Based at Thornton Science Park, the new Faculty of Science and Engineering is located in a major research and innovation hub for the North West which is only a 20-minute bus trip from the main Chester Campus. The Faculty offers degrees in engineering and science disciplines using a strongly interdisciplinary teaching philosophy.

Collections in this community

Recent Submissions

  • Interface Cohesive Elements to Model Matrix Crack Evolution in Composite Laminates

    Shi, Yu; Pinna, Christophe; Soutis, Constantinos; University of Chester; University of Sheffield; University of Manchester (Springer, 2013-10-02)
    In this paper, the transverse matrix (resin) cracking developed in multidirectional composite laminates loaded in tension was numerically investigated by a finite element (FE) model implemented in the commercially available software Abaqus/Explicit 6.10. A theoretical solution using the equivalent constraint model (ECM) of the damaged laminate developed by Soutis et al. was employed to describe matrix cracking evolution and compared to the proposed numerical approach. In the numerical model, interface cohesive elements were inserted between neighbouring finite elements that run parallel to fibre orientation in each lamina to simulate matrix cracking with the assumption of equally spaced cracks (based on experimental measurements and observations). The stress based traction-separation law was introduced to simulate initiation of matrix cracking and propagation under mixed-mode loading. The numerically predicted crack density was found to depend on the mesh size of the model and the material fracture parameters defined for the cohesive elements. Numerical predictions of matrix crack density as a function of applied stress are in a good agreement to experimentally measured and theoretically (ECM) obtained values, but some further refinement will be required in near future work.
  • Swarm Communication by Evolutionary Algorithms

    Vaughan, Neil; University of Chester (IEEE, 2018-05-27)
    This research has applied evolutionary algorithms to evolve swarm communication. Controllers were evolved for colonies of artificial simulated ants during a food foriaging task which communicate using pheromone. Neuroevolution enables both weights and the topology of the artificial neural networks to be optimized for food foriaging. The developed model results in evolution of ants which communicate using pheromone trails. The ants successfully collect and return food to the nest. The controller has evolved to adjust the strength of pheromone which provides a signal to guide the direction of other ants in the colony by hill climbing strategy. A single ANN controller for ant direction successfully evolved which exhibits many separate skills including food search, pheromone following, food collection and retrieval to the nest.
  • Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning for Swarm Retrieval with Evolving Neural Network

    Vaughan, Neil; Royal Academy of Engineering; University of Chester (Springer-Verlag,, 2018-07-07)
    This research investigates methods for evolving swarm communica-tion in a sim-ulated colony of ants using pheromone when foriaging for food. This research implemented neuroevolution and obtained the capability to learn phero-mone communication autonomously. Building on previous literature on phero-mone communication, this research applies evolution to adjust the topology and weights of an artificial neural network (ANN) which controls the ant behaviour. Compar-ison of performance is made between a hard-coded benchmark algorithm (BM1), a fixed topology ANN and neuroevolution of the ANN topology and weights. The resulting neuroevolution produced a neural network which was suc-cessfully evolved to achieve the task objective, to collect food and return it to a location.
  • A Posteriori Analysis for Space-Time, discontinuous in time Galerkin approximations for parabolic equations in a variable domain

    Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Plexousakis, Michael; University of Chester; University of Crete (ECP sciences, 2018)
    This paper presents an a posteriori error analysis for the discontinuous in time space-time scheme proposed by Jamet for the heat equation in multi-dimensional, non-cylindrical domains [25]. Using a Cl ement-type interpolant, we prove abstract a posteriori error bounds for the numerical error. Furthermore, in the case of two-dimensional spatial domains we transform the problem into an equivalent one, of parabolic type, with space-time dependent coe cients but posed on a cylindrical domain. We formulate a discontinuous in time space{time scheme and prove a posteriori error bounds of optimal order. The a priori estimates of [19] for general parabolic initial and boundary value problems are used in the derivation of the upper bound. Our lower bound coincides with that of Picasso [36], proposed for adaptive, Runge-Kutta finite element methods for linear parabolic problems. Our theoretical results are verified by numerical experiments.
  • Insights into HOx and ROx chemistry in the boreal forest via measurement of peroxyacetic acid, peroxyacetic nitric anhydride (PAN) and hydrogen peroxide

    Crowley, John; Pouvesle, Nicolas; Phillips, Gavin; Axinte, Raoul; Fischer, Horst; Petaja, Tuukka; Noelscher, Anke; Williams, Jonathan; Hens, Korbinian; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez-Harder, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Kubistin, Dagmar; Bohn, Birger; Lelieveld, Jos; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry; Forschungzentrum Juelich; University of Chester (European Geosciences Union, 2018-09-21)
    Unlike many oxidised atmospheric trace gases, which have numerous production pathways, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and PAN are formed almost exclusively in gas-phase reactions involving the hydroperoxy radical (HO2), the acetyl peroxy radical (CH3C(O)O2) and NO2 and are not believed to be directly emitted in significant amounts by vegetation. As the self-reaction of HO2 is the main photochemical route to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), simultaneous observation of PAA, PAN and H2O2 can provide insight into the HO2 budget. We present an analysis of observations taken during a summertime campaign in a boreal forest that, in addition to natural conditions, was temporarily impacted by two biomass-burning plumes. The observations were analysed using an expression based on a steady-state assumption using relative PAA-to-PAN mixing ratios to derive HO2 concentrations. The steady-state approach generated HO2 concentrations that were generally in reasonable agreement with measurements but sometimes overestimated those observed by factors of 2 or more. We also used a chemically simple, constrained box model to analyse the formation and reaction of radicals that define the observed mixing ratios of PAA and H2O2. After nudging the simulation towards observations by adding extra, photochemical sources of HO2 and CH3C(O)O2, the box model replicated the observations of PAA, H2O2, ROOH and OH throughout the campaign, including the biomass-burning-influenced episodes during which significantly higher levels of many oxidized trace gases were observed. A dominant fraction of CH3O2 radical generation was found to arise via reactions of the CH3C(O)O2 radical. The model indicates that organic peroxy radicals were present at night in high concentrations that sometimes exceeded those predicted for daytime, and initially divergent measured and modelled HO2 concentrations and daily concentration profiles are reconciled when organic peroxy radicals are detected (as HO2) at an efficiency of 35%. Organic peroxy radicals are found to play an important role in the recycling of OH radicals subsequent to their loss via reactions with volatile organic compounds.
  • An Information-Theoretic Approach to the Cost-benefit Analysis of Visualization in Virtual Environments

    Chen, Min; Gaither, Kelly; John, Nigel; McCann, Brian; University of Oxford; University of Texas at Austin; University of Chester (IEEE, 2018-08-20)
    Visualization and virtual environments (VEs) have been two interconnected parallel strands in visual computing for decades. Some VEs have been purposely developed for visualization applications, while many visualization applications are exemplary showcases in general-purpose VEs. Because of the development and operation costs of VEs, the majority of visualization applications in practice have yet to benefit from the capacity of VEs. In this paper, we examine this status quo from an information-theoretic perspective. Our objectives are to conduct cost-benefit analysis on typical VE systems (including augmented and mixed reality, theatre-based systems, and large powerwalls), to explain why some visualization applications benefit more from VEs than others, and to sketch out pathways for the future development of visualization applications in VEs. We support our theoretical propositions and analysis using theories and discoveries in the literature of cognitive sciences and the practical evidence reported in the literatures of visualization and VEs.
  • Fibre laser treatment of martensitic NiTi alloys for load-bearing implant applications: Effects of surface chemistry on inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Smith, Graham C.; Chan, Chi-Wai; Carson, Louise; Queens University Belfast; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-06-15)
    Biofilm infection is one of the main reasons for implant failure. It is extremely difficult to cure due to its high resistance to antibiotic treatments, and can result in substantial healthcare costs. In this study, the important shape memory NiTi alloy, in its martensitic state, was laser-treated using our newly-developed surface modification technique, aiming to tackle the biofilm infection problem. Martensitic NiTi was chosen for investigation because of its potential advantages in terms of (i) lower elastic modulus and (ii) higher damping capacity over its austenitic counterpart, giving rise to a lower risk of stress shielding and maximum stress between bones and load-bearing implants. The surfaces after laser treatment were systemically analysed using a series of surface measurement (i.e. surface roughness and water contact angle) and material characterisation (i.e. SEM-EDX, XRD and XPS) techniques. The antibacterial performance of the laser-treated surfaces was evaluated using the Staphylococcus aureus (or S. aureus) cells in-vitro cultured at 37 oC for 24h. Fluorescence microscopy accompanied by Live/Dead staining was employed to analyse the cell culture results. The surfaces in their as-received states and after polishing were also tested and compared with the laser-treated surfaces in order to gain a deeper insight in how different surface conditions would influence biofilm formation. Our results indicate that the surfaces after laser treatment can mitigate bacterial attachment and biofilm formation effectively. The antibacterial performance was mainly attributable to the laser-formed oxides which brought desirable changes to the surface chemistry of NiTi. The laser-induced changes in surface roughness and topography, on a micrometre scale, only played a minor role in influencing bacterial attachment. The findings of this study demonstrated for the first time that martensitic NiTi with laser treatment could be a promising choice for the next-generation implants given its superior antimicrobial resistance and favourable mechanical properties for loading bearing applications.
  • Exploration and Implementation of Augmented Reality for External Beam Radiotherapy

    John, Nigel W.; Vaarkamp, Jaap; Cosentino, Francesco (University of Chester, 2018-07-17)
    We have explored applications of Augmented Reality (AR) for external beam radiotherapy to assist with treatment planning, patient education, and treatment delivery. We created an AR development framework for applications in radiotherapy (RADiotherapy Augmented Reality, RAD-AR) for AR ready consumer electronics such as tablet computers and head mounted devices (HMD). We implemented in RAD-AR three tools to assist radiotherapy practitioners with: treatment plans evaluation, patient pre-treatment information/education, and treatment delivery. We estimated accuracy and precision of the patient setup tool and the underlying self-tracking technology, and fidelity of AR content geometric representation, on the Apple iPad tablet computer and the Microsoft HoloLens HMD. Results showed that the technology could already be applied for detection of large treatment setup errors, and could become applicable to other aspects of treatment delivery subject to technological improvements that can be expected in the near future. We performed user feedback studies of the patient education and the plan evaluation tools. Results indicated an overall positive user evaluation of AR technology compared to conventional tools for the radiotherapy elements implemented. We conclude that AR will become a useful tool in radiotherapy bringing real benefits for both clinicians and patients, contributing to successful treatment outcomes.
  • Error estimates of high-order numerical methods for solving time fractional partial differential equations

    Li, Zhiqiang; Yan, Yubin; Luliang University; Shanghai University; University of Chester (De Gruyter, 2018-07-12)
    Error estimates of some high-order numerical methods for solving time fractional partial differential equations are studied in this paper. We first provide the detailed error estimate of a high-order numerical method proposed recently by Li et al. \cite{liwudin} for solving time fractional partial differential equation. We prove that this method has the convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha})$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1)$ when the first and second derivatives of the solution are vanish at $t=0$, where $\tau$ is the time step size and $\alpha$ is the fractional order in the Caputo sense. We then introduce a new time discretization method for solving time fractional partial differential equations, which has no requirements for the initial values as imposed in Li et al. \cite{liwudin}. We show that this new method also has the convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha})$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. The proofs of the error estimates are based on the energy method developed recently by Lv and Xu \cite{lvxu}. We also consider the space discretization by using the finite element method. Error estimates with convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha} + h^2)$ are proved in the fully discrete case, where $h$ is the space step size. Numerical examples in both one- and two-dimensional cases are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
  • Hybrid Heat Pump for Micro Heat Network

    Counsell, M. J.; Khalid, Yousaf; Stewart, M.; University of Chester (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), 2017-10-17)
    Achieving nearly zero carbon heating continues to be identified by UK government analysis as an important feature of any lowest cost pathway to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Heat currently accounts for 48% of UK energy consumption and approximately one third of UK’s greenhouse gas emissions. Heat Networks are being promoted by UK investment policies as one means of supporting hybrid heat pump based solutions. To this effect the RISE (Renewable Integrated and Sustainable Electric) heating system project is investigating how an all-electric heating sourceshybrid configuration could play a key role in long-term decarbonisation of heat. For the purposes of this study, hybrid systems are defined as systems combining the technologies of an electric driven air source heat pump, electric powered thermal storage, a thermal vessel and micro-heat network as an integrated system. This hybrid strategy allows for the system to store up energy during periods of low electricity demand from the national grid, turning it into a dynamic supply of low cost heat which is utilized only when required. Currently a prototype of such a system is being tested in a modern house integrated with advanced controls and sensors. This paper presents the virtual performance analysis of the system and its design for a micro heat network with multiple dwelling units. The results show that the RISE system is controllable and can reduce carbon emissions whilst being competitive in running costs with a conventional gas boiler heating system.
  • Oxidation processes in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere: evidence from the modelling of HOx measurements over Cyprus

    Mallik, Chinmay; Tomsche, Laura; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Crowley, John; Derstroff, Bettina; Fischer, Horst; Haferman, Sascha; Hueser, Imke; Javed, Umar; Kessel, Stephan; Lelieveld, Jos; Martinez, Monica; Meusel, Hannah; Novelli, Anna; Phillips, Gavin; Pozzer, Andrea; Reiffs, Andreas; Sander, Rolf; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Sauvage, Carina; Schuladen, Jan; Su, Hang; Williams, Jonathan; Harder, Hartwig; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry; Cyprus Institute; Forschungzentrum Juelich; University of Chester (Copernicus Publications, 2018-07-31)
    The Mediterranean is a climatically sensitive region located at the crossroads of air masses from three continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia. The chemical processing of air masses over this region has implications not only for the air quality but also for the long-range transport of air pollution. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of oxidation processes over the Mediterranean, atmospheric concentrations of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) were measured during an intensive field campaign (CYprus PHotochemistry EXperiment, CYPHEX-2014) in the northwest of Cyprus in the summer of 2014. Very low local anthropogenic and biogenic emissions around the measurement location provided a vantage point to study the contrasts in atmospheric oxidation pathways under highly processed marine air masses and those influenced by relatively fresh emissions from mainland Europe. The CYPHEX measurements were used to evaluate OH and HO2 simulations using a photochemical box model (CAABA/MECCA) constrained with CYPHEX observations of O3, CO, NOx, hydrocarbons, peroxides, and other major HOx (OH+HO2) sources and sinks in a low-NOx environment (<100pptv of NO). The model simulations for OH agreed to within 10% with in situ OH observations. Model simulations for HO2 agreed to within 17% of the in situ observations. However, the model strongly under-predicted HO2 at high terpene concentrations, this under-prediction reaching up to 38% at the highest terpene levels. Different schemes to improve the agreement between observed and modelled HO2, including changing the rate coefficients for the reactions of terpene-generated peroxy radicals (RO2) with NO and HO2 as well as the autoxidation of terpene-generated RO2 species, are explored in this work. The main source of OH in Cyprus was its primary production from O3 photolysis during the day and HONO photolysis during early morning. Recycling contributed about one-third of the total OH production, and the maximum recycling efficiency was about 0.7. CO, which was the largest OH sink, was also the largest HO2 source. The lowest HOx production and losses occurred when the air masses had higher residence time over the oceans.
  • Effect of Temperature and Catholyte Concentration on the Performance of a Chemically Regenerative Fuel Cell POM-based catholytes for platinum-free polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Ward, David B.; Davies, Trevor J.; University of Chester (JOHNSON MATTHEY, plc, 2018-04-01)
    Chemically regenerative redox cathode (CRRC) polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are attracting more interest as a platinum-free PEFC technology. These fuel cells utilise a liquid catalyst or catholyte, to perform the indirect reduction of oxygen, eliminating the major degradation mechanisms that plague PEFC durability. A key component of a CRRC PEFC system is the catholyte. This article reports a thorough study of the effect of catholyte concentration and temperature on CRRC PEFC system performance for H7PV4Mo8O40 and Na4H3PV4Mo8O40, two promising polyoxometalate (POM)-based catholytes. The results suggest 80ºC and a catholyte concentration of 0.3 M provide the optimum performance for both H7PV4Mo8O40 and Na4H3PV4Mo8O40 (for ambient pressure operation).
  • Predicting the critical heat flux in pool boiling based on hydrodynamic instability induced irreversible hot spots

    Zhao, Huayong; Williams, Andrew; Loughborough University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-03-07)
    A new model, based on the experimental observation reported in the literature that CHF is triggered by the Irreversible Hot Spots (IHS), has been developed to predict the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling. The developed Irreversible Hot Spot (IHS) model can predict the CHF when boiling methanol on small flat surfaces and long horizontal cylinders of different sizes to within 5% uncertainty. It can also predict the effect of changing wettability (i.e. contact angle) on CHF to within 10% uncertainty for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. In addition, a linear empirical correlation has been developed to model the bubble growth rate as a function of the system pressure. The IHS model with this linear bubble growth coefficient correlation can predict the CHF when boiling water on both flat surfaces and long horizontal cylinders to within 5% uncertainty up to 10 bar system pressure, and the CHF when boiling methanol on a flat surface to within 10% uncertainty up to 5 bar. The predicted detailed bubble grow and merge process from various sub-models are also in good agreement with the experimental results reported in the literature.
  • Gastrointestinal Stents: Materials and Designs

    Black, Steven J.; Edwards, Derek W.; Smith, Graham C.; Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; MDECON Ltd.; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust; University of Chester (Thieme Publishing, 2018-05-09)
    Over the last 25 years stents have developed into an established way of restoring luminal patency throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Materials used as well as the construction of these devices have become more and more sophisticated in order to comply better with the complex environment they are inserted. The requirements vary greatly from organ to organ and stent behavior differs significantly between stent constructions. However this is not necessarily understood by many operators, as the choice of devices is now vast and in many cases decisions are made on availability and cost. An increasing challenge in malignant conditions is the improving survival of incurable patients, which now exceeds the traditional life expectancy of a stent by a factor of 2 to 3. Consequently more patients experience failure of their stent and require repeat interventions. This has a poor impact on patients’ quality of life and potentially on their survival. Re-intervention is often more difficult, carries the risk of additional complications and presents an additional economic burden to the health systems. This article illustrates current stent designs, their different behavior and their limitations.
  • A micromachined device describing over a hundred orders of parametric resonance

    Jia, Yu; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Seshia, Ashwin A.; University of Cambridge; University of Chester (AIP Publishing, 2018-04-24)
    Parametric resonance in mechanical oscillators can onset from the periodic modulation of at least one of the system parameters, and the behaviour of the principal (1st order) parametric resonance has long been well established. However, the theoretically predicted higher orders of parametric resonance, in excess of the first few orders, have mostly been experimentally elusive due to the fast diminishing instability intervals. A recent paper experimentally reported up to 28 orders in a micromachined membrane oscillator. This paper reports the design and characterisation of a micromachined membrane oscillator with a segmented proof mass topology, in an attempt to amplify the inherent nonlinearities within the membrane layer. The resultant oscillator device exhibited up to over a hundred orders of parametric resonance, thus experimentally validating these ultra-high orders as well as overlapping instability transitions between these higher orders. This research introduces design possibilities for the transducer and dynamic communities, by exploiting the behaviour of these previously elusive higher order resonant regimes.
  • Evidence for the Perception of Time Distortion During Episodes of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

    Jia, Yu; Miao. Ying; University of Chester; Aston University (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018-05-17)
    Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare perceptual disorder associated with sensation of one or several visual and/or auditory perceptual distortions including size of body parts, size of external objects, or passage of time (either speeding up or slowing down). Cause for AIWS is yet to be widely agreed, and the implications are widely varied. One of the research difficulties is the brevity of each episode, typically not exceeding few tens of minutes. This article presents a male adult in late 20s who has apparently experienced AIWS episodes since childhood, and infection has been ruled out. Reaction speed tests were conducted during and after AIWS episodes, across a span of 13 months. Statistically significant evidence is present for delayed response time during AIWS episodes when the patient claims to experience a sensation of time distortion: where events seem to move faster and people appear to speak quicker.
  • Bioinspired bactericidal surfaces with polymer nanocone arrays

    Hazell, Gavin; Fisher, Leanne E.; Murray, W. Andrew; Nobbs, Angela H.; Su, Bo; University of Chester; University of Bristol (Elsevier, 2018-05-28)
    Infections resulting from bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of medical devices are challenging to treat and can cause significant patient morbidity. Recently, it has become apparent that regulation of surface nanotopography can render surfaces bactericidal. In this study, poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocone arrays are generated through a polystyrene nanosphere-mask colloidal lithographic process. It is shown that modification of the mask diameter leads to a direct modification of centre-to-centre spacing between nanocones. By altering the oxygen plasma etching time it is possible to modify the height, tip width and base diameter of the individual nanocone features. The bactericidal activity of the nanocone arrays was investigated against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is shown that surfaces with the most densely populated nanocone arrays (center-to-center spacing of 200 nm), higher aspect ratios (>3) and tip widths <20 nm kill the highest percentage of bacteria (∼30%).
  • A posteriori error estimates for fully discrete schemes for the time dependent Stokes problem

    Baensch, Eberhard; Karakatsani, Fotini; Makridakis, Charalambos; University of Erlangen; University of Chester; University of Crete; Foundation for Research & Technology, Greece; University of Sussex (Springer, 2018-05-02)
    This work is devoted to a posteriori error analysis of fully discrete finite element approximations to the time dependent Stokes system. The space discretization is based on popular stable spaces, including Crouzeix–Raviart and Taylor–Hood finite element methods. Implicit Euler is applied for the time discretization. The finite element spaces are allowed to change with time steps and the projection steps include alternatives that is hoped to cope with possible numerical artifices and the loss of the discrete incompressibility of the schemes. The final estimates are of optimal order in L∞(L2) for the velocity error.
  • The role of DNA methylation in ageing and cancer

    Morgan, Amy; Davies, Trevor; Mc Auley, Mark T.; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2018-04-30)
    The aim of the present review paper is to survey the literature related to DNA methylation, and its association with cancer and ageing. The review will outline the key factors, including diet, which modulate DNA methylation. Our rationale for conducting this review is that ageing and diseases, including cancer, are often accompanied by aberrant DNA methylation, a key epigenetic process, which is crucial to the regulation of gene expression. Significantly, it has been observed that with age and certain disease states, DNA methylation status can become disrupted. For instance, a broad array of cancers are associated with promoter-specific hypermethylation and concomitant gene silencing. This review highlights that hypermethylation, and gene silencing, of the EN1 gene promoter, a crucial homeobox gene, has been detected in various forms of cancer. This has led to this region being proposed as a potential biomarker for diseases such as cancer. We conclude the review by describing a recently developed novel electrochemical method that can be used to quantify the level of methylation within the EN1 promoter and emphasise the growing trend in the use of electrochemical techniques for the detection of aberrant DNA methylation.
  • Malliavin Calculus for the stochastic Cahn- Hilliard/Allen-Cahn equation with unbounded noise diffusion

    Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Farazakis, Dimitris; Karali, Georgia D.; University of Chester; Foundation for Research and Technology; University of Crete (Elsevier, 2018-05-08)
    The stochastic partial di erential equation analyzed in this work, is motivated by a simplified mesoscopic physical model for phase separation. It describes pattern formation due to adsorption and desorption mechanisms involved in surface processes, in the presence of a stochastic driving force. This equation is a combination of Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn type operators with a multiplicative, white, space-time noise of unbounded di usion. We apply Malliavin calculus, in order to investigate the existence of a density for the stochastic solution u. In dimension one, according to the regularity result in [5], u admits continuous paths a.s. Using this property, and inspired by a method proposed in [8], we construct a modi ed approximating sequence for u, which properly treats the new second order Allen-Cahn operator. Under a localization argument, we prove that the Malliavin derivative of u exists locally, and that the law of u is absolutely continuous, establishing thus that a density exists.

View more