• Staff and student perceptions of sustainability and its integration into university curricula

      Alexander, Roy; Hunt, Tamara; Evans, Martin; Lerczak, Alex (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      In the world today, an awareness and consideration of sustainability and sustainable development is becoming increasingly important. Education and public awareness have been identified as critical components of the transition to sustainability. A great deal of responsibility is now placed on universities in order to achieve a sustainable future due to their heavy influence on students’ skills and attitudes. This dissertation investigates staff and student perceptions and understandings of, and attitudes towards, sustainability and its integration into university curricula. The study also explores the sustainability of student lifestyles and the factors influencing their views and behaviour. The project’s data was collected using in-depth student questionnaires, six interviews with Programme Leaders, and three senior support staff members at the University of Chester. The project revealed that there is greater awareness of sustainability among staff and students as well as engagement with the issue. Although sustainability-related content is being increasingly integrated within university curricula, the extent of its integration varies significantly between disciplines due to staff perceptions.
    • The state of Christianity in Cheshire: A critical survey of churches' places of worship 1990 to 2015

      Baker, Christopher T. H.; Rainbow, Michael R. (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      The aim of the investigation was to ascertain whether the number of churches in Cheshire being closed is exceeding the number of new churches being opened - indicating continuing secularisation, or conversely, whether in fact openings are exceeding closures - indicating areas of stability or minor resurgence; and also to question what proportion of churches in Cheshire which own their place of worship, have extended or modernised their building - demonstrating confidence in future growth. To answer these questions, a survey of every Christian church, active between 1990 and 2015, within the four unitary boroughs of Cheshire (Warrington, Cheshire East, Cheshire West & Chester, and Halton), was carried out by personal visit, or website exploration in the cases of churches which hired public buildings for worship. Every gain and loss of an active church over the 25 year time frame was recorded in order to reveal the reality of the situation overall and the trends which have occurred. The research results revealed that 22 of the 105 so-called closures were actually strategic replacement or relocation decisions (inferring growth not decline) which casts doubt on the validity of national closure statistics and on the conclusions of commentators who have (historically) been misled by ambiguous statistics. Of 118 new, mostly Pentecostal churches, 60 (51%) were hidden in hired public buildings such as schools, giving an erroneous impression of fewer churches. A second economic trend was evident from the 25 Local Ecumenical Partnerships found, which had enabled various denominational combinations to share buildings. As well as an increase in all indicators of growth and social reconnection, there was a marginal net gain over 25 years of 13 new churches (Halton -4, CHE +2, CW&C -1, Warrington +16) - a modest, but positive outcome, which indicated stability overall.
    • Storm troopers and trench raiders: Innovation and perception of German and Canadian specialized assault units in the First World War

      Zimmermann, Simon (University of Chester, 2013)
      The initial approach of the German Army on infantry tactics before 1914 was antiquated at best. There are three distinctive attributes which can be applied to the German infantry of 1914 during the outbreak of First World War and the first engagements in Belgium and France: order, discipline and cohesion. The Canadian militia and its contribution to the war in Europe, the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), on the other hand were completely different in almost every regard in comparison to the Imperial German Army.
    • Strength training and bone mineral density of active postmenopausal women

      Fallows, Stephen; Hunt, Tracey (University of Chester, 2006-09-26)
      Rationale: Osteoporosis is a global problem that affects one in three women and one in 12 men. More deaths are caused each year by osteoporosis than are caused by breast cancer, uterine cancer and ovarian cancer combined. Due to recent claims that exercise can help prevent and even treat osteoporosis, numerous studies have recruited people to be involved in many different types of exercise. However, no study has looked at the effect of a 15 minute strength training programme on already active postmenopausal women. The main focus of this study is to assess the benefit of adding three sessions of 15 minutes strength training to an already active population with low bone mineral density. Methods: Initially 31 women were recruited for the study. However, due to numerous reasons 19 subjects completed the 12 week study. Bone mineral density was measured and the subjects were randomly assigned to either the control of exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of strength training (three sessions per week working at 80% of their 1 rep max) in addition to their normal activities. The control group continued their normal activities for the 12 week study. Exercise programmes were adapted every four weeks to ensure subjects were still working at the desired intensity. At the end of the study bone density was measured again and data assessed using SPSS for Windows, Release 13.0. Results: The age range for this study was 46 years of age to 70 years of age. For the purpose of this study Low bone density was categorised as having T-scores below -1. All subjects with a t-score above -1 were excluded at the initial testing stage. Overall, mean bone mineral density for the control group was 91.83% ±13.6 and for the exercise group was 85.19% ± 15.58. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the initial stage. Following the 12 weeks study the mean bone mineral density for the control group was 91.69% ± 11.176 and for the exercise group was 88.09% ± 19.62. There was found to be no significant change in bone mineral density for the control group at the end of the study. However, the exercise group were found to have significantly increased bone mineral density following 12 weeks of strength training (p = 0.002). In addition, the exercise group also showed significant strength increases following the study (p = 0.02). Conclusion: This study has important, and positive, findings not only for individuals wishing to improve their bone density and quality of life, but also for health care professionals trying to reduce the huge £1.8 billion annual cost of osteoporosis related injuries. Although the results of this study are encouraging, more research is needed in this area.
    • Stress in midwifery: An empirical study

      Somerville, David; Birch, Linda (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)National Health Service, 2000-09)
      To examine stress amongst a group of midwives, and establish whether perceived occupational stress actually originates from sources not connected to the work environment. Although many research projects have looked at stress within the N.H.S. very little research has previously been done addressing midwives. Midwives working in an N.H.S. Trust maternity unit. The sickness rates amongst this group were believed to have increased during a recent period of organisational restructuring, with "stress" cited as the main cause for absence. A random sample of one hundred midwives completed three questionnaires. One on basic demographic data, a second on stress analysis - The professional life scale (Fontana 1989), and a third on life style and experiences, which may contribute to stress and anxiety (Holmes and Rahe 1967). Only 6% of midwives scored high on the stress questionnaire. 47% scored low and 47% scored moderately. However, 25% scored high on the life style and experiences questionnaire. The results indicate a predisposition to ill health as a consequence of stress and life changes. There was no correlation between stress and life change scores. High stress scores were not associated with life changes or problems exclusively at home. The replies may suggest a need to analyse personality and individual coping mechanisms as a predisposing factor in relation to stress. Stress was related to organisational change and also to home - work conflicts. Personality and/or individual coping mechanisms may be a major contributing factor in determining the way an individual perceives and copes with a potentially stressful situation. It is possible that the personality characteristics of the midwives are the most important determining factors for their perception of, and experience of, stress. Whilst the total amount of life changes itself does seem to influence the stress level, the amount of change required to produce a physiological stress response in each person appears to be dependent on the individual's perception and coping mechanisms. The sickness rate is measured by management every week, and the absence reported by staff as being due to stress has increased dramatically since the organisational changes were introduced. The current way of thinking within this and possibly other large organisations appears to be the employment of stress counsellors and staff support workers. From these results, this may not appear to be the most appropriate way to deal with the issue of stress.
    • Striving towards inclusion ‘utopia’: The implementation of a disability sport inclusion programme in a sports development unit in Flintshire, Wales

      Bloyce, Daniel; Bullivant-Evans, Donna (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      During the course of the past few decades there has been an increasing shift towards the protection of the rights of disabled people within UK policy (Barnes & Mercer, 1998; Thomas & Smith, 2009). Houlihan and Lindsey (2013) highlighted how there have been significant developments in British sport policy since 1990, and a wealth of literature which has explored sport policy and development (Houlihan & White, 2002; Bloyce & Smith, 2010; Bergsgard et al, 2007; Houlihan, 1991; 1997; 2005; 2012; Houlihan & Green, 2011; Houlihan & Lindsey, 2013). However, there does not seem to be the equivalent level of academic interest within disability sport policy. Thomas and Smith (2009) and Smith and Haycock (2011) outlined that whilst disability sport exists within policy; policy and political interest remains marginal and the practical responsibility for the coordination and development of disability sport opportunities will remain with disability sport organisations and be ‘kept at arm’s length from direct government involvement’ (Smith & Haycock, 2011, p. 98). In this context, this thesis examines the policy implementation process of a disability sport inclusion programme from a figurational sociological perspective, in a local authority sports development unit in Flintshire, Wales. The thesis was based on semistructured interviews with Disability Sport Wales’ Partnership Manager and Sport Flintshire’s Manager, and focus groups with ten Sports Development Officers from Sport Flintshire. It was found that there had been a shift towards inclusion being the group ‘habitus’ over a period of time, possibly due to the way in which the development team was managed and led. Whilst evident that policy implementation is a complex, multi-level ‘game’, ‘insport’, a Welsh disability sport inclusion programme was perceived to be a key tool which could potentially support the lengthening chains of interdependence of the disability sport figuration, and help local authorities strive towards inclusion ‘utopia’. However, it was recommended that further research should be undertaken at a later stage of the ‘insport’ development programme in order to gain greater sociological understanding of the policy implementation process.
    • Students perceptions of service quality at University of Chester Seaborne Library

      Webb, Paul; Velayudhan, Satish (University of Chester, 2009-11)
      Delivering high levels of service is becoming increasingly important in a number of settings, particularly if an organisation is facing increased competition. This report examines the issue of how service quality can be assessed and delivered within the context of a library setting. It achieves this by examining the literature regarding service quality measurement and delivery. It then implements a modified version of the SERVQUAL / libQUAL+ instrument in order to identify the levels of service quality being delivered in specific library - the University of Chester Seaborne library. From this, conclusions are made regarding the suitability of the modified instrument for service quality measurement, and the particular service issues that University of Chester Seaborne library faces. The report concludes by making recommendations for service improvement, based on the findings of the literature review.
    • A study into user acceptance of new technology: British Airways ground transport department Heathrow Terminal 5

      McCool, Clare K. (University of Chester, 2009-05)
      This project was conducted with the help and encouragement of British Airways (BA) management. It was carried out at Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5 (T5) where a new Resource Management System (RMS) that is based upon Internet Protocol (IP) has been implemented. RMS has replaced traditional pen and paper and radio systems for allocating work tasks to 4,000 airport operational staff. This research project studied one application of the RMS system; the allocation of tasks to the coach drivers in the Ground Transport Services (GTS) department. The user acceptance of the RMS system by the drivers was evaluated. In the previous 20 years, user acceptance theories have been developed which have shown that increased user acceptance of new Information Technology (IT) projects significantly reduces costs and improves efficiency (Davis, 1980). The most comprehensive theory is that of Sun and Zhang (2006) who identify critical factors regarding individual user acceptance (gender, age, experience, cultural background and intellectual capability). This research project used a case study methodology: three days were spent airside at T5 observing and interviewing a sample of drivers. The project research question was: 'Can the degree of RMS acceptance by the GTS end-users be determined by factors identified in user acceptance theories?' Essentially, it was not possible to answer this question because of two reasons. First there was little difference in level of user acceptance; it was very high for all users. Second there was also very little difference in the sample and population. The drivers were all male, over 90% between 42 and 65 years of age, with similar levels of experience regarding the RMS technology and computers in general. In addition, it was not possible to measure any difference between the intellectual capabilities of the participants. A difference in the cultural background was identified; there were two ethnic groups, Asian and Caucasian. However, detailed analysis of the responses to the questionnaire demonstrated that there was no evidence of different levels of user acceptance of these groups. Recommendations to improve the testing of user acceptance theories are included in this report.
    • A study investigating the effects of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum on the child's emotional and behavioural development as perceived by the child's class teacher

      Mintz, Rita; Cairns, Dianne (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)Flintshire Primary Care Service for Children, 2002-11)
      Recent reports detail the growing concern of mental health difficulties among children and adolescents (DfES 2001, NAfW Everybody's Business, 2001). Schools are considered an ideal location for the prevention, early identification and treatment of children's difficulties. Increasingly schools are using counsellors to help work with children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. However, there is limited information around the effectiveness of school-based interventions. The PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies), (Greenberg & Kusche, 1994) Curriculum is a comprehensive programme for promoting emotional and social competencies and reducing aggression and behaviour problems in primary school-aged children. Designed to be delivered by class teachers to primary school aged children, evaluations have demonstrated significant improvements in children's emotional and behavioural development on a variety of sites in America but to date, to the author's knowledge, there is no published research in the UK. This study examines the short-term effectiveness of the PATHS curriculum as perceived by the child's class teacher. The study is a pre and post intervention study comprising of 5 schools, 13 teachers and 313 children. The authors of PATHS advise delivery of the programme to be at least 2-3 times per week, throughout the child's primary school education. The majority of the teachers in this study were only able to deliver the programme once a week, and the intervention period was brief, (October 2001- July 2002). However, despite these limitations, the findings indicate improvements on teacher ratings of emotional awareness, behavioural difficulties, peer relationships and children's self esteem. The results are discussed in terms of the efficacy of the measures, the limitations of the study and the implications for teachers, counsellors and future research.
    • The study of factors affecting breastfeeding uptake and duration within Somali women

      Psarou, Katie; Diab, Huda (University of Chester, 2010-04)
      It is widely recognized that human breast-milk is optimal for the normal healthy growth and development of the infant. A wide range of literature is available with evidence clearly demonstrating the benefits of breastfeeding and the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the baby. Despite this breastfeeding initiation rates in the UK remain amongst the lowest in Europe and especially in the North West of England. The basis of this research was to unveil the factors which relate to breastfeeding uptake and duration, and also to find out whether or not these agree with previous findings. Participants were recruited from ‘Somali Women’s’ community centres in Liverpool. Results were obtained through two focus groups. Findings from focus group 1 show that although most women choose to breastfed initially, half of the participants had to stop within six months due to starting another pregnancy. In some cases the women felt mix-feeding was more efficient because the baby appeared to remain hungry between feeding times when fed solely on breast milk. A combination of both self determination and family support lead to a longer breastfeeding duration amongst this group. Results from focus group 2 were similar but most participants spoke very poor English leading to a language barrier between them and the hospital staff. All participants were of Muslim faith; and religion played a key factor in their determination to continue breast feeding up to six months and longer. Findings from this study in line with previous investigations, illustrated the need for better communication, with and education of, pregnant mothers to give them a greater understanding of the benefits of breast feeding. Findings show that there are many determinants to long-term breastfeeding and parents need to work together when infant feeding choices are made. Antenatal support influences long-term decisions. Private places for women need to be made more readily available for breastfeeding women outside of their homes, and further flexibility provided for working mothers.
    • A study of gender issues within hip hop dance in contemporary society

      Pritchard, Ian; D'Andrea, Cristina (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The principle aim of this dissertation is to examine how members of a British all-female hip hop dance group have become professional hip hop dancers despite the gender issues attached to hip hop dance and its originally underground nature. The theoretical perspective of postmodern feminism will be employed to analyse the key concepts of gender and commercialisation in hip hop dance. Hip hop culture could be understood as a postmodern phenomenon and therefore shares concepts with the theoretical approach of postmodern feminism, which justifies why this research will employ the theory of postmodern feminism in the analysis of women’s participation in professional hip hop dance. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with five female members of a unique, professional all-female hip hop dance group based in London. The common themes that were identified from the interviews included: hip hop dance is both a commercialised and an underground culture; participants expressed both positive and negative feelings towards the commercialisation of hip hop dance; hip hop dance was originally male orientated but this is changing now; and, commercialisation has changed the nature of hip hop dance. In summary, hip hop has been described as an unstable and malleable cultural form that is not one fixed idea but an amalgamation of practices that are constantly in flux (Taylor & Taylor, 2007; Drissel, 2011; Forman, 2004b). This could explain the changing nature of hip hop dance and therefore, is how the female participants have become professional hip hop dancers despite the gender issues described that are attached to hip hop dance.
    • A study of responses to advertising images designed to encourage lone parents into work

      Ainsworth, Deborah (University of Chester, 2008-05)
      This study looks at lone parents' responses to 5 discrete advertising images, aimed at encouraging them into employment, which have been utilised by the Government Agency Jobcentre Plus. It examines lone parents' reactions to the imagery by utilising a questionnaire linked to each image and focus groups to achieve open discussion. The aim of this methodology is to identify which image is most likely to make the lone parents' take action to find employment. The study concludes that lone parents can be influenced by astute targeting of advertising images. However, it also suggests that lone parents' are not an amorphous mass and it would be wise to utilise a range of images that would appeal to the broad spectrum of lone parents linking this to their age and the social area where they reside. Furthermore, it finds key themes that on a generic level are more than likely to appeal to lone parents. These include images of 'real people' to which they can relate and to specifically link imagery to their age group and the social area where they reside, identifying clear links within the imagery to employment.
    • A Study of the Expectation vs Experience of International Students at UK Universities

      Rajkhowa, Gautam; Adelekan, Temitope A. (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The background of higher education has been changing over the past two decades. In 2009, the estimated number of students registered outside their country of citizenship was almost 3.7 million (OECD, 2011). The international activities of universities in the United Kingdom (UK) have increased dramatically in volume, scope and complexity over the last decade. In addition, the knowledge of risen tuition fees, university funding cuts and doubts of declining student numbers has all contributed to the change. Therefore, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage in the higher education sector is important and at the forefront of many universities. In response, an “action research” method is agreed primarily using an adapted SERVQUAL instrument to examine expectations and experience of service quality among a sample of postgraduate international students at four leading UK universities. Study into service quality in a higher educational environment is insufficient, and where studies have been undertaken, very little has been done among postgraduates. The research findings suggest that the instrument utilised is suitable in a postgraduate context, and the statements load on the adapted SERVQUAL dimensions of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985, 1988). In an attempt to improve service quality at UK universities and to add to the knowledge base, several recommendations are obtained, and some trend for future research is suggested.
    • A study of the relationship between the general physical fitness of adolescents aged 15 – 19 years and their parents

      Fallows, Stephen; Law, Christopher J. (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of familial resemblance in general physical fitness between adolescents and their parents. Data was gathered from a sample of adolescent-parent pairs. Parents with children between the ages of 15-19 years of age were recruited by means of a poster campaign in the Abergele, Colwyn Bay and Llandudno postal areas of Conwy, North Wales. A sample of 32 adolescent-parent pairs was employed in this research. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and had anthropometric measures taken. The performance of adolescent-parent pairs was then measured for aerobic capacity, static strength, muscular endurance and flexibility. A correlational research design was employed for the project. The level of significance was set at p<0.01. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS (Version 14.0 for Windows). Familial correlation models were fitted directly to the data under the assumption that the family data follow a multivariate normal distribution. The results indicated significant parent - offspring resemblance for weight (0.50), aerobic capacity (0.52), muscular endurance (0.48) and flexibility (0.60) and significant father/son resemblance for weight (0.29), height (0.46) and grip strength (0.39), together with mother/daughter resemblance for weight (0.33) and height (0.48). The results suggest that familial and perhaps genetic, factors are important in explaining the variance in general physical fitness.
    • Study skill use, motivation and the efficacy of the "mind map" technique

      Hayes, Peter; Alexander, Roy; Shuttleworth, Joanne (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2005-06)
      The last decade has seen a considerable increase in the number of students entering Higher Education, coupled with this a lowering of entry requirements in terms of qualifications. This climate demands attention to study skill training, with particular emphasis on those students with problematic studying patterns (Entwistle et al, 1996). The present study was made up of two parts: the first part of the study used a questionnaire to investigate motivation and the frequency of use of study skills, the second part of the study involved an experiment to measure the efficacy of a study skill. The Study Skill Questionnaire was devised to examine differences according to gender, year of study, whether the students had taken a break in their study, degree type and main subject of study. The questionnaire also examined the relationship between academic motivation and study skill use. The results showed that in particular, mature students are considerably more motivated than their peers; however, they use the same techniques with the same frequency as their colleagues. The second part of the study continued to investigate a study skill's efficacy in an attempt to arm these motivated students with a superior learning technique. The mind map study skill was chosen for investigation. After some initial difficulty with task bias, the study showed that there was no significant difference between a self-selected technique (i.e. the study technique the student normally uses) and the mind map technique. Although this implies that the Mind Map Technique is not a superior study technique, other explanations may be possible. It could be that the technique cannot be mastered in a single session and that practice is required. It could be also possible that mind mapping only works for certain types of learners following the findings of Pask and Scott (1972; cited in Richardson, 1983). Future research could examine such possibilities.
    • A study to investigate the role of mother-tongue in counselling for Welsh speakers and its impact on the counselling relationship

      Parnell, Tony; Kennedy, Vida L. (University of Chester, 2013-12)
      This research study investigates the role of mother-tongue in counselling Welsh clients and within the therapeutic relationship. It is a qualitative study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as its mode of inquiry and analysis. Four participants who described Welsh as their mother-tongue from the North Wales region were interviewed individually using an in-depth semi-structured interview. Data analysis followed that described by Smith, Flowers, and Larkin (2009). The study found that all participants described mother-tongue as an important aspect of counselling and the counselling relationship. The results demonstrated that the more familiar a language is to the client the easier it is to talk about personal experiences and emotions. It also highlighted the role language plays in the client’s identity and culture, and that it is important for the therapist to accept and understand the client’s background and their struggle to communicate in order to create a facilitative relationship, and a safe environment for counselling. The study found that aspects such as searching for the right word or having meaning get lost in translation as barriers to counselling. In addition, and in particular with reference to the bilingual context of the Welsh speaking participants it was found that language was used to create closeness or distance to an issue, discovering hidden issues, and allow for flexibility and choice. This study provides an insight into the role of mother-tongue in counselling with Welsh clients and may have something to offer counsellors working in other bilingual contexts.
    • A study to investigate the use of perspective, in a short computer-based intervention, to influence self-reported nature connection, and environmental attitude

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Goldstein, Thomas (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      High levels of environmental damage have been leading towards potential planetary emergency, and high levels of stress have been affecting large a percentage of the global population. Previous research focused on increasing nature connection through immersion in nature rather than computer-based urban initiatives. Very little research has looked at how perspectives can be most effectively used to increase a sense of nature connection. This study used a combination of short video clips, presented with one of two possible perspectives to participants. Forty six participants took part in the study based on opportunity sampling, from the author’s personal social network and from the university psychology department. Group A were presented with the perspective of humans being separate from nature, while Group B were presented with the perspective of nature being home for humans. Questionnaires were used to measure levels of pro-environmental attitude, nature connection, environmental motives and emotional state before and after the intervention. Correlation and 2x2 ANOVAs were used to analyse the data. Perspective did not show a significant main effect. Both nature connection and pro-environmental attitude were significantly increased during the intervention (ηp2= .12 and .38 respectively), as was negative emotional state (ηp2= .46). Change in nature connection showed significant positive correlation to change in environmental attitude (r = .51). Increase in negative emotional state was significantly correlated with increase in nature connection (r = .37). Future research is needed to better understand the use of perspective to increase nature connection. Nature connection appears to be well linked to environmental attitude. The powerful role of negative emotions was shown, and the importance of being aware of the implications and limiting their use was highlighted. Overall, it was shown that a computer based intervention can be used into increase self-reported levels of nature connection and pro-environmental attitudes.
    • Subjective global assessment, physical function and anthropometrics: What should we be measuring in maintenance dialysis patients?

      Fallows, Stephen; Stansfield, Jennifer L. (University of Chester, 2008-03)
      Purpose - Malnutrition is common in maintenance dialysis patients; subjective global assessment is a recommended tool to identify nutritional status. The aim of the study was to establish whether a 7 point SGA tool would provide an adequate degree of accuracy in identifying malnutrition when compared to other validated subjective and objective measures of nutritional status. Previous studies have only looked at the total SGA score, this study looked at the total SGA score and also the separate sections of the SGA scoring. Methods - The study population consisted of 67 maintenance dialysis patients receiving either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or Haemodialysis (HD). Patients were assessed using a 7 point SGA tool; anthropometric measures - height, weight, triceps skin-fold, sub-scapular skin-fold, mid arm circumference, mid"arm muscle circumference, calf circumference, mid thigh circumference; dietary measures - 24 hour diet recall and Functional measures - handgrip strength and International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) Results Correlations were assessed using Spearman's Rank or Pearson's correlation; and conducted between the total SGA score and separate sections of the SGA tool. Only 3 results indicated a high correlation co-efficient: mid thigh Circumference (cm) with muscle mass section of the SGA score r = 0.778 (p=0.0005), mid calf circumference (cm) with muscle mass section of the SGA score r = 0.727 (p=0.0005) and mid thigh circumference (cm) with the total SGA score r = 0.707 (p= 0.0005) Conclusions - The results suggest that the 7 point SGA tool although it addresses a number of areas to consider when addressing nutrition status does not appear to have a high correlation with a number of validated measures of nutritional status, suggesting that the SGA tool needs further adaptation to prove its worth as a standalone measure.
    • Sugar Reduction in Sponge Cakes: Physical and Sensory Properties of Sponge Cake with Sugar Alternatives - Maltitol /Steviol glycosides/Polydextrose/ Inulin

      Li, Weili; Mao, Kuangqi (University of Chester, 2019-01-31)
      Challenges in reducing sugar in foods have been serious global issues as an excessive intake of sugar causes negative effects on human health, even though sugar plays a key role in the structural and sensory attributes of food products. Therefore, it is urgent for food industries to find an alternative to reduce the sugar content of foods without any noticeable effect, such as using sugar replacements to substitute the role of sugar in high-sugar foods. The first aim of this study was to verify the function of sugar in sponge cakes. The second was to compare the effects between sugar and sugar alternatives on sponge cakes in order to explore feasible sugar replacements. In current study, the effects of sugar on physical properties of sponge cake and batter were first studied in terms of different concentrations. Then the effects of replacement by maltitol, polydextrose, inulin and steviol glycosides were extensively studied using the same concentrations with regarding to sugar. Batter viscosity and specific gravity were analysed before baking. Cake physical properties were also studied through image analysis, specific gravity, height, weight loss and firmness. In addition, sensory testing was also carried out to explore the feasible sugar replacement. Experimental results showed that sugar truly exerted crucial functions in cakes manufacture, like increasing the batter viscosity and the cake volume. Significant improvement in physical properties of cakes, especially in terms of specific gravity and specific volume, can be found as the sugar level reached by 140% (P<0.05). In regard to sugar-free sponge cakes, best results in physical properties can be obtained from cakes elaborated with maltitol when the containing level was 140%. Compared with sugar, closest results can be achieved by maltitol due to the similar structure and properties. Meanwhile, cakes elaborated with maltitol got the highest overall liking level in sensory evaluation. Cakes with polydextrose showed a relatively worse performance in physical property testing and sensory evaluation due to the weaker bulking function and sweetness of polydextrose. However, the addition of steviol glycosides can improve the sensory properties to some extent. In addition, inulin appeared to be unfeasible to replace sugar according to the result obtained in this study because it led to the lowest quality of sponge cakes in physical properties or sensory attributes.
    • Suicide in cricket: A sociological explanation

      Waddington, Ivan; McNee, Shaun (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      Statistics from David Friths’ (2001) book ‘Silence of the Heart: Cricket Suicides’ indicates cricket players are almost twice as likely as the average male to commit suicide, and furthermore have a higher rate of suicide than participants of any other sports. This thesis proposes to draw on the sociology of suicide devised by Emile Durkheim during the late 19th century. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to examine the social causes of the suggested suicide rate in cricket. Using data generated from 9 cricket players’ auto/biographies, the findings suggest that cricket, specifically long tours spent away from home, place unique strains on family relations when compared with those from other sporting occupations. Furthermore, findings allude towards a high divorce rate in cricket and high divorce rates have long been associated with an increase in suicide (Durkheim, 1966). Moreover, findings suggest retirement impacts on the suicide rate in cricket, as retirement leads to a loss of social regulation among cricketers, thus, creating an increase in the sense of anomie, or ‘normlessness’ among players, which causes an increase in the rate of anomic suicide. However, findings also propose retirement’s impact on the suicide rate is contingent on the presence of the family group; where a family group is present, retirement may negatively impact the suicide rate as retirement allows cricket players to re-integrate into the family group, thus increasing their sense of social integration which acts as a barrier, preventing an increase in the suicide rate.