• A study of gender issues within hip hop dance in contemporary society

      Pritchard, Ian; D'Andrea, Cristina (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The principle aim of this dissertation is to examine how members of a British all-female hip hop dance group have become professional hip hop dancers despite the gender issues attached to hip hop dance and its originally underground nature. The theoretical perspective of postmodern feminism will be employed to analyse the key concepts of gender and commercialisation in hip hop dance. Hip hop culture could be understood as a postmodern phenomenon and therefore shares concepts with the theoretical approach of postmodern feminism, which justifies why this research will employ the theory of postmodern feminism in the analysis of women’s participation in professional hip hop dance. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with five female members of a unique, professional all-female hip hop dance group based in London. The common themes that were identified from the interviews included: hip hop dance is both a commercialised and an underground culture; participants expressed both positive and negative feelings towards the commercialisation of hip hop dance; hip hop dance was originally male orientated but this is changing now; and, commercialisation has changed the nature of hip hop dance. In summary, hip hop has been described as an unstable and malleable cultural form that is not one fixed idea but an amalgamation of practices that are constantly in flux (Taylor & Taylor, 2007; Drissel, 2011; Forman, 2004b). This could explain the changing nature of hip hop dance and therefore, is how the female participants have become professional hip hop dancers despite the gender issues described that are attached to hip hop dance.
    • A study of responses to advertising images designed to encourage lone parents into work

      Ainsworth, Deborah (University of Chester, 2008-05)
      This study looks at lone parents' responses to 5 discrete advertising images, aimed at encouraging them into employment, which have been utilised by the Government Agency Jobcentre Plus. It examines lone parents' reactions to the imagery by utilising a questionnaire linked to each image and focus groups to achieve open discussion. The aim of this methodology is to identify which image is most likely to make the lone parents' take action to find employment. The study concludes that lone parents can be influenced by astute targeting of advertising images. However, it also suggests that lone parents' are not an amorphous mass and it would be wise to utilise a range of images that would appeal to the broad spectrum of lone parents linking this to their age and the social area where they reside. Furthermore, it finds key themes that on a generic level are more than likely to appeal to lone parents. These include images of 'real people' to which they can relate and to specifically link imagery to their age group and the social area where they reside, identifying clear links within the imagery to employment.
    • A Study of the Expectation vs Experience of International Students at UK Universities

      Rajkhowa, Gautam; Adelekan, Temitope A. (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The background of higher education has been changing over the past two decades. In 2009, the estimated number of students registered outside their country of citizenship was almost 3.7 million (OECD, 2011). The international activities of universities in the United Kingdom (UK) have increased dramatically in volume, scope and complexity over the last decade. In addition, the knowledge of risen tuition fees, university funding cuts and doubts of declining student numbers has all contributed to the change. Therefore, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage in the higher education sector is important and at the forefront of many universities. In response, an “action research” method is agreed primarily using an adapted SERVQUAL instrument to examine expectations and experience of service quality among a sample of postgraduate international students at four leading UK universities. Study into service quality in a higher educational environment is insufficient, and where studies have been undertaken, very little has been done among postgraduates. The research findings suggest that the instrument utilised is suitable in a postgraduate context, and the statements load on the adapted SERVQUAL dimensions of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985, 1988). In an attempt to improve service quality at UK universities and to add to the knowledge base, several recommendations are obtained, and some trend for future research is suggested.
    • A study of the relationship between the general physical fitness of adolescents aged 15 – 19 years and their parents

      Fallows, Stephen; Law, Christopher J. (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of familial resemblance in general physical fitness between adolescents and their parents. Data was gathered from a sample of adolescent-parent pairs. Parents with children between the ages of 15-19 years of age were recruited by means of a poster campaign in the Abergele, Colwyn Bay and Llandudno postal areas of Conwy, North Wales. A sample of 32 adolescent-parent pairs was employed in this research. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had anthropometric measures taken. The performance of adolescent-parent pairs was then measured for aerobic capacity, static strength, muscular endurance and flexibility. A correlational research design was employed for the project. The level of significance was set at p<0.01. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS (Version 14.0 for Windows). Familial correlation models were fitted directly to the data under the assumption that the family data follow a multivariate normal distribution. The results indicated significant parent - offspring resemblance for weight (0.50), aerobic capacity (0.52), muscular endurance (0.48) and flexibility (0.60) and significant father/son resemblance for weight (0.29), height (0.46) and grip strength (0.39), together with mother/daughter resemblance for weight (0.33) and height (0.48). The results suggest that familial and perhaps genetic, factors are important in explaining the variance in general physical fitness.
    • Study skill use, motivation and the efficacy of the "mind map" technique

      Hayes, Peter; Alexander, Roy; Shuttleworth, Joanne (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2005-06)
      The last decade has seen a considerable increase in the number of students entering Higher Education, coupled with this a lowering of entry requirements in terms of qualifications. This climate demands attention to study skill training, with particular emphasis on those students with problematic studying patterns (Entwistle et al, 1996). The present study was made up of two parts: the first part of the study used a questionnaire to investigate motivation and the frequency of use of study skills, the second part of the study involved an experiment to measure the efficacy of a study skill. The Study Skill Questionnaire was devised to examine differences according to gender, year of study, whether the students had taken a break in their study, degree type and main subject of study. The questionnaire also examined the relationship between academic motivation and study skill use. The results showed that in particular, mature students are considerably more motivated than their peers; however, they use the same techniques with the same frequency as their colleagues. The second part of the study continued to investigate a study skill's efficacy in an attempt to arm these motivated students with a superior learning technique. The mind map study skill was chosen for investigation. After some initial difficulty with task bias, the study showed that there was no significant difference between a self-selected technique (i.e. the study technique the student normally uses) and the mind map technique. Although this implies that the Mind Map Technique is not a superior study technique, other explanations may be possible. It could be that the technique cannot be mastered in a single session and that practice is required. It could be also possible that mind mapping only works for certain types of learners following the findings of Pask and Scott (1972; cited in Richardson, 1983). Future research could examine such possibilities.
    • A study to investigate the role of mother-tongue in counselling for Welsh speakers and its impact on the counselling relationship

      Parnell, Tony; Kennedy, Vida L. (University of Chester, 2013-12)
      This research study investigates the role of mother-tongue in counselling Welsh clients and within the therapeutic relationship. It is a qualitative study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as its mode of inquiry and analysis. Four participants who described Welsh as their mother-tongue from the North Wales region were interviewed individually using an in-depth semi-structured interview. Data analysis followed that described by Smith, Flowers, and Larkin (2009). The study found that all participants described mother-tongue as an important aspect of counselling and the counselling relationship. The results demonstrated that the more familiar a language is to the client the easier it is to talk about personal experiences and emotions. It also highlighted the role language plays in the client’s identity and culture, and that it is important for the therapist to accept and understand the client’s background and their struggle to communicate in order to create a facilitative relationship, and a safe environment for counselling. The study found that aspects such as searching for the right word or having meaning get lost in translation as barriers to counselling. In addition, and in particular with reference to the bilingual context of the Welsh speaking participants it was found that language was used to create closeness or distance to an issue, discovering hidden issues, and allow for flexibility and choice. This study provides an insight into the role of mother-tongue in counselling with Welsh clients and may have something to offer counsellors working in other bilingual contexts.
    • A study to investigate the use of perspective, in a short computer-based intervention, to influence self-reported nature connection, and environmental attitude

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Goldstein, Thomas (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      High levels of environmental damage have been leading towards potential planetary emergency, and high levels of stress have been affecting large a percentage of the global population. Previous research focused on increasing nature connection through immersion in nature rather than computer-based urban initiatives. Very little research has looked at how perspectives can be most effectively used to increase a sense of nature connection. This study used a combination of short video clips, presented with one of two possible perspectives to participants. Forty six participants took part in the study based on opportunity sampling, from the author’s personal social network and from the university psychology department. Group A were presented with the perspective of humans being separate from nature, while Group B were presented with the perspective of nature being home for humans. Questionnaires were used to measure levels of pro-environmental attitude, nature connection, environmental motives and emotional state before and after the intervention. Correlation and 2x2 ANOVAs were used to analyse the data. Perspective did not show a significant main effect. Both nature connection and pro-environmental attitude were significantly increased during the intervention (ηp2= .12 and .38 respectively), as was negative emotional state (ηp2= .46). Change in nature connection showed significant positive correlation to change in environmental attitude (r = .51). Increase in negative emotional state was significantly correlated with increase in nature connection (r = .37). Future research is needed to better understand the use of perspective to increase nature connection. Nature connection appears to be well linked to environmental attitude. The powerful role of negative emotions was shown, and the importance of being aware of the implications and limiting their use was highlighted. Overall, it was shown that a computer based intervention can be used into increase self-reported levels of nature connection and pro-environmental attitudes.
    • Subjective global assessment, physical function and anthropometrics: What should we be measuring in maintenance dialysis patients?

      Fallows, Stephen; Stansfield, Jennifer L. (University of Chester, 2008-03)
      Purpose - Malnutrition is common in maintenance dialysis patients; subjective global assessment is a recommended tool to identify nutritional status. The aim of the study was to establish whether a 7 point SGA tool would provide an adequate degree of accuracy in identifying malnutrition when compared to other validated subjective and objective measures of nutritional status. Previous studies have only looked at the total SGA score, this study looked at the total SGA score and also the separate sections of the SGA scoring. Methods - The study population consisted of 67 maintenance dialysis patients receiving either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or Haemodialysis (HD). Patients were assessed using a 7 point SGA tool; anthropometric measures - height, weight, triceps skin-fold, sub-scapular skin-fold, mid arm circumference, mid"arm muscle circumference, calf circumference, mid thigh circumference; dietary measures - 24 hour diet recall and Functional measures - handgrip strength and International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) Results Correlations were assessed using Spearman's Rank or Pearson's correlation; and conducted between the total SGA score and separate sections of the SGA tool. Only 3 results indicated a high correlation co-efficient: mid thigh Circumference (cm) with muscle mass section of the SGA score r = 0.778 (p=0.0005), mid calf circumference (cm) with muscle mass section of the SGA score r = 0.727 (p=0.0005) and mid thigh circumference (cm) with the total SGA score r = 0.707 (p= 0.0005) Conclusions - The results suggest that the 7 point SGA tool although it addresses a number of areas to consider when addressing nutrition status does not appear to have a high correlation with a number of validated measures of nutritional status, suggesting that the SGA tool needs further adaptation to prove its worth as a standalone measure.
    • Sugar Reduction in Sponge Cakes: Physical and Sensory Properties of Sponge Cake with Sugar Alternatives - Maltitol /Steviol glycosides/Polydextrose/ Inulin

      Li, Weili; Mao, Kuangqi (University of Chester, 2019-01-31)
      Challenges in reducing sugar in foods have been serious global issues as an excessive intake of sugar causes negative effects on human health, even though sugar plays a key role in the structural and sensory attributes of food products. Therefore, it is urgent for food industries to find an alternative to reduce the sugar content of foods without any noticeable effect, such as using sugar replacements to substitute the role of sugar in high-sugar foods. The first aim of this study was to verify the function of sugar in sponge cakes. The second was to compare the effects between sugar and sugar alternatives on sponge cakes in order to explore feasible sugar replacements. In current study, the effects of sugar on physical properties of sponge cake and batter were first studied in terms of different concentrations. Then the effects of replacement by maltitol, polydextrose, inulin and steviol glycosides were extensively studied using the same concentrations with regarding to sugar. Batter viscosity and specific gravity were analysed before baking. Cake physical properties were also studied through image analysis, specific gravity, height, weight loss and firmness. In addition, sensory testing was also carried out to explore the feasible sugar replacement. Experimental results showed that sugar truly exerted crucial functions in cakes manufacture, like increasing the batter viscosity and the cake volume. Significant improvement in physical properties of cakes, especially in terms of specific gravity and specific volume, can be found as the sugar level reached by 140% (P<0.05). In regard to sugar-free sponge cakes, best results in physical properties can be obtained from cakes elaborated with maltitol when the containing level was 140%. Compared with sugar, closest results can be achieved by maltitol due to the similar structure and properties. Meanwhile, cakes elaborated with maltitol got the highest overall liking level in sensory evaluation. Cakes with polydextrose showed a relatively worse performance in physical property testing and sensory evaluation due to the weaker bulking function and sweetness of polydextrose. However, the addition of steviol glycosides can improve the sensory properties to some extent. In addition, inulin appeared to be unfeasible to replace sugar according to the result obtained in this study because it led to the lowest quality of sponge cakes in physical properties or sensory attributes.
    • Suicide in cricket: A sociological explanation

      Waddington, Ivan; McNee, Shaun (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      Statistics from David Friths’ (2001) book ‘Silence of the Heart: Cricket Suicides’ indicates cricket players are almost twice as likely as the average male to commit suicide, and furthermore have a higher rate of suicide than participants of any other sports. This thesis proposes to draw on the sociology of suicide devised by Emile Durkheim during the late 19th century. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to examine the social causes of the suggested suicide rate in cricket. Using data generated from 9 cricket players’ auto/biographies, the findings suggest that cricket, specifically long tours spent away from home, place unique strains on family relations when compared with those from other sporting occupations. Furthermore, findings allude towards a high divorce rate in cricket and high divorce rates have long been associated with an increase in suicide (Durkheim, 1966). Moreover, findings suggest retirement impacts on the suicide rate in cricket, as retirement leads to a loss of social regulation among cricketers, thus, creating an increase in the sense of anomie, or ‘normlessness’ among players, which causes an increase in the rate of anomic suicide. However, findings also propose retirement’s impact on the suicide rate is contingent on the presence of the family group; where a family group is present, retirement may negatively impact the suicide rate as retirement allows cricket players to re-integrate into the family group, thus increasing their sense of social integration which acts as a barrier, preventing an increase in the suicide rate.
    • The suitability of the business model currently used in the family business, Hedge Farm, for the transition of the business between generations

      Black, Kate; Clark, Anna C. (University of Chester, 2013-05)
      This study considers the research question “The suitability of the business model currently used in the family business, Hedge Farm, for the transition of the business between generations.” The research aims are: a) To understand contemporary literature on family business models. b) To understand contemporary literature on succession in family businesses. c) To identify the business model used by family business Hedge Farm including the position of the business with respect to the succession process. d) To evaluate the business model of family business Hedge Farm for the transition of businesses between generations. e) To draw conclusions and make recommendations on the business model for the transition the business between generations. This will be based on analysis of the current observed business model, and the theory, based on the findings of aims a, b, c and d. This case study research is predominantly interpretive in its philosophy. Both deductive and inductive techniques were used during the research. After a literature review was completed a conceptual model and set of interview questions were developed. The semi structured interviews were conducted with all members of the case study to gain a rich insight into the organisation. The data collected was analysed inductively and grouped into a number of categories. The findings from the research suggest that a number of aspects relating to the business model at Hedge Farm will need to change as part of the succession process and it is likely that this will occur through a staged process. It was concluded that the incumbent’s reluctance to let go of the business, poor communication between business members and lack of planning for succession were factors resisting succession. Despite these there was shared agreement who will be the successor and some limited evidence that changes were beginning to occur.
    • 'Sunshine and shadows': A heuristic exploration of adoptive parenthood

      Mintz, Rita; Constantine, Anna (University of Chester, 2012-11)
      Adoption offers the chance for new beginnings both for the child and the adoptive parent, but it also contains the potential for disappointment and despair. The aim of this qualitative heuristic research study was to provide insight into the lived experience of adoptive parenthood and the impact adoptive children can have on their families. The experience of the researcher is found within the study, integrating her own experience with the personal accounts of the six participants. Data was collected using audio recorded semi-structured interviews. The data was transcribed and analysed using an inductive approach. Various themes emerged from the analysis process and the outcomes are in line with much of the literature on adoption and adoptive parenting. All six participants experienced difficulties; some encountered more profound issues than others. There were also many positive aspects found within the study including the participants’ experience of satisfaction, happiness, pride and joy. Many of the themes and sub themes that emerged from the research are worthy of further research. Post adoption support however was of particular significance for the majority of the participants, suggesting further research in this area would be helpful.
    • Supermarket shopping and excess food waste: A comparative study of supermarket vs. independent retail clientele

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Sullivan, Rachel (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      The aim of the study is to investigate the link between environmental attitudes and levels of food waste produced by supermarket shoppers as opposed to independent retail shoppers. The study also aims to look at the different factors that may influence shoppers' habits and how much food waste they may produce. This study is both a quantitative and qualitative comparative study using a questionnaire to compare views of food waste and a food waste diary to compare methods of how the general public are disposing of it and their reasons why. The study took place at Hawarden Estate Farm shop and Tesco, Broughton Shopping Park. Random samples of 80 women over the age of 18, English speaking and who were independently living were asked to take part in the study. 40 participants were recruited at each of the two locations of whom fully completed the questionnaires. There were 5 participants who completed and returned the food waste diaries from home. The independent variable measured by the food waste diary and questionnaire in this study is the supermarkets effect on amount of household food waste created in comparison to independent retailers. The dependent variable is the amount of household food waste created. The quantitative data was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Qualitative data was analysed by comparing the answers given and discussed. The study was unable to compare differences of food waste between supermarket and independent retail clientele due to the small number of food waste diaries completed. Date labels have been identified as a possible cause of excess food waste. When participants at both sites of the study were asked what they understood by the term 'sell-by' date 80% answered correctly. A similar result was found when participants were asked about the 'use by' date where 86% answered correctly. The most confusion was seen when asked about the 'best before' date, only 38% of participants answered correctly. There were more independent retailer shoppers who owned an outdoor composter (n=15) compared to supermarket shoppers (n=5). More participants owned an indoor food waste bin compared to having an outdoor composter with 56% of participants having one. The most common type of food waste was found to be vegetable peelings and leftovers from meals. It may be suggested that supermarkets encourage bulk buying which may increase food waste. Supermarket shoppers in this study seemed to have a less organised approach to their food shopping and bought more food on offer and in promotions that weren't intentional. This type of shopping could be influencing the amount of food waste that is being sent to landfill and adding to the greenhouse gases being produced.
    • A survey of habitual daily physical activity of health and fitness employees in Cork

      McGillion, David (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      The purpose of the current study was to investigate the self-reported physical activity of employees in the fitness industry in Cork, Ireland. Convenience sampling was used to distribute Baecke Habitual Physical Activity questionnaires to health clubs in the Cork area. Of the 300 surveys distributed, 107 were completed correctly and returned for analysis (36%). Respondents were grouped by gender, (male: n = 50; female: n = 57), by employment position (manager: n = 38; fitness instructor: n = 52; aerobics instructor: n = 8; personal trainer: n = 9), and by facility type (private: n = 84; public: n = 23). The data was used to produce activity indices broken down into Work, Leisure, Sport and Total. Chi squared analysis and cross tabulations were carried out to investigate if there was a significant relationship between self reported habitual physical activity and employment type, gender and employment position. The data indicated that 28% of the population sampled does not habitually undertake any physical activity outside of work. Results also show that that 69.3% of the participants currently undertake less than thirty minutes per day of habitual walking and/or cycling. This is concerning as the very group of individuals who would act as role models appear not to have adopted a consistent physical activity habit. The impact of this is that the general public who look to health and fitness professionals for advice and motivation may not perceive the health and fitness industry as worthy role models to follow. This may have a negative effect on participation and adherence rates in physical activity thus compounding the growing health and obesity crisis. Recommendations include developing a standard of health and fitness for employees of the fitness industry in order to ensure that the proponents of physical activity are not adopting a “Do as I say, not do as I do” approach to physical activity promotion.
    • A survey of the promotion of physical activity in secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland

      Fallows, Stephen; Conlon, Fidelma (University of Chester, 2008-09-30)
      Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the environment, kind and extent of physical activity promotion in a sample of secondary schools throughout the County of Dublin, Ireland. Fifty-six schools participated in this study. Method: Each school completed a structured questionnaire and data was collected concerning general information about the school, the physical education department and curriculum, extra-curricular activities, facilities and resources within the school, staff training and support, school’s policies on health promotion and physical activity and partnerships and community links. The data was collected from the head of school’s physical education department or the school principal. Results: 78.6% of schools reported that the average time spent on PE was 60-80 minutes per week with 43% of schools stating that PE is not compulsory in all years. 26.8% respondents felt their resources were inadequate with schools stating that their indoor (32%) and outdoor facilities (18%) were inadequate. 37.5% of schools do not have cycle sheds or storage facilities for bicycles. 42% of schools have no indoor sports hall, 36% reported that they have no outdoor playing fields and 55% have no hard play area (e.g sports turf). SPSS cumulative figures highlighted that 89.3% of schools offer extra-curricular activities on a regular basis, the most frequently offered activities comprising of basketball (92.9%), athletics (89.3%), soccer (85%) an GAA football (75%). Conclusion: It was concluded that more time is needed for physical activity per student per week but time constraints on an already overcrowded curriculum, would not currently easily facilitate this need. Further support is needed from the Department of Education and Science to improve resources and facilities within secondary schools. It is suggested that health promotion and physical activity should be considered as an additional theory subject for inclusion within a secondary school curriculum together with a structured schedule of various activities (sport and non-sports related) to encourage and embrace all school children to participate and adhere to a physical activity programme.
    • The sweating response, body weight changes and coluntary fluid intakes during training and competition of fast bowlers: A case study

      Skyes, Kevin; Bray, James W. (University of Chester, 2007-09)
      The aim of this study was to examine heart rate, sweat rate and composition, as well as urinary volume, colour and osmolarity, during a single competitive cricket match and training session. Two sub-elite fast bowlers participated in this study. Subjects were measured under warm environmental conditions with wet bulb globe temperature indices of 22.9 and 19.5, respectively. Heart rate was recorded continuously throughout the match and the training session using Polar Vantage NV recordable heart rate monitors. Both players were weighed before and after each session of play and during competition and training. Absorbent patches collected sweat from the upper back and forearm. These remained in place for the duration of competition and training. Sweat was subsequently analysed for sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) composition. Throughout the periods of data collection urine was collected and measured for volume, colour and subsequent osmolarity. The results from this study identify the inter-differences in both sweating response and drinking practices of the two fast bowlers, thus supporting the use of individualised hydration strategies.
    • Swettenham: A rural township in East Cheshire, 1660-1770

      McGuicken, Rachel; Richards, Peter W. (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2005-10)
      This dissertation aims to describe the buildings, landscape, population and economy of the township of Swettenham between the years 1660 and 1770 using mainly the primary sources available. Firstly there is a description of the landscape and population in general terms - the landscape's appearance, land use, pattern of settlement, overall population trends and patterns. This includes consideration of how old the landscape described might be. Moving away from the general to the particular, consideration is then given to the standards of living and way of life of the individuals, the type of agriculture they practised and the buildings in which they lived. Where possible, reference is made to evidence from the lives of individuals to support and illustrate these themes. The results show that Swettenham was a relatively self-contained community in terms of its agricultural economy and contact beyond the parish boundary. The population was fluid, with movement into and out of the parish throughout the period, but social habits were slow to change.
    • A systematic review comparing the two cardiac procedures namely off-pump CABG and on-pump CABG in terms of the total patency rates

      Fallows, Stephen; Merchant, Fahad I. (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review analyzing the total patency rates in off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and on-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. For more than thirty years, surgical coronary revascularization has been accomplished with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the vast majority of cases. However, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has enjoyed a recent resurgence in interest and popularity, worldwide. The prime aim was to compare the two procedures and find out the total patency rates in each by there angiographic outcomes along with short and long term follow-up. A total of seven Randomized control trials were included in the systematic review, and the articles were assessed and included if they fulfilled the criteria of Jadad scale and the guidelines of The Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine. This review has yielded independent results in favour of both the surgical procedures. Each of the two surgical procedures has proved its efficacy when subjected to patients with different clinical profile. The papers and the method of selection of patients have been critically appraised in this study. This study has reached a consensus declaring that both the procedures are equally effective when comparing the short and long term outcomes of the total patency rate. On the whole it depends on the surgeon, hospital, staff and other parameters to choose a procedure and the clinical status of the patient in order to approach a specific procedure.
    • A systematic review of the effects of dieting on food cravings in an overweight or obese population

      Fallows, Stephen; Meadows, Angela (University of Chester, 2012-10-30)
      The objective of this dissertation is to systematically search and evaluate the literature on the effects of weight-loss dieting on food craving in overweight or obese adults. Studies were obtained from searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1)adult participants (18 years and older), classified as overweight or obese by body mass index (BMI>25 kg/m2) at baseline, and currently following a hypocaloric diet for the purposes of weight loss; (2) a non-dieting overweight/obese control; (3) at least one outcomes measure relating to frequency, intensity, or behavioural dimensions of food cravings. No restrictions on study design were made. Relevant studies were assessed for risk of bias and study charactertistics, details of dietary intervention, patient details, and cravings outcomes were extracted. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review, although none provide longitudinal comparisons of the impact of dieting versus non-dieting in an exclusively overweight population. Wide heterogeneity between studies in terms of design, dietary interventions and outcome measures used precluded pooling of data. Overall, low-calorie dieting appeared to have little or no effect on frequentcy, intensity, or type of cravings, although severe caloric restriction did appear to reduce the frequency of both general and intense cravings. These is some evidence that restricted foods are craved less, rather than more, during weight-loss dieting. The data do not support lay perceptions that dieting increases food cravings; however, these findings are based on a small number of studies, and methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies.
    • Systematic review of the efficacy of high intensity interval training versus continuous training for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals

      Fallows, Stephen; O'Keeffe, Chris (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The increasing prevalence of individuals being overweight and obese in conjunction with the associated co-morbidities continues to be a major public health concern. The traditional exercise prescription to accomplish weight loss in such a population has been to perform sustained low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise termed “continuous (CONT) training.” More recently high intensity interval training (HIIT) has been suggested as a more effective alternative for weight loss. HIIT involves short periods of high intensity efforts interspersed with recovery periods of lower intensity. The rationale for such an approach is that individuals can achieve similar results to longer CONT type training but in less time. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the effects of HIIT and CONT training on weight loss and other anthropometric measures in overweight and obese adults when both training protocols are matched for energy expenditure. A total of nine studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review. Four studies included only overweight participants. Of these four, one showed that both CONT training and HIIT were similarly effective for reducing body mass, BMI, body fat, FFM and waist circumference, whilst one concluded that CONT training rather than HIIT was more effective at reducing total body fat and android fat. The remaining two found neither CONT nor HIIT to be effective at reducing overall body mass. Three studies used only obese participants. One found both CONT and HIIT to be equally effective in reducing measures of body mass, BMI and body fat. One found CONT training and HIIT were both equally effective in reducing body mass, fat mass, and gynoid fat mass when combined with a strict calorie controlled diet. The third found neither exercise protocol to be successful for weight or regional fat loss despite the inclusion of dietary guidance as part of the intervention. Of the two studies that included both overweight and obese participants one revealed that both CONT training and HIIT were equally effective in favourably altering body mass, BMI and waist circumference whilst the second showed that both protocols were equally effective at reducing body fat and waist circumference. This review does not support the premise that HIIT is superior to CONT training for weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults when both exercise protocols are isocalorific in terms of energy expended. Rather, both approaches appear to be similarly effective for inducing favourable anthropometric changes and a combination of the two may be considered as a means to achieving weight loss in overweight and obese adults based on individual preference.