms of local coordinates relative to the manifold used. In particular, we estimate the spectrum of the linearized CahnHilliard / AllenCahn operator, and specify wide families of εdependent weights δ(ε), µ(ε), acting at each part of the operator, for which the dynamics are stable and rest exponentially small in ε. Our analysis enlightens the role of mass conservation in the classification of the general mixed problem into two main categories where the solution has a profile close to AllenCahn, or, when the mass is conserved, close to the CahnHilliard solution.

Characterization of microwave and terahertz dielectric properties of single crystal La2Ti2O7 along one single directionNew generation wireless communication systems require characterisations of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent at microwave and terahertz bands. La2Ti2O7 is a candidate material for microwave application. However, all the reported microwave dielectric data are average value from different directions of a single crystal, which could not reflect its anisotropic nature due to the layered crystal structure. Its dielectric properties at the microwave and terahertz bands in a single crystallographic direction have rarely been reported. In this work, a single crystal ferroelectric La2Ti2O7 was prepared by floating zone method and its dielectric properties were characterized from 1 kHz to 1 THz along one single direction. The decrease in dielectric permittivity with increasing frequency is related to dielectric relaxation from radio frequency to microwave then to terahertz band. The capability of characterizing anisotropic dielectric properties of a single crystal in this work opens the feasibility for its microwave and terahertz applications.

MillimeterWave FreeSpace Dielectric CharacterizationMillimeter wave technologies have widespread applications, for which dielectric permittivity is a fundamental parameter. The nonresonant freespace measurement techniques for dielectric permittivity using vector network analysis in the millimeter wave range are reviewed. An introductory look at the applications, significance, and properties of dielectric permittivity in the millimeter wave range is addressed first. The principal aspects of freespace millimeter wave measurement methods are then discussed, by assessing a variety of systems, theoretical models, extraction algorithms and calibration methods. In addition to conventional solid dielectric materials, the measurement of artificial metamaterials, liquid, and gaseousphased samples are separately investigated. The pros of freespace material extraction methods are then compared with resonance and transmission line methods, and their future perspective is presented in the concluding part.

Volatile Liquid Detection by Terahertz TechnologiesThe prospect of being able to move through security without the inconvenience of separating liquids from bags is an exciting one for passengers, and there are important operational benefits for airports as well. Here, two terahertz (THz) systems, 100 GHz subTHz line scanner and attenuation total reflectionbased THz time domain spectroscopy (TDS), have been used to demonstrate the capability of identifying different liquid samples. Liquid samples’ THz complex permittivities are measured and their differences have contributed to the variation of 100 GHz 2D images of volatile liquids with different volumes inside of cannister bottles. The acquired attenuation images at 100 GHz can easily be used to distinguish highly absorbed liquids (Water, Ethanol, Fuel Treatment Chemicals) and low loss liquids (Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene and Universal Bottle Cleaner). The results give a promising feasibility for mmwave imager and THz spectroscopy to efficiently identify different volatile liquids.

New Extremal Binary Selfdual Codes from block circulant matrices and block quadratic residue circulant matricesIn this paper, we construct selfdual codes from a construction that involves both block circulant matrices and block quadratic residue circulant matrices. We provide conditions when this construction can yield selfdual codes. We construct selfdual codes of various lengths over F2 and F2 + uF2. Using extensions, neighbours and sequences of neighbours, we construct many new selfdual codes. In particular, we construct one new selfdual code of length 66 and 51 new selfdual codes of length 68.

Virtual reality training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in schoolsUK average survival from Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) survival is around 8.6%, which is significantly lower than other high performing countries with survival rates of over 20%. A cardiac arrest victim is 2–4 times more likely to survive OHCA with bystander CPR provision. Mandatory Teaching CPR to children in school is acknowledged to be the most effective way to reach the entire population and improving the bystander CPR rate and is endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) “Kids Save Lives” statement. Despite this, Wales is yet to follow other home nations by including CPR training as a mandatory within the school’s curriculum. In this paper, we explore the role of teaching CPR to schoolchildren and report on the development by Computer scientists at the University of Chester and the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust (WAST) of VCPR, a virtual environment to help teach the procedure. VCPR was developed in three stages: identifying requirements and specifications; development of a prototype; and management—development of software, further funding and exploring opportunities for commercialisation. We describe the opportunities in Wales to skill up the whole population over time in CPR and present our Virtual reality (VR) technology is emerging as a powerful for teaching CPR in schools.

Optomechanical switching of adsorption configurations of polar organic molecules by UV radiation pressureUsing photoemission spectroscopy (PES), we have systematically investigated the behavior of polar organic molecule, chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), adsorbed in the Cldown configuration on the Ag(111) substrate at low temperature − 195 °C under UV irradiation with a range of different photon fluxes. Judging from the evolution of photoemission spectral line shapes of molecular energy states, we discovered that the Cl atoms are so robustly anchored at Ag(111) that the impinging photons cannot flip the ClAlPc molecules, but instead they crouch them down due to radiation pressure; we observe that the phthalocyanine (Pc) lobes bend down to interact with Ag atoms on the substrate and induce charge transfer from them. As photon flux is increased, radiation pressure on the Pc plane initiates tunneling of the Cl atom through the molecular plane to turn the adsorption configuration of ClAlPc from Cldown to an upheld Clup configuration, elucidating an optomechanical way of manipulating the dipole direction of polar molecules. Finally, work function measurements provide a distinct signature of the resulting upheld Clup configuration as it leads to a large increase in vacuum level (VL), ~ 0.4 eV higher than that of a typical flaton Clup configuration driven by thermal annealing.

New Selfdual Codes from 2 x 2 block circulant matrices, Group Rings and Neighbours of NeighboursIn this paper, we construct new selfdual codes from a construction that involves a unique combination; $2 \times 2$ block circulant matrices, group rings and a reverse circulant matrix. There are certain conditions, specified in this paper, where this new construction yields selfdual codes. The theory is supported by the construction of selfdual codes over the rings $\FF_2$, $\FF_2+u\FF_2$ and $\FF_4+u\FF_4$. Using extensions and neighbours of codes, we construct $32$ new selfdual codes of length $68$. We construct 48 new best known singlyeven selfdual codes of length 96.

NonExhaust Vehicle Emissions of Particulate Matter and VOC from Road Traffic: A ReviewAs exhaust emissions of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from road vehicles have progressively come under greater control, nonexhaust emissions have become an increasing proportion of the total emissions, and in many countries now exceed exhaust emissions. Nonexhaust particle emissions arise from abrasion of the brakes and tyres and wear of the road surface, as well as from resuspension of road dusts. The national emissions, particle size distributions and chemical composition of each of these sources is reviewed. Most estimates of airborne concentrations derive from the use of chemical tracers of specific emissions; the tracers and airborne concentrations estimated from their use are considered. Particle size distributions have been measured both in the laboratory and in field studies, and generally show particles to be in both the coarse (PM2.510) and fine (PM2.5) fractions, with a larger proportion in the former. The introduction of battery electric vehicles is concluded to have only a small effect on overall road traffic particle emissions. Approaches to numerical modelling of nonexhaust particles in the atmosphere are reviewed. Abatement measures include engineering controls, especially for brake wear, improved materials (e.g. for tyre wear) and road surface cleaning and dust suppressants for resuspension. Emissions from solvents in screen wash and deicers now dominate VOC emissions from traffic in the UK, and exhibit a very different composition to exhaust VOC emissions. Likely future trends in nonexhaust particle emissions are described.

Galerkin finite element approximation of a stochastic semilinear fractional subdiffusion with fractionally integrated additive noiseA Galerkin finite element method is applied to approximate the solution of a semilinear stochastic space and time fractional subdiffusion problem with the Caputo fractional derivative of the order $ \alpha \in (0, 1)$, driven by fractionally integrated additive noise. After discussing the existence, uniqueness and regularity results, we approximate the noise with the piecewise constant function in time in order to obtain a regularized stochastic fractional subdiffusion problem. The regularized problem is then approximated by using the finite element method in spatial direction. The mean squared errors are proved based on the sharp estimates of the various MittagLeffler functions involved in the integrals. Numerical experiments are conducted to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical findings.

The Potential of Incremental Forming Techniques for Aerospace ApplicationsIncremental sheet metal forming (ISF) processes are part of a set of nonclassical techniques that allow producing lowbatches, customized and/or specific geometries for advanced engineering applications, such as aerospace, automotive and biomedical parts. Combined or not with other joining processes and additive manufacturing techniques, ISF processes permit rapid prototyping frameworks, and can be included in the class of smart manufacturing processes. This chapter discusses the fundamentals of ISF technology, key attributes, future challenges and presents few examples related to the use of incremental forming for the development of complex parts as specifically found in aerospace applications such as aerofoils. The use of incremental forming to produce customized designs and to perform quick tryouts of readytouse parts contributes to decrease the time to market, decrease tooling cost and increase part design freedom.

New binary selfdual codes of lengths 56, 58, 64, 80 and 92 from a modification of the four circulant construction.In this work, we give a new technique for constructing selfdual codes over commutative Frobenius rings using $\lambda$circulant matrices. The new construction was derived as a modification of the wellknown four circulant construction of selfdual codes. Applying this technique together with the buildingup construction, we construct singlyeven binary selfdual codes of lengths 56, 58, 64, 80 and 92 that were not known in the literature before. Singlyeven selfdual codes of length 80 with $\beta \in \{2,4,5,6,8\}$ in their weight enumerators are constructed for the first time in the literature.

Design and finite element simulation of metalcore piezoelectric fiber/epoxy matrix composites for virus detectionUndoubtedly, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) has received the greatest concern with a global impact, and this situation will continue for a long period of time. Looking back in history, airborne transimission diseases have caused huge casualties several times. COVID19 as a typical airborne disease caught our attention and reminded us of the importance of preventing such diseases. Therefore, this study focuses on finding a new way to guard against the spread of these diseases such as COVID19. This paper studies the dynamic electromechanical response of metalcore piezoelectric fiber/epoxy matrix composites, designed as mass load sensors for virus detection, by numerical modelling. The dynamic electromechanical response is simulated by applying an alternating current (AC) electric field to make the composite vibrate. Furthermore, both concentrated and distributed loads are considered to assess the sensitivity of the biosensor during modelling of the combination of both biomarker and viruses. The design parameters of this sensor, such as the resonant frequency, the position and size of the biomarker, will be studied and optimized as the key values to determine the sensitivity of detection. The novelty of this work is to propose functional composites that can detect the viruses from changes of the output voltage instead of the resonant frequency change using piezoelectric sensor and piezoelectric actuator. The contribution of this detection method will significantly shorten the detection time as it avoids fast Fourier transform (FFT) or discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The outcome of this research offers a reliable numerical model to optimize the design of the proposed biosensor for virus detection, which will contribute to the production of highperformance piezoelectric biosensors in the future.