• A post trek exploratory study on the physical and psychological ill health effects of trekking to Everest base camp following observations by the author

      Fallows, Stephen; Gellatly, Pamela (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      The purpose of this retrospective study was to understand and test the theory that multiple physical and psychological ill health effects occur when trekking at high altitude to Everest Base Camp (EBC), Nepal. The tour operator, The Adventure Company, agreed to send out 100 questionnaires to clients who had undertaken either the 11 day trek via Tengboche or the 16 day via Goyko Lakes, to EBC. The questionnaires also considered: age, gender, general levels of fitness and previous experience of trekking at altitude. The respondents (n=49) were 53% male (n = 26) and 45% female (n=22) and one unknown. Of the 49 participants, 36 lost weight (p < 0.001) sd ± 2.95 of which 17 were males (p < 0.001) sd ± 2.6 and 19 were females (p <0.001) sd ± 3.3. Altitude sickness was experienced by 38 trekkers or 78% (p < 0.001) using the Lake Louise Score for Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS); 35% (n=17) had mild AMS, 43% (n=21) had severe AMS. The incidence of other conditions was: bacterial infections = (n= 31) or 57% (p < 0.001); general heart rate (n=26) or 55% (p<0.0001); and 71% (n=35) heart rate at night (p <0.0001); low mood = (n=16) or 33% (p< 0.001). The incidence of AMS was higher on reaching 4000m and was consistent with the literature. Other factors identified and consistent with the literature included: significant weight loss; bacterial infections; increase in heart rate in general and at night. Low mood was present during the trek and for some people continued on returning home and has not been well documented in other studies reviewed. Further research on the multiple ill health effects of trekking and how they may be prevented or better managed is needed to reduce risk and aid overall enjoyment.
    • Poverty and malnutrition in urban sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Muriuki, Mercy S. N. (University of Chester, 2009-11-09)
      Poverty contributes to many problems globally and its resultant effects are many,, varied and have their greatest impact in poor countries. One of the major effects of poverty is malnutrition, which has a hold on all facets of life due to the vicious cycle associated with it. In sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition is rampant and as a result has led to morbidity and mortality, has affected cognitive development and physical growth and has also diminished physical work capacity. The main purpose of this study was to explore the strategies that have been used to combat poverty and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa and to also be able to understand the reasons why those strategies worked or did not work. To do this, articles written on the topics related to poverty and malnutrition from sub-Saharan Africa were reviewed. From this it has emerged that poverty should be addressed and that education would have the greatest impact in doing so. Community participation has also emerged to be instrumental in ensuring that the poverty and malnutrition combating strategies are embraced and accepted by the community in general. The reason for this is that, a community will participate actively only if it can relate to the objectives of the project or programme being set up and also be involved in the planning, negotiations and implementation of the strategies.
    • Pregnancy and birth outcome in underweight mothers

      Cohen, Tabitha (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      The aim of this dissertation is to examine the association between maternal underweight and preterm delivery. Using the MEDITECH database from Liverpool Womens Hospital we were able to look at women booking on for ante natal care between January 2005 and December 2007. This gave access to 23651 subjects. These subjects were grouped according to pre pregnancy BMI into five groups; severe-moderately underweight (BMI <18.5), moderate-mild underweight (BMI 18.6-19.9), acceptable weight (BMI 20-24.9), overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obese (BMI >30). The gestation time of the pregnancy was classified into four groups with standard term delivery being >37 weeks gestation. The three classifications of premature delivery are; preterm delivery (32-36 weeks & 6 days), very preterm delivery (28-31 weeks and 6 days) and extremely premature delivery (<27 weeks and 6 days). Birth outcome was also investigated as associated with preterm delivery. Association between pre pregnancy maternal BMI and both gestation time and birth outcome were examined, with reference to maternal age, smoking behaviour and parity. Results: Women with pre pregnancy underweight were at increased risk of premature delivery. The risk of still birth was also slightly increased with severe-moderate underweight. There were also interesting findings on smoking and pre pregnancy underweight. Severe-moderate underweight (BMI <18.5) shows increased risk of both premature delivery and stillbirth. The more underweight BMI groups have a higher percentage of preterm deliveries. This is more pronounced in the severe-moderately underweight group with a total of 11.8% of infants born prematurely.
    • ‘Pregnancy, Boobs, Breastfeeding & Babies’ - An explorative insight into the enabling factors supporting successful breastfeeding among young mothers from low socioeconomic groups in Cheshire

      Dunne, Seona (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Exclusive breastfeeding to six months of age has been one of the primary aims of nutrition and public health programs across the world (Shahla, Fahy, & Kable, 2010). The benefits of breastfeeding particularly in recent times have been quite established and despite public health initiatives,breastfeeding practice rates in western countries including the UK do not appear to be significantly improving; with most women not continuing breastfeeding until six months postpartum (Shahla, Fahy, & Kable, 2010). Globally, breastfeeding makes an important contribution to meeting the target to reduce infant mortality (Youens, Chisnell, & Marks-Maran, 2014). It has been shown that mothers from lower socio-economic groups, who are less educated, single and younger are less likely to breastfeed (Stewart-Knox, 2013). Low breastfeeding rates in the UK have led to an increased incidence of illness which in turn, has a significant cost implication on the health service (Entwistle, 2013). According to UNICEF, increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK could save the NHS up to £40 million (Thomas, 2014). The Infant Feeding Survey (IFS) 2010, has shown initial breastfeeding rates in the North West of England at 76%. This is below the national average of 83% for England. After 6 months this rate drops to 29%. The Department of Health in England recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life yet by six months, in England, only 34% of babies are breastfed and only 1% of infants are exclusively breastfed (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2012). Many women do want to breastfeed but without the necessary support, many do not achieve this goal (Thomas, 2012). By understanding what encourages and supports this 29% breastfeeding group to continue breastfeeding, it can help breastfeeding leaders, coordinators and support workers to apply these factors to future campaigns and activities surrounding breastfeeding practices.
    • A preliminary analysis of team performances in English List A cricket

      Key, Stuart (University of Chester, 2013)
      Consequently, the aims of this study are to: preliminarily investigate and quantify the magnitude of differences between key performance indicators of winning and losing teams in a selection of English List A matches and preliminarily investigate pitch-level analysis data, including the line and length of wickets taken and boundaries scored, and its impact on winning or losing in a selection of English List A matches.
    • Pressure to play: A sociological analysis of professional football manager’s behaviour towards injured players

      Waddington, Ivan; Law, Graeme (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The objects of this study are to examine the ways in which professional football managers behave towards injured players, and in this context, the focus is on whether there is a ‘pressure to play’ in football. This study involved semi-structured interviews with current professional football managers from all levels of the professional game in England. The interviews focused centrally on the manager’s experiences of dealing with injured players and if at certain stages of the season or in certain games the manager’s behaviour towards an injured player was influenced. The effect that a player’s injuries have on the long term future of the player were also discussed along with the influence the managers backroom staff had with the interdependent relationships of the network. The findings indicate that managers know that they are unlikely to ever field a team that has eleven fully fit players and that players are inconvenienced when they are injured to encourage a quicker return to playing games. It was also evident that risks are taken on players if that player is regarded as a key player and the match is of high importance, as this reduces the risk of uncertainty on the manager in the network of interdependent relationships. It was noted that an authoritarian style is used by managers to have more control over the network of a professional football club. The managers expressed how they did not want to risk the long term health of the players but the constraints that were put on them influenced their behaviour towards injured players when there was no deliberate attempt to do so.
    • Prevalence of obesity among paediatrics (0-15 years) at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital: A retrospective chart review

      Fallows, Stephen; Al-Harthy, Shadiya (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among paediatric patients aged (0-15 years) at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, SQUH between 2007 and 2012. Design - A retrospective chart review study. A total of 3,657 paediatric patients 0-15 year olds who consulted the SQUH paediatric services between 2007 and 2012 were included in the analysis. Data was abstracted from the electronic medical records database. The WHO reference cut-offs BMIs (> +1 and > +2 standard deviation scores [SDS]) were used for overweight and obesity respectively. The overall prevalence of childhood overweight was (11.3%) and obesity (9.4%) in all age groups. There was no significant difference (P=0.564) between boys and girls. A significant increase of overweight (8.0% vs 12.4%, P=0.001) and obesity (4.2% vs 12.9%, P=0.001) was found between younger age group (3-5 years) and the older (10-15 years) age group. An increasing annual trend of obesity (6.2%, 7.8%, 9.3%, 10.5% and 11.5%) was evident (P=0.029) between year 2007 and 2011 respectively, with a slight decrease (9.9%) in 2012. Nevertheless, findings also suggest underweight prevalence of 14.2% among paediatric patients of which 4.5% are severely underweight. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing among SQUH paediatrics. The present study provides useful insight for policy development to establish better monitoring system, management and prevention efforts within the SQUH. However, underweight remain a problem that equally requires further attention and intervention.
    • The prevalence of orthorexia nervosa in Lebanese university students and the relationship between orthorexia nervosa and body image, body weight and physical activity.

      Fallows, Stephen; Al Kattan, Malika (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Background: Orthorexia is a behavioral disorder characterized by healthy food fixation (Bratman & Knight, 2000). Researchers suggest that the difference between eating disorders and orthorexia is that orthorexics are more concerned about their health status and may not be concerned about their body image or body weight (Ramaciotti et al.,2011) The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa in Lebanese university students and to study the associations between orthorexia nervosa and body image, body weight and physical activity. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 320 randomly selected students from the Lebanese University, branch III. Data was collected through a questionnaire that includes three sections: the ORTO-15 questionnaire, Multidimensional body self relations questionnaire (MBSRQ) and a personal history section. A comparative study was conducted to compare MBSRQ scores between orthorexics and non orthorexics. A second comparative study was conducted to compare ORTO-15 and MBSRQ scores in males and females with orthorexia. A correlation study was conducted to test the associations between ORTO-15 and the MBSRQ scores in females and males with orthorexic behaviours. Results: The prevalence of orthorexia in Lebanese university students is 65.31%. The comparative study results show a significant difference between orthorexics and non orthorexics for overweight preoccupation and self classified weight. There is no significant difference between orthorexics and non orthorexics for body area satisfaction, appearance evaluation and appearance orientation scales. In females, lower ORTO-15 scores - stronger orthorexia- are associated with higher appearance orientation, health evaluation, fitness evaluation and orientation, overweight preoccupation and body area satisfaction. As for males, lower ORTO-15 scores are associated with higher health evaluation and fitness orientation. Also, in males, here is no correlation between ORTO-15 scores and the remaining MBSRQ scales. Conclusion: This study findings show that orthorexic students are more concerned about their body weight and diet than those with normal eating behaviours. There is no difference between orthorexics and non orthorexics in appearances scales. In females, orthorexia is associated with higher fitness satisfaction and orientation. Also, in females, orthorexia is associated with disordered eating behaviours symptoms such as controlled eating, fat anxiety, weight control and dieting.
    • The prevalence of parent reported food hypersensitivity at school entry in Malta.

      Fallows, Stephen; Abdilla, Maria M. P. (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Introduction This research aimed to provide local statistics in the area of food hypersensitivity in the paediatric population, as the prevalence of such allergic and non-allergic food hypersensitivity (intolerance) to food in Malta at the present time is previously undocumented. The main food which causes hypersensitivity in the population under study has been identified and compared to the main causes of hypersensitivity in other countries. Method Between January and March 2015, every school in Malta which includes Year 1 children (5-to 6-yr-olds) (N=83 schools) was invited to participate in this research study. Participant schools (n=42) were then provided with a questionnaire to be distributed to those parents who had previously reported food related hypersensitivity to the school through the health information sheet. Results The point prevalence for food hypersensitivity in the 5-to 6-yr-old participant population in the study was found to be 2.5%. Of the foods causing hypersensitivity in the studied group, milk and milk products were the main causes, affecting 38.9% and 30.6% of participant children respectively, followed by tree nuts (22.2%). 7 Conclusion The 2.5% point prevalence of Year 1 5-to 6-yr old children with food hypersensitivity, indicates the level of action required on allergic and non-allergic food hypersensitivity in Malta. This includes the need for school policy guidelines on food hypersensitivity. Such local statistics also indicate that the Health Department needs to direct attention to this field. This could possibly include the set-up of a state clinic that holistically assists all patients with heightened reaction to food.
    • Prisoners of war through the ages

      McLay, Keith A. J.; Manson, P. G. (University of Chester, 2009)
      This dissertation discussed the treatment of prisoners of war from the Middle Ages to 1815.
    • The problem and possibilities of active euthanasia in the clinical nursing setting: Some educational issues

      Brady, Maureen T.; Taylor, Michael G. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1996-07)
      Although death is an inevitable consequence of life, the exact time of death has come increasingly under human control. It is now possible to prolong human life beyond the point at which some patients actually want to go on living. It is becoming increasingly difficult to determine the point at which a "gentle and easy" death can be achieved. Many nurses now argue that the time has come to question whether life should be preserved in every case where it is technically possible to do so, regardless of the quality of that existence. This study researches one of the fiercest on-going debates within the area of health-care. That is, the question as to whether the option to use active euthanasia to end a patient's suffering could ever be justified within the clinical nursing setting, where the main role of the nurse has been generally accepted to be one of maintaining and supporting aji human life. In order to consider the problem and possibilities of euthanasia in the clinical nursing setting, and the educational issues involved, this study examines a broad selection of international literature and research papers, from both primary and secondary sources. Particular emphasis is placed upon the studies carried out in Holland - where euthanasia is accepted, provided it is carried out within certain guidelines - and Australia, whose Northern Territories have now legalised active euthanasia. The findings of this research indicate that active euthanasia may not prove to be the straightforward option that many people believe it to be. Every case is different, therefore, every individual case needs to be evaulated individually. Nurses have a responsibility to respect the feelings of those who would wish to end their lives in this way. However, they also have a responsibility to ensure that they will always be able protect the interests of those who would not, especially those who are unable to speak for themselves. The study concludes that British nurses need time to become more familiar with the ethical and legal issues surrounding euthanasia and discover, if legalised, where their professional responsibilities would begin and end. It recommends that a full evaluation must also be made of the possible effects of the Australian legislation and the Dutch experience. It concludes that it is also important to examine alternative options, before such an important (and probably irreversible) moral leap is taken, so that we are sure it is the only way forward.
    • The problem of national identity within the German armies during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71

      Grady, Tim; Dobbert, Monique (University of Chester, 2013)
      The German Wars of Unification between 1864 and 1871, which united the North German Confederation with the southern states, received only limited academic attention overall. Historians throughout Europe, more so in Germany, engaged primarily with political and military aspects of the conflicts whereby they focused strongly on Prussia and rarely accounted for other German states. In the field of cultural and social history, however, there is a significant lack of publications. Despite the historical importance of these wars, especially the Franco-Prussian War, the subject is often overshadowed by the global, more multifarious conflicts of the twentieth century which aroused the interest of academics. Therefore, research in this field is far from exhausted and the topic offers much room for further investigation.
    • The process of recruitment and selection in Coca-Cola India

      Webb, Paul; Charan, Tripti (University of Chester, 2011-11)
      The research is based on the process of Recruitment and Selection of Hindustan Coca Cola private limited. This is to understand the impact of the above mentioned process and its effectiveness. The data gathered through questionnaires which were filled by the employees if Coca Cola India states that there are many ways through which company attracts new candidates to participate in the interview process. To know whether the employees of the company are satisfied with their job and the salary package offered to them by the company. For the company to realise the reasons for which their employees can leave the job maybe for work pressure or no growth opportunities, etc. Another aim is to know whether the deserving employee is performing the right task or not. This will enable the researcher is understand the process of recruitment and selection better. The main limitation of this research is that the primary data collected through questionnaire is only employees’ perspective about the recruitment and selection process not the employers. If both employees’ and employer’s perspective could have been known it would have given a clear understanding of the process.
    • The professional identities of Ellen Wood

      Holland, Chloe (University of Chester, 2013)
      As author of the 1861 bestseller, East Lynne, Ellen Wood forged a successful literary career as a prolific writer of sensation fiction and celebrity-editor of The Argosy magazine. While this project will examine the construction and maintenance, of her most famous persona, the pious, conservative ‘Mrs Henry Wood’, an equal focus is afforded to the other literary identities under which Wood operated during her illustrious career. Although recent scholars have considered the business-like tenacity of Wood as a commercially driven writer in contrast to the fragile, conservative ‘Mrs Henry Wood’ persona, this dissertation integrates the identities forged in the early anonymous writings in periodicals and publications made under male pseudonyms with these contrasting representations to procure a comprehensive view of the literary identities adopted by Wood. Situating Wood in the context of her contemporaries, the role of the female writer in the mid-nineteenth-century is primarily outlined to inform Wood’s development of anonymous identities as a periodical writer through the semi-anonymous signature in contributions during the 1850s which foregrounded the ‘Mrs Henry Wood’ persona. The reputation of Wood’s most famous professional identity and recent challenges by critcis to that carefully devised image, are outlined through examination of the construction, conservation, and contradictions of Wood’s most profitable trademark, ‘Mrs. Henry Wood’. Finally, the inclusion of masculine identities provides a contrasting insight into Wood’s writings, including the relatively unsuccessful boys stories hampered by the ‘Mrs. Henry Wood’ reputation, alongside her successful male pseudonyms ‘Ensign Pepper’ and ‘Johnny Ludlow’. The consideration of the under studied professional identities adopted by Wood, alongside the famous ‘Mrs. Henry Wood’ literary persona, develops a comprehensive perception of the astute, tenacious businesswoman who deliberately crafted a popular yet respectable role in a saturated literary market.
    • Promoting physical activity in general practice: Maltese GPs’ beliefs, attitudes and practices

      Fallows, Stephen; Calleja, Johanna (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      The aim of this research project was to investigate promotion of physical activity (PA) in general practice in Malta, by analysing Maltese general practitioners’ (GPs’) beliefs, attitudes and self-reported practices. All Maltese GPs were invited to participate in this postal survey, whereby data was collected using a validated questionnaire about PA in general practice. The main outcome measures included knowledge, role perception, confidence, barriers and frequency of PA promotion, feasibility of different PA promotion strategies and GPs’ PA levels. The response rate was 53% (156 replies out of 296). Although role perception was high, PA promotion was generally low (52% promoted PA to < 30% of patients), with GPs more likely to promote PA if they perceived it as relevant to the patient’s condition. Only 19% of GPs knew the national PA recommendations, with those who did being somewhat more likely to promote PA to > 30 patients/month than those who did not (59% vs. 41%, p = 0.082). GPs were more confident in giving general PA advice than suggesting specific PA programmes, and a relationship was found between confidence and frequency of promoting PA (p = 0.005, r = 0.226). There was also a relationship between GPs’ PA levels and frequency of promoting PA (p = 0.038, r = 0.168). The most common barrier was lack of time, while brief counselling during consultations was considered most feasible. Initiatives are required to increase knowledge about PA recommendations and PA promotion among Maltese GPs. Due to numerous advantages and GPs’ hypothetical support, a framework in which GPs recommend increased PA and offer referrals to a PA counsellor could be ideal. However, research is required about how to implement such a framework. PA promotion by GPs could have a significant public health impact, particularly since physical inactivity and obesity levels are very high in Malta.
    • Protein, how much to eat per meal? A systematic review in maximizing the muscle protein synthetic response in resistance-trained athletes

      Jawadwala, Rehana; Van Vliet, Stephan (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      It is common practice in strength sports to spread out nutrient intake, and more specifically protein, into small amounts during the day with the belief that this is not only optimal but absolutely necessary in order to render in optimal response in terms of protein utilization and growth. Moreover this notion mainly stems from the believe that only a limited amount of protein (20 – 30 g-1) can be utilized per meal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate existing evidence into the amount of protein that might optimize the muscle protein synthetic response (MPS) in the post prandial period. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RTCs). SUBJECTS: ‘Healthy’ adult subjects (18 – 64 years of age) either after an acute bout of resistance training and/or systematic involvement in resistance training (minimum of 3 days/week). RESULTS: 56 studies were identified as primary research, of which 12 were assessed for eligibility. Of these 12 studies, 3 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. Synthesis of the evidence showed included studies varied considerably in terms of study design, quality and outcomes, yet showed no evidence that only a limited amount of protein can be utilized per meal. CONCLUSION: At this point there is no evidence that only 20 – 30 g-1 of protein per meal can be utilized per meal by resistance trained athletes while on the other hand there is, at best, very minor evidence that more than these amounts ( ~ 40 g-1) might stimulate MPS to a greater degree. Further studies should focus on comparing various amounts of protein using ‘realistic’ administration of nutrients as well as with the usage of ‘realistic’ training protocols.
    • The psychological demands of touch rugby

      Twist, Craig; Beaven, Robert (University of Chester, 2013-09-30)
      This study quantified and compared the internal and external match demands on regional and national standard male touch rugby players. It adopted an independent measures cohort design where nine regional players (mean age 25.5 ± 5.5 years, body mass 74.2 ± 7 kg, stature 174.1 ± 7 cm) and 12 national players (mean age 27.8 ± 6.2 years, body mass 72.8 ± 3.7 kg, stature 174.5 ± 5.4 cm) were analysed during competitive matches from the 2013 season using global satellite positioning technology (GPSports, Australia). This provided 33 regional and 55 national match files for analysis. Independent samples t-tests detected significant differences (p<0.05) in the time players spent on the pitch (ES = 1.13), total distance (m) (ES = -1.26), total relative distance (m·min-1) (ES = 0.72), relative high intensity (>14 km·h-1) distance (m·min-1) (ES = 1.04), absolute low intensity (<14 km·h-1) distance (m) (ES = -1.25), work to rest for time and distance (ES = -0.98 and -0.94, respectively), total sprint (> 20 km·h-1) distance (m) (ES = 1.0), relative total sprint distance (m·min-1) (ES = 1.39), number and frequency of sprints performed (ES = 0.6 and 1.15, respectively), peak speed (km·h-1) (ES = 0.8) and average match speed (km·h-1) (ES = 0.8), average (ES = -0.61) and summated heart rate (ES = -1.7), and session RPE (ES = -1.7). It was concluded that as differences in match demands exist, coaches should make training as specific as possible, and by doing so, better prepare touch rugby players for competition. Furthermore, improving aerobic capacity and the quantity of sprint/high intensity work performed may assist those players transitioning from regional to national standard.
    • Psychosocial characteristics of patients seeking weight loss surgery

      Fallows, Stephen; Calow, Jane (University of Chester, 2009-07)
      This study investigated the relationships between BMI, gender and depression, anxiety, self-esteem and disordered eating in people seeking weight loss (bariatric) surgery. The aim was to increase understanding of these relationships to improve selection of patients suitable for surgery. The study was a retrospective audit of data from 199 females and 59 males (mean BMI 48.3 ± 8.1kg/m²) who attended for surgical pre-assessment. Subjects completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), The Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) and the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). Spearman’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between BMI and the HADS anxiety and depression scores, the IWQOL-Lite self-esteem scores and the BITE symptom scale disordered eating scores. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to investigate gender differences in the psychosocial scores. There was no significant relationship between BMI and anxiety (r=-0.39; p=0.532), BMI and depression (r=-0.101; p=0.106), BMI and self- esteem (r=-0.017; p=0.788) or BMI and disordered eating (r=-0.109; p=0.081). There was a significant difference in HADS anxiety scores (p=0.004) between males (median=9) and females (median=12) and in IWQOL-Lite self-esteem scores (p=0.0005) between males (median=28) and females (median=33). There was no significant gender difference in HADS depression scores (p=0.03) or in BITE disordered eating scores (p=0.028). There was a significant difference in BMI (p=0.001) between males (median 49.5 kg/m²) and females (median 46.0 kg/m²). The results indicated that females seeking bariatric surgery were significantly more anxious and had lower self-esteem than males, and they had significantly lower BMIs than males. There was a weak negative correlation between BMI and the psychosocial scores indicating that people may be less distressed at higher BMIs but these results were not significant. Further research should investigate the relationships between the psychosocial variables in greater depth, to improve patient selection and outcomes after bariatric surgery.
    • The public sector scorecard: A critical evaluation of its application in third sector supported housing services

      Scanlon, Tom; Morris, Gary (University of ChesterLiverpool City Council, 2007-08)
      The context of the dissertation is set in chapter one with the introduction to the dissertation, details of the background and justification for the research are provided, the research question, the research aims and objectives and an explanation of key terms used during the research are set out. The dissertation continues with a summary of the literature on performance management and provides a synthesis of the literature on the balance scorecard and public sector scorecard including a review and critique regarding their application. Having set the research in context and summarised the literature an overview of the research design and research process is presented including details of the data collection and data analysis methods used, the sampling method used and the limitations of the research. The findings from the research are then set out including an interpretation and discussion regarding their relevance and implications both in respect of the literature and the Supporting People program. The research conclusions are then provided, contextualised within the existing academic literature, and an evaluation of the adopted methodology is presented. Finally, the dissertation outlines the key recommendations arising from the research including the need for further research. A number of appendices are provided including a detailed account of how the data was marshalled.
    • The Public’s Perceptions of Individual’s with Autism Spectrum Condition in the Criminal Justice System

      Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Taylor-Diparno, Elizabeth A. (University of Chester, 2017)
      Jurors play an essential part in the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales (Citizens Information Board, 2017), however research so far highlights that jurors perceptions of a witness can impact their decision making (Peled, Iarocci, & Connolly, 2004). To gain further insight into the impact of these perceptions, specifically in regards to vulnerable witness with autism spectrum condition (ASC), an online study was designed to examine whether these perceptions implicate the witness’s perceived credibility. This study examined whether having the knowledge of the children’s developmental status, impacted the potential jurors decision making in regards to four transcripts they had read; concerning a child being asked to recall events they had watched on a video. Fifty-four participants were requested to initially complete a self-report questionnaire, establishing their overall views of individuals with ASC; based on the Societal Attitudes towards Autism Scale (Flood, Bulgrin, & Morgan, 2013). The participants were then asked to complete one questionnaire after reading each child’s transcript; based on eight credibility characteristics (Henry, Ridley, Perry, & Crane, 2011). The results showed a significant interaction between the children’s developmental status and the disclosure of their developmental status in regards to the potential juror’s perceptions of the vulnerable witness credibility, in respective to all eight credibility characteristics. In addition, the research also found that there was a significant relationship between the potential juror’s scores on the Societal Attitudes towards Autism scale and the disclosure of ASC in regards to the vulnerable witnesses’ perceived credibility, across five of the eight credibility characteristics. With a majority correlation, it is further suggested that potential jurors overall perceptions of a particular group within society is likely to influence their decisions in regards to a witnesses credibility in providing evidence.