Evaluation and communication: Using a communication audit to evaluate organizational communication
AffiliationUniversity of Chester
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractWithin evaluation studies the process of programme delivery is relatively neglected and within that there has been little or no attention to communication as an aspect of process. This article identifies this lacuna and proposes the technique known as 'communication audit' as a way to address this gap. The use of the method is exemplified through several programme evaluations.
CitationEvaluation Review, 2006, 30(2), pp. 171-187
DescriptionThis article is not available through ChesterRep.
SponsorsThis article was submitted to the RAE2008 for the University of Chester - Social Work and Social Policy & Administration.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Social Brain Hypothesis: Vocal and Gesture Networks of Wild ChimpanzeesRoberts, Sam G. B.; Roberts, Anna I.; University of Chester (2016-11-24)A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10m per hour spent in the same party), grooming, vocal communication and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behaviour per hour spent within 10 meters) in wild chimpanzees. The results were not corrected for multiple testing. Chimpanzees had differentiated social relationships, with focal chimpanzees maintaining some level of proximity to almost all group members, but directing gestures at and grooming with a smaller number of preferred social partners. Pairs of chimpanzees that had high levels of close proximity had higher rates of grooming. Importantly, higher rates of gestural communication were also positively associated with levels of proximity, and specifically gestures associated with affiliation (greeting, gesture to mutually groom) were related to proximity. Synchronized low-intensity pant-hoots were also positively related to proximity in pairs of chimpanzees. Further, there were differences in the size of individual chimpanzees’ proximity networks - the number of social relationships they maintained with others. Focal chimpanzees with larger proximity networks had a higher rate of both synchronized low- intensity pant-hoots and synchronized high-intensity pant-hoots. These results suggest that in addition to grooming, both gestures and synchronized vocalisations may play key roles in allowing chimpanzees to manage a large and differentiated set of social relationships. Gestures may be important in reducing the aggression arising from being in close proximity to others, allowing for proximity to be maintained for longer and facilitating grooming. Vocalisations may allow chimpanzees to communicate with a larger number of recipients than gestures and the synchronized nature of the pant-hoot calls may facilitate social bonding of more numerous social relationships. As group sizes increased through human evolution, both gestures and synchronized vocalizations may have played important roles in bonding social relationships in a more time-efficient manner than grooming.
The repertoire and intentionality of gestural communication in wild chimpanzees.Roberts, Anna I.; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Roberts, Sam G. B.; University of Chester; Budongo Conservation Field Station; University of Stirling (Springer, 2014-09-03)A growing body of evidence suggests that human language may have emerged primarily in the gestural rather than vocal domain, and that studying gestural communication in great apes is crucial to understanding language evolution. Although manual and bodily gestures are considered distinct at a neural level, there has been very limited consideration of potential differences at a behavioural level. In this study, we conducted naturalistic observations of adult wild East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in order to establish a repertoire of gestures, and examine intentionality of gesture production, use and comprehension, comparing across manual and bodily gestures. At the population level, 120 distinct gesture types were identified, consisting of 65 manual gestures and 55 bodily gestures. Both bodily and manual gestures were used intentionally and effectively to attain specific goals, by signallers who were sensitive to recipient attention. However, manual gestures differed from bodily gestures in terms of communicative persistence, indicating a qualitatively different form of behavioural flexibility in achieving goals. Both repertoire size and frequency of manual gesturing were more affiliative than bodily gestures, while bodily gestures were more antagonistic. These results indicate that manual gestures may have played a significant role in the emergence of increased flexibility in great ape communication and social bonding
Developing a Web 2.0 technology for hazard response simulationMiller, Servel; France, Derek; University of Chester (Higher Education Academy, 2012)Students studying disaster/hazard management in UK Higher Education institutions (HEi's) traditionally focus on hazard mapping and process analysis, but have limited opportunities to develop their risk communication skills which are required during emergency response situations. These skills are vital for the real world and employment. Opportunities to develop risk communication skills are not readily available to students during their studies as employers are reluctant to offer placements due to legal barriers. Therefore, universities have to develop tools to provide students with this vital ‘real-world’ experience. Over the last two years, the department of Geography & Development Studies at the University of Chester has begun to explore and evaluate the role of the Web 2.0 tool, Yammer (microblogging/communication tool) for natural hazard (volcano) simulation exercises. This paper highlights the continuing development of the natural hazard simulation exercise through input from external emergency/contingency practitioners locally and internationally to enhance its usability. Input from practitioners has resulted in the adaptation of the tool to flooding hazard emergency response and to other geographically based scenarios (e.g. crime analysis). The input from professionals in the field has enhanced the quality of the exercise/tool as well as providing students with vital employability skills currently used in the workplace of hazard management. Feedback from students highlighted their feeling of a ‘real-life’ pressure situation in which ‘real-time’ decisions have to be made in response to a rapidly changing environment. At the same time they indicated that their experience was stimulating, fun, innovative and enabled networking and interactive opportunities between tutors and students. The development of the Web 2.0 simulation tool through contributions from practitioners and an assessment as to whether the use of such technologies enhances student-learning experience is the focus of this paper.