• To what extent can 'the CSR framework' be adapted to meet the needs of BS 8900?: A qualitative study

      Whalley, Kelly (University of Chester, 2009-06)
      The growing global interest in corporate responsibility (CR) and the pressure felt by organisations in all sectors to demonstrate commitment and progress in CR has led to demands for guidelines and standards that can help companies shape their response to CR in a measurable and consistent way. In recent years a number of models and guidance documents have been produced; however companies are still struggling to understand how to approach CR and what mechanisms to use to integrate it into their organisation’s systems. The link between Quality Management Systems and CR has been noted by many authors and a respected model was developed by Castka et al (2004) which combined the systems used in the ISO 9001 accreditation with the requirements of a CR process. Their CSR Framework however does not link to any accredited standards and lacks practical steps for organisations to follow. This study takes the underlying basis of The CSR Framework and combines it with the guidance and structure found in the British Standard for Sustainability, the BS 8900, to create a model for CR integration. Through qualitative case study research of four organisations, the benefits and development areas of this model are discussed in relation to the CR needs of the organisations concerned and the practicalities of using a model to shape the integration of CR.
    • To what extent has the adoption of flexible mobile working transformed staff operations within Cheshire East Council ICT strategy?

      Evans, Sarah-Jayne (University of Chester, 2010-06)
      For many years Central Government has investigated ways in which to streamline Local Government Authorities (LGA), in order to provide better value services to its citizens. Following a Local Government Review (LGR) of two-tier councils, six district councils and one County Council were merged to form two unitary councils; namely Cheshire West and Chester Council and Cheshire East Council. This study investigates the extent of staff operation transformation following the adoption of flexible mobile working initiatives within the Cheshire East Council ICT Strategy. The adoption of such initiatives allows the organisation to tackle issues of accommodation, staff well-being and service delivery. To do this, the researcher uses a mixture of inductive and deductive approaches (supported by a contemporary literature review and a conceptual model), in order to investigate the research aim. Following a phenomenological philosophy, the researcher “seeks an understanding of human behaviour” (Hagyard & Keenan, 2006; Saunders et al, 2009, p. 116) to support the investigation into the extent of staff operation transformation. The data collection for this study is achieved through a research strategy of a survey approach, in which the researcher employs the use of two questionnaires distributed to two groups of respondents. Employing the methodological considerations from Chapter 3 leads the researcher to believe that the extent of staff operation transformation at this stage (year 1) is substantial. The researcher deduces this as the majority of employees adapt their work practices to suit working in a flexible, mobile manner. Staff efficiency is increased, their work-life balance is improved, and, they now have a choice of where they work from. In addition, the organisation benefits from tangible changes, such as reduced sickness absence, reduced overall travel costs, and improved use of existing office space. However, at the end of this report, in order to improve the benefits realised thus far, the researcher presents seven recommendations, to further promote the adoption of flexible mobile working within the organisation.
    • To what extent is marketing essential to the sustainability of maternity services within East Cheshire

      Lucas, Amanda (University of Chester, 2013-06)
      The aim(s) of the research are: • To understand contemporary literature on marketing within the National Health Service (NHS) • To critically analyse the concept of marketing maternity services • To investigate a strategic marketing pathway in relation to the sustainability of maternity services within East Cheshire • To draw conclusions and make recommendations for future marketing strategies to ensure the sustainability of maternity services within East Cheshire Marketing within the NHS and specifically maternity services is not common place in a traditional sense although perhaps the concepts and strategies outlined by academics such as Porter, Kottler and Ansoff can be transferred to this area with a beneficial effect. This piece of work is guided by the research aims and looks to seek out relevant information regarding the selling of products in the market place and attempts to analyse its effectiveness within the NHS and maternity. By the author’s involvement in the real time implementation of a private midwifery service within an existing maternity service, a combination of deductive and inductive techniques are used demonstrating a phenomenological approach to the research. Through personal interviews and completion of a questionnaire, the author gained insight into the current practice within the organisation’s geographical area, essential in the decision making process of where to begin the implementation of the new service. Following implementation of the private midwifery service, the author evaluates the process utilised during the change management, discussing lessons learned and providing recommendations transferrable for future projects. Key findings in the provision of care, however, provide minimal data after one month as the private midwifery service is yet to 4 become fully functional due to delays in its implementation. Uptake, however, is good and two women are enrolled in the service due to success in marketing the new service.
    • To what extent is social network ‘Facebook’ used as a communications tool to develop brands in Chester’s nightlife scene

      Paul, Stuart; Cawley, Ryan (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the extent social networking has on branding within Chester’s night life clubs. The concept of using social network ‘Facebook’ to develop a brand is relatively modern; therefore there is little previously bounded literature within this area. Therefore the approach taken during this process will aim to build a theory that answers such questions. The literature that will be analyzed will be centered on generalized marketing terms around the areas of building a brand image, creating word of mouth and developing a brand community. Under the bracket of such headings, many differing academic theories and models can be considered. The research will evaluate and consider existing research concerning many differing aspects of branding. Such as creating brand awareness, re-forcing the brands image, creating brand associations, building brand perception, developing a corporate image, communication messages. The base knowledge gathered from such data will give the project a good base from which to move from. The information hear will then be used to develop relevant questions ready for the qualitative data to be gathered in the form of the interviews and the student-led focus group. This approach will although for the results to be compared and contrasted against and viable conclusions to be drawn.
    • Trace element status in critical illness polyneuropathy

      O'Reilly, James; Strang, Rachael (University of Chester, 2009-10)
      Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a term for neuromuscular weakness acquired by patients treated in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU). It is thought to affect almost half of all patients admitted and causes delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, increased requirement for renal replacement therapy and increased length of stay in ICU. Although evidence is inconsistent, increased mortality has been shown in patients who experience CIP. The pathophysiology of CIP remains largely unexplained but it is known to be associated with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can lead to multi-organ failure. Recently the potential of antioxidants and minerals to modulate the immunological processes contributing to SIRS has been an area of increasing interest. Large scale trials are currently underway to establish if intravenous supplementation of selenium is of benefit in the ICU population. In certain clinical conditions it has been shown that enteral feeds enriched with specific trace elements, vitamins and lipids can improve outcomes for ICU patients. However, very little work has been done to specifically investigate any potential contribution of nutritional status to the development of CIP. The present study investigated if plasma levels of trace elements are different in CIP patients compared to matched controls. This retrospective case-control study investigated eighteen patients diagnosed with CIP at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital ICU over a thirteen-month period. Information collected included length of stay, mortality data, use of inotropic drugs and steroids, nutritional intake and biochemical markers including plasma levels of zinc, selenium and copper. Mean length of stay in ICU was more than doubled in CIP patients compared to controls (p=0.002). Patients with CIP were also less likely to survive their ICU admission compared with controls (p=0.034). No significant differences were found between any of the plasma trace element levels or biochemical markers apart from alkaline phosphatase levels, a marker of liver function. The retrospective nature of this study caused several limitations with the methodology, which made it difficult to draw firm conclusions from the results. Further research is required to investigate the role of trace elements and antioxidants in the pathophysiology and treatment of CIP.
    • Transforming adult social care: Personalisation and brokerage

      Page, Steve; Lavelle, Lynn (University of Chester, 2009-06)
      Social care in the UK is undergoing a massive transformation. Central government is demanding that care services are tailored to the individual, rather than forcing individuals to take up services which may not be appropriate to their needs. Timescales for this transformation are extremely tight, meaning large scale change in a short period of time. With a rapidly ageing population, the impact of giving citizens more choice and control over their own care will be considerable, meaning individuals will have to undergo substantial change in how their services are assessed, procured and delivered. The effect of these transformation efforts on the social care work force means significant changes to their ways of working and the culture of the organisations they work for. This study will assess the impact of the changes brought about by personalisation of care services, and critique how the changes are managed within a large organisation with strong cultural links and ideas. It will also consider whether introducing an intermediary service to streamline services is beneficial and appropriate. The study is based around Liverpool City Council, and 4 other local authorities across England and Wales.
    • Trends in Saturated Fat, Total Fat and Coronary Heart Disease in the United Kingdom 1950-2010: Does the evidence support current dietary guidelines

      Carlsson, James (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Background and aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between saturated fat, total fat and coronary heart disease (CHD) at United Kingdom (UK), national and regional level and to establish if available data supports current dietary guidelines for the reduction of total and saturated fat intake. Methods Data was sought pertaining to historical trends in dietary intake, CHD mortality and associated measures within the UK. Trends were then analysed to establish if a relationship, if any existed between measures. Results Results show that from a peak in 1978 male CHD mortality to 2010 fell by 79% in men and 83% in women. In the same period relative saturated fat intake fell by 4.6% and total fat by 3.4%. Analyses showed at the UK population level there was a consistent significant positive association between saturated fat intake and coronary heart disease mortality in men and women between 1972 to 2010 (P<0.01). The relationship between total fat intake and CHD was less consistent as were associations at national and regional level. There was no association between saturated fat intake, total fat intake and CHD prevalence. 56 Conclusion The results of this study support current population dietary guidelines however the disparity between the percentage change between saturated and total fat intake compared to the decline in CHD mortality over time questions the impact saturated fat has on CHD. It is clear further research is needed.
    • "Trust me… I’m a counsellor…”: A heuristic exploration of the therapist’s ability to trust themselves to work effectively and ethically as a person-centred counsellor, and not to fall in love with clients

      Mintz, Rita; Harrison, Mark T. (University of Chester, 2011-11)
      A person-centred counsellor’s use of self may be seen to include offering a non-possessive, and certainly non-sexual, love. For any practitioner, the question arises as to what underpins conformance to professional codes of ethics, both theoretically and personally. Generally, counselling approaches align with professional prohibitions against sexual activity through some combination of predefined techniques and explicit theoretical exclusion. The person-centred approach avoids the systematic use of techniques and the theory might be considered less explicit, and so maybe demands careful consideration. This research thus considers the underpinning which supports how a therapist can trust themselves not to fall in love with clients, and not to engage in any form of sexual exploitation. The research addresses self-trust through a highly reflexive, heuristic exploration of a therapist’s fundamental beliefs. These are discussed in relation to literature on ethics and to counselling theory. What emerges is a greater separation between falling in love and sexual exploitation, supporting a therapist’s ability not to engage in unethical activity with clients and opening the way to greater discussion of such concerns within the person-centred arena.
    • Two temples, one God: A consideration of Sikh-Christian inter-faith relations in a West Yorkshire urban parish

      Dixon, Stephen W. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-09)
      The project is based on the multi-cultural parish of St Thomas, Longroyd Bridge, Huddersfield; and specifically the faith communities at St Thomas's Church, and at the Shri Guru Nanak Gurdwara which is situated within the parish boundary. The aims and methodology of the project are: to produce a literature-based review of some current issues in inter-faith relations - from a general perspective, and then from specifically Christian and Sikh perspectives; to survey views on Sikh-Christian inter-faith relations within the two faith communities, based on 'official' views, interviews, and discussion groups; to reflect on the material produced in order to discern ways in which members of different religious traditions can work together in God's service, both in the particular setting of the project, and in the wider community of faith. The findings are that: whilst wishing to maintain their own integrity, both communities seek to view inter-faith relations positively and look for God's purpose therein; purposes which could be explored together, both locally and in a wider context, are the deepening of understanding in one's own faith through contact with another; and a shared social and spiritual mission to the wider society; the experience of working together as two distinct faiths suggests a new model of inter-faith relations - not the 'Copernican' model of Hick, in which each faith is a planet in a single solar system, but a 'Hubblite' model in which each faith is a solar system within a wider galaxy and universe.
    • Understanding attitudes of ethnic minorities towards uptake of cardiac rehabilitation services: A qualitative systematic review

      Kennedy, Lynne; Yung, Jenny (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) varies across different ethnicities. Epidemiological studies show that people from a South Asian background, including Indians, Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have a higher risk of CHD. It is important to understand the risk factors that explain this increased prevalence, both conventional and unconventional i.e. applicable to the general population and also specific to a certain ethnic group. Modifying these risk factors is a vital part of secondary prevention measures to reduce the possibility of developing further cardiac disease. Cardiac rehabilitation is the recommended programme for post-MI care and aims to influence positively the underlying causes of cardiovascular disease through exercise and education. It has been shown to improve both cardiac mortality and morbidity. Despite the clear benefits of this intervention, uptake to cardiac rehabilitation is particularly low in ethnic minority populations. If the reasons and influences behind this can be understood, then the way that rehabilitation services are delivered can be altered to provide culturally sensitive care and maximize uptake.
    • Understanding right from wrong: A quantitative study exploring accidental bullying in British school children.

      Boulton, Michael; Pritchard, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018)
      This study aimed to investigate a controversial new sub-type of bullying known as accidental bullying, which claims to explain why some children and young people can unknowingly bully others. This study did this by exploring possible causes including individual’s abilities to recognise bullying, and levels of kindness and moral disengagement. A total of 421 participants (females: n = 19, males: n = 180, undisclosed: n = 48) completed questionnaires within Primary and Secondary British schools. The data was subjected to several forms of analyses that included Pearson’s correlations, simple linear regression’s, a hierarchical multiple regression, and a series of two-way between subjects ANOVA’s. The findings identified that 84 % of the participants had previously accidentally bullied, and that primary school students were more likely to accidentally bully than secondary school students. In addition to this, an individual’s poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours was found as a significant negative predictor of accidental bullying. Furthermore, if individuals have low levels of kindness and high levels of moral disengagement, they are more likely to have a poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours. In conclusion, this study identified that it is possible that accidental bullying is taking place within British schools at a higher frequency than traditional bullying. Future studies may wish to further understand the complexities of accidental bullying to support educators to identify and address this often hidden form of bullying.
    • Understanding teenage perceptions towards breastfeeding: A study of college students using focus group and questionnaires

      Jones, Rebecca K. (University of Chester, 2006-08)
      BACKGROUND: There is extensive evidence showing that breastfeeding makes a major contribution to infant health and development. Breastfeeding has a vital contribution to make towards reducing health inequalities in the UK, with breastfeeding remaining more prevalent among older, more educated and socially advantaged women. Health promotion initiatives are driven by the Department of Health's goals of increasing breastfeeding initiation rates by 2% annually and reducing inequalities in health with particular focus on women from disadvantaged groups. However despite these efforts, breastfeeding rates in the UK remain the lowest in Europe. AIM: This study aims to understand the perceptions of teenagers towards breastfeeding in a Sure Start area where bottle-feeding is deeply entrenched. It investigates the students' attitudes and beliefs of breastfeeding but also their normative standards and values of breastfeeding. METHOD OF RESEARCH: The chosen method of research was using focus groups and self-completion questionnaires. Three focus groups were conducted to generate definite themes to which the questionnaires were designed. The selected sample consisted of 72 teenagers between the ages of 14-20 attending courses within the Health and Social Care and Business Departments within a Shropshire College of Further Education. FINDINGS: The majority of students, 62.5% believe that breastfeeding is a natural way to feed a baby though only 34% plan to breastfeed. The key themes identified to influence the students perceptions of breastfeeding were: intergenerational normative pressures; lack of knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding; witnessing breastfeeding; and bottle-feeding being perceived as having less adverse reactions such as embarrassment and exclusion. CONCLUSION: This study identified that health promotion initiatives should target breastfeeding education in schools and colleges, as evidence suggests knowledge is gained and valued positively by the pupils. The research also addressed the wider societal issue with breastfeeding; strategies should be in place to improve better facilities for breastfeeding in public so that breastfeeding is seen, supported and viewed as part of the normal process of life so family and societal influences do not undermine a women's decision to breastfeed.
    • Understanding the challenges of trauma theory application in caring for looked after children: An Interpretative Phenomenological Approach exploring foster carers’ experiences

      Buxton, Tina; Hutchinson, Dawn (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      Research on foster care placements caring for traumatised Looked After children has often been quantitative in nature. Additionally, those with quantitative elements often focus on the application of parenting models or perceptions of behavioural outcomes. Whilst such research provides valuable insight into the field of childhood trauma, it is important to explore the complexities of individuals’ lived experiences. This qualitative research study investigates and provides detailed analysis of the lived experiences of trauma-informed foster carers within the setting of a Local Authority Social Services fostering agency. The study aims to develop and convey an in-depth understanding of participants’ perspectives, and of the meanings which they attach to these. Semistructured interviews were conducted individually with five participants; exploring the challenges in applying trauma-theory in caring for Looked After children. Interview data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four superordinate themes, each comprising two subordinate emergent themes, were identified. Themes were then structured within a 4-stage model of the Fostering Self, representing the ongoing and cyclical process which the trauma-informed foster carers experienced; ‘fragmenting through the dual Self’, ‘the evolving Self’, ‘reconstruction of the Self’, and ‘evaluation of the Self’. Findings demonstrate how components of existing literature are experienced as processes which occur through the lived experience during a cyclical formation and evolution of Self. These findings may in turn illuminate existing literature. Implications for practice are identified, including how the model may be used to assist individuals, professional relationships, and the wider organisation. Four main areas for further research are identified: the lived experiences of trauma-informed foster carers during each separate domain of the model, what assists trauma-responsiveness during the individual domains, carers’ experiences of progression from one domain to another, and what affects the transition between domains. Conducting further research on these areas could further illuminate the processes which trauma-informed foster carers experience as a whole.
    • The unfolding heart: What is the nature of courage in the therapeutic domain from the dual perspective of counsellors' personal therapy and their clinical practice? A qualitative study evaluated by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Mintz, Rita; Hewitt, Susan E. (University of Chester, 2014-05)
      Whilst the nature of courage has long been debated, it is only more recently that the psychology of courage has received attention. Although it is acknowledged that therapeutic courage informs counselling and psychotherapy, it is an underresearched and little understood phenomenon. This research sought to investigate the nature of therapeutic courage in a qualitative phenomenological study from the dual perspective of counsellors' personal therapy and their clinical practice. Semistructured interviews were conducted with four counsellors and psychotherapists and the study was evaluated using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three master themes were established: 1) Courage as the nexus of therapy; 2) The synergy of courage in the therapeutic dynamic and 3) Protecting and enhancing the profession. Therapeutic courage was identified as a fundamental element informing all therapeutic endeavours and its nature was described as a mosaic of psychological, moral, creative and embodied courage for both client and therapist. Therapeutic courage was characterized as a conscious choice and action in the face of fear and as a catalyst to change, albeit with ambiguous qualities. The therapeutic process was shown to demand courage of client and therapist experienced intrapersonally and interpersonally within the therapeutic relationship, where the symbiosis of courage and safety was required for therapeutic growth. Therapist courage was shown to facilitate ethical practice and enable client courage. A range of client courage was identified through the client's tenacity in processing fear, choice, loss and reality. Multiple levels of therapeutic courage were shown to manifest in depth therapy, pivotal moments, client context, liminal thresholds and ethical practice. The findings emphasized the value of therapists' personal therapy in generating a cyclical relationship between experiencing therapeutic courage as a client and in developing an empathic, compassionate presence as a therapist. The findings also revealed potential gaps in contemporary counselling and psychotherapeutic training in relation to therapeutic courage, ethical decision-making and organizational context. The findings confer implications for clinical practice in understanding therapeutic courage through the micro-processes in therapy to the macro level of the professional at large. These findings support extant research, but also provide fresh interpretations and many opportunities for future research.
    • The uninvited guests: Britain’s military forces in Iceland, 1940-1942

      McLay, Keith A. J.; Deans, Philip W. (University of Chester, 2012-10-11)
      Throughout 10 May 1940-22 April 1942, British forces conducted a military occupation of Iceland. There were two initial reasons for this venture: firstly, in order to acquire air and naval bases to combat German forces situated along the Norwegian coast; and secondly, in order to prevent the island from coming under German control, thus guarding against encirclement. Whitehall certainly considered it an advantageous undertaking. However, as this dissertation shall show, such beliefs were swiftly escalated. During June 1940, after France’s capitulation, the retention and defence of Iceland became all the more important. It was essential, for example, that Britain could maintain at least one clear access route in and out the North Atlantic. Failure to do so would surely have lead to her starvation and/or military defeat. As a result, and along with other important reasons discussed herein, over 20,000 British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel, supported at various points by American and Canadian troops, were eventually stationed there. Unfortunately, there are very few publications on the British invasion and occupation of Iceland, notwithstanding a few specialist works. Those works that do exist, however, read more like chronological narratives, rather than analytical studies. Consequently, there exists some exciting opportunities for the historiography’s expansion, not just in size, but also in nature of content. This dissertation, entitled ‘The Uninvited Guests: Britain’s Military Forces in Iceland, 1940-1942’, contributes to that much needed expansion. This dissertation looks at the British occupation of Iceland over two periods: the invasion period, 10-19 May 1940, and the occupation period, 20 May 1940-22 April 1942. It assesses the effects and consequences of both the invasion and occupation, and tries to determine how far they preserved Icelandic freedoms and secured Allied interests in Northern Europe. Indeed, this dissertation shows that the invasion and initial occupation of Iceland was a complete military disaster, one that offered no benefit to either the Icelanders or Allies. If iii anything, it put the Icelanders at greater risk of harm from German retaliation. This dissertation also shows that Britain made good its early deficiencies by eventually bringing security and prosperity to Iceland, where before there had been none, and by positively utilising Iceland in the war against Germany. The conclusions of this dissertation are fascinating; they show that it is possible to cultivate rich reward from an operation that could have been destined for complete disaster.
    • Units of modular group algebras

      Gildea, Joe; Okoh, Hilary C. (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      Let RG denote the group ring of the group G over the ring R and U(RG) denote the unit group of RG. The objective of this thesis is to become familiar with the techniques used to establish U(RG) in a recently published article. We begin with an introduction to groups, rings and elds. Group rings are then discussed and in particular, the decomposition of RG. We conclude with the structure of U(F3kD6).
    • ‘Unpacking the Box’: A Novel Tool to Assess the Development of Working Memory in Children

      Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Iranzo, Lisa (University of Chester, 2016)
      Children’s performance on working memory tests improves with age, although the reasons for this development are not well understood. Furthermore, the concept of enjoyment of task has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine a novel tool, ‘Unpacking the Box’, which has been designed by the charity ‘Triangle’ to assess working memory in a friendly and enjoyable way. Children were tested using four measures; a digit span task, a Corsi block task, a listening span task and a task using the novel resource ‘Unpacking the Box’. A 3x2 between-subjects design was employed with primary children aged six, seven and eight years old. A 3x2 within subjects Anova revealed a significant main effect of age on performance of ‘Unpacking the Box’, with the greatest differences between six and seven year olds and six and eight year olds. Non-parametric analyses revealed high levels of enjoyment with the novel tool ‘Unpacking the Box’. The tool is currently used to work with victims who are giving evidence in court. This study demonstrated that the novel resource is a highly effective, practical, enjoyable and engaging method for assessing working memory in children. As such, there are many possibilities for the future development of ‘Unpacking the Box’ for use in educational and clinical settings.
    • Unravelling the “equivalence paradox”: An exploration of possible mechanistic explanations for the equivalence of the person-centred approach and cognitive behavioural therapy

      Parnell, Tony; Garman, Andrew J. (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      This project adopted a neuroscience perspective to explore the reason for the Equivalence Paradox, that is the finding that quite different therapeutic modalities are, as an approximation, equally effective. The project focussed on the equivalence of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and person-centred therapy (PCT). This project is believed to be the first time that a practitioner group with a balance of allegiances has drawn conclusions from the intersection of neuroscience and psychotherapy. A literature search uncovered a set of findings or views (neuroscience elements) with possible relevance to the problem. In a focus group (or workshop) format, a group of PCT and CBT therapists contributed their understanding of healing processes based on their practice experience. They were then asked to match these experiences to the set of neuroscience elements provided. The group found that there are important similarities in terms of the therapeutic relationship and the desired endpoint, namely a more integrated, more congruent brain; however there were also significant differences in terms of processes that correlate to what is actually “done” in therapy. In CBT, affect-modulating left cortex and executive processes lead, whereas in PCT there is an emphasis on left-right and cortical-limbic “dialogue” and integration. Overall, together with literature observations, the project concluded that for CBT and PCT different healing routes can are progressed, most likely with the client filling in between sessions the healing steps that are not specifically catalysed by the therapy. However “equivalence” may be just about symptom reduction; a CBT-healed brain may differ from a PCT-healed brain.
    • The use of modelling techniques in the definition of the UK electricity market

      Zlosnik, John; Varley, Peter (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003)
      The electricity market in Great Britain has been progressively de-regulated over the last fifteen years. Competition has increased at an exponential rate during this period as new companies have begun operating in the market, which is now arguably the most sophisticated and successful competitive utility market in the world. This success has been achieved only with a degree of complexity. There are now more than a hundred “organisations” that must inter operate, where prior to competition there were only about twenty, operating independently. An organisation in this sense is an identifiable business unit carrying out one of more than a dozen defined roles. Within this complex structure individual organisations need to know their responsibilities and the processes for carrying out market transactions must be defined. (e.g. a customer wishing to change supplier) This requirement has been met by the production of an “industry model” which comprises a series of diagrams, formal definitions and English prose. These are delivered using a combination of a proprietary business modelling tool, a database and textual documents. In this paper the model is explored and an attempt made to classify its components by relating them to the Zachman framework. From this the model’s strengths and weaknesses are postulated. These are then tested by means of a survey of the intended users of the model. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the use of modelling techniques for the definition of a utility industry infrastructure, and recommendations for further research are made.
    • Using an intranet to deliver multimedia training material in colleges

      Furnival, Cameron (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2000-11)
      The development of web-based training is now well established and is leading away from the notion of software being released solely on a CD-Rom; instead, it is made available additionally via Internet portals. The significance of this is that colleges with Intranets capable of delivering multimedia via an Intranet are well placed to take advantage of the growing market place for such training. The basis for this research stems from the desire for increasingly faster and more efficient use of multimedia, which is delivered via an Intranet as opposed to the utilisation of CD-Rom technology. The implication is that software/ multimedia authors will develop more efficient systems that take best advantage of existing web-based technologies. The trends evident from the small survey reported, show a general acceptance of the Intranet as a medium for the delivery of teaching and learning materials in addition to the established use of CD-Rom multimedia software. The inference is that the Intranet will not replace CD-Roms; rather, it will be used to complement it. The education and training sector has become a major industry within the multimedia arena. Direction is sought to define the future trends in the development of multimedia training packages and styles from within this sector. The technology opens up new opportunities for learning and is an enabling factor in the restructuring of educational philosophies worldwide. However, the education and training sector has not allowed multimedia to cause a change in direction, rather, it is using it and other Information Technologies to engender and facilitate this required change. It is commonplace to find complex computing equipment in all areas of education and the uptake of multimedia, as a learning resource is widespread. This research seeks to investigate the means of delivering multimedia in an educational context comparing the efficiencies and deficiencies of established techniques for the deployment of educational multimedia.