• Nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour of members of commercial slimming clubs in Greater Manchester

      Bray, Barbara (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      Objective: To establish whether there is a relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour in members of commercial slimming clubs. Design: A self-completed questionnaire on nutrition knowledge, dietary behaviour and factors associated with weight-loss management. Setting: Members of slimming clubs in their home environment. Subjects: The targeted sample comprised of 56 members of slimming clubs in the Greater Manchester area recruited through social media and the local Rosemary Conley slimming club leader. Results: The level of nutrition knowledge in the study population was high, however this was not significantly correlated with dietary behaviour which was poor (r=0.054; p=.694). Similarly, nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour were not significantly correlated with education levels, age or alcohol consumption (p>.05). However, a significant inverse relationship was found between educational attainment and BMI (r=-0.392, p=.005). Barriers to weight loss were not reported to be major factors by this study group; the greatest benefits of membership were support and encouragement from other members and the club leader. The proportion of returning members was >70%. Conclusions: Dietary behaviour in members of commercial slimming clubs is not significantly influenced by nutrition knowledge. Although healthy eating recommendations can be valuable, other factors are more important for achieving weight loss, particularly support and fellowship from other members. Slimming club members regain the weight lost after leaving the clubs and inevitably re-join.
    • Nutrition knowledge and food intake

      Stroud, Joshua R. (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      The rates of many diet related diseases are increasing; obesity most notably. Adverse shifts in dietary behaviours have contributed to the rise in non-communicable diseases. In the UK fat and sugar intakes are above recommended levels and fruit, vegetable and oily fish intakes are below recommended levels. Increasing nutrition knowledge may be a means of bringing intake in-line with the recommendations. It was the aim of this review to assess the evidence for and against a relationship between nutrition knowledge and food intake. Intervention studies suggest that improving nutrition knowledge correlates with improvements in food intake. However, cross-sectional evidence of a correlation is much less clear although a low correlation does appear to exist. A mediatory effect of nutrition knowledge on the influence of demographic variables may also exist. Further research into the correlation with regard to specific nutrients and demographic variables is required as is exploration of the long-term benefits of nutrition education interventions.
    • Nutrition knowledge of professional football players aged 16-18 years old

      Fallows, Stephen; Evans, Lauren (University of Chester, 2009)
      Nutrition knowledge in general has an important role in determining an individual’s health and fitness. Sports nutrition is an essential part of an athlete’s program as without the right nutrition, fitness and performance may be hindered. There is a shortage of studies on nutritional knowledge on football players and no studies were found with participants under 18 years old. The importance of nutrition and hydration in young football players cannot be stressed enough. Despite these facts, it is not evident that any particular nutrition education provisions are currently in place to target this vulnerable group. For this reason, it was hypothesised that nutrition knowledge amongst this group would be poor. The study aimed to assess the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of professional football players aged 16-18 years old and to identify any areas of weakness. A nutrition knowledge questionnaire was administered to 48 professional male football players aged 16-18 years old. Three professional clubs participated in the study. 19 players from a Premier League club, 15 from a League Two club and 14 from a League One club. The mean overall nutrition knowledge score for the football players was 63%. There was no significant difference in nutrition knowledge found between clubs. No significant difference in mean scores for subsections of the questionnaire; general nutrition, sports nutrition, supplements and hydration were found. Nutrition attitudes of the players were positive overall, with 100% of players aware of the importance of nutrition for performance. 94% of players believed they would benefit from more nutritional advice. Nutrition scores reflect a good overall knowledge of nutrition for football however, players still believe that they would benefit from more nutritional information emphasising the need for nutrition education in team sports.
    • Nutritional comparison of cooked fresh and frozen vegetables

      Simpson, Anna (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      Dietary antioxidants (AO) are believed to contribute to the overall health benefits seen from fruit and vegetables. Despite increased public awareness of the health benefits of fruit and vegetables through campaigns such as 5 A DAY, consumption remains low. Freezing is usually regarded as destructive to AO and ascorbic acid (AA) and this has fostered a belief that fresh vegetables are nutritionally superior to frozen. In this study, AO and AA activity in commercially bought fresh and frozen vegetables were investigated and compared after a typical home cooking practice (boiling). Five different vegetables were examined: carrots, broccoli, green beans, peas and spinach. Each vegetable was bought four times from a selection of local supermarkets and green grocers in the Wirral, United Kingdom to account for variation. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) assay were utilised to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and AA content respectively. The results showed both fresh and frozen vegetables to contain AO and AA after cooking. Cooked fresh spinach and peas contained significantly (p<.05) higher levels of total AO than cooked frozen spinach and peas. However the remaining fresh and frozen vegetables (broccoli, carrots and green beans) did not appear to differ in AO content after cooking. Furthermore there was no difference between AA content in fresh and frozen cooked vegetables. The current study provides evidence against the misconception that fresh is always nutritionally superior to frozen at the point of consumption. Frozen vegetable promotion may be the way forward to increase fruit and vegetable consumption as they are generally nutritionally comparable to fresh but, cheaper, result in less waste, are more convenient and, if packaged correctly, taste the same as fresh. Further work, on a larger scale, is needed, to measure AO and AA content of fresh and frozen vegetables bought and cooked by the consumer.
    • Nutritional education for doctors and nurses: What is the impact?

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Ellahi, Basma; Johnson, Vicky (University of Chester, 2010-07)
      The under-recognition and under-treatment of malnutrition in the UK, which costs the NHS an estimated £13 billion each year, has been linked to poor provision of nutritional education in medical and nursing academic programmes. The present study aimed to investigate whether the introduction of a mandatory nutritional education programme for doctors and nurses at a district general hospital would influence knowledge and attitudes related to the recognition and treatment of malnutrition and whether subsequent changes in clinical practice would be observed. It was hypothesised that knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice would all improve following training. A repeated measures design was used to assess knowledge and attitudes among junior doctors and registered nurses before and after an educational intervention using a quantitative questionnaire. A clinical audit of compliance with national clinical standards, in the form of the inpatient nutritional screening policy, was used to assess clinical practice and was a repeat of an audit conducted 12 months before. Both audits were compared for analysis. Baseline knowledge scores were below 55% for both doctors and nurses. Baseline attitude scores reflected an overall positive attitude towards nutritional screening for both groups. The results showed that both knowledge and attitudes improved significantly following training for both occupational groups. The audit identified that national clinical standards were not complied with. However, following training, statistically significant improvements were observed in compliance with the nutritional screening policy between 2008 and 2009. Specifically, the audit found that an additional 8.2% of patients were screened on admission to hospital and an additional 50.1% of patients were screened weekly during admission. Figures of prevalence of malnutrition also increased from 15.79% in 2008 to 19.21% in 2009 but were still lower than national statistics. It is recommended that all NHS Trusts implement mandatory nutritional education programmes for doctors and nurses to support clinical governance. Limitations and considerations for future research are discussed.
    • Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of professional and semi-professional football players

      Alford, Simon (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2004-03)
      Nutritional knowledge, sports nutrition and dietary habits were investigated using a questionnaire completed by 21 professional and 24 semi-professional football players, aged 18 to over 35 years. A number of misconceptions were discovered. Areas where improvements in understanding are required include: fluids and how dehydration can affect performance and be avoided; protein sources, the required intake and how it plays a role in the diet; and use of nutritional supplements, including creatine, and how they \ play a role within the diet and can affect performance. Such misconceptions were in line with previous findings in the literature. Areas of good understanding were found to include fats, pre-match meals, weight control and carbohydrates. Correlations were evident between nutritional scores and age (r = 0.36, p < 0.05) and highest levels of education (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). Those players sourcing information from magazines were also found to score significantly (r = 0.30, p <0.05) higher. Once again, such correlations were similar to previous athletic groups studied by others. No correlation was found between total scores and the levels of playing, the time players last received nutritional training or any other sources of nutritional information. Between playing levels, players were found to have no significant (p > 0.05) difference with regards to habits of eating and drinking before matches and training. Both professional and semi-professional players consumed similar levels of fluid, including sports drinks. Meals were also eaten at the same time between professional and semi-professional players, in line with recommended practice, to maximise performance. The knowledge of the semi-professional players compared similarly to that of the professional players, with no significant (p > 0.05) difference found in total score regarding questions on nutritional knowledge.
    • The nutritional knowledge of 16-18 year olds in full time education in Chester, England

      Ellahi, Basma; Williamson, Jillian (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2008-10)
      Objective The aim of the study was to assess whether 16-18 year olds in full time education are aware of current nutritional recommendations and whether they can apply them to prevent disease. Additional aims were to compare the results by gender, involvement in a sports team, and whether participants studied Food Technology GCSE. Method Students were recruited from two schools in Chester, England. 44 male and 57 female student participants completed a nutritional knowledge questionnaire. The questionnaire was split into 6 sections – expert recommendations, nutrients, healthy choices, diet-disease relationships, portion sizes and alcohol. Results Overall mean nutritional knowledge score was 52% (n= 101) [SD 9.7]. Students’ greatest knowledge was of current expert recommendations (64.4% [SD 11.5]) and weakest knowledge of kcal in alcohol (28% [SD15.3]). Knowledge of composition of foods and portion sizes was poor. Knowledge of diet-disease relationships for fats, sugar and alcohol was good. Unexpectedly there was no significant difference in gender, involvement in sports teams or completion of Food Technology GCSE. Conclusion Ten years of students will leave school without benefiting from the Governments new ‘Learn to Cook’ initiatives. Practical sessions teaching students to cook and eat healthily should be an integral part of the sixth form curriculum. Nutrition needs to be a core part of every subject with cross-curricular links. Consistent messages must be presented to students by teachers, parents, PCTs, the food industry and the media!
    • Nutritional knowledge of mental health nurses working in the Irish Forensic Mental Health Service

      Fallows, Stephen; McCrarren, Peter (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      This cross-sectional design study investigated the nutrition knowledge of Irish Forensic Mental Health Nurses (IFMHN). It was primarily hypothesised that IFMHN have a good level of nutrition knowledge. Following the application of various inclusion and exclusion criteria, all remaining nurses employed in the Irish Forensic Mental Health Service were invited to complete a validated nutrition knowledge questionnaire designed by Parmenter and Wardle (1999). The original questionnaire was slightly modified to suit an Irish population. The data obtained was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Software, Version 20.0 and significance was set at the 0.05 level. A response rate of 85.7% (n= 96) was achieved, comprising of 52 females (54.7%) and 43 males (45.3%). This study found that the mean nutritional knowledge score of all participants was 76 ±12.7 (69.1%). The original hypothesis was therefore accepted. It was noted that female staff had a significantly greater knowledge of nutrition than male staff (p = 0.048) and the deputy ward-manager grade (CNM1) had a significantly lower level of knowledge than the ward-manager grade. The present study has revealed that IFMHN have a good level of nutrition knowledge. However, their relatively poor score in the diet–disease relationships section requires further analysis and may suggest that increased education may be required for mental health nurses in the area of health problems and diseases associated with diet.
    • Nutritional knowledge of parents and the packed lunch they provide their children

      Fallows, Stephen; Healy, Yvonne (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      This dissertation aims to investigate if the level of Irish parents’/guardians’ nutritional knowledge reflects the foods they provide in their children’s packed lunch. Another aim of the study was to determine if parents’/guardians’ level of education reflects their level of nutritional knowledge. A final aim of the study was to determine whether boys or girls had healthier lunchboxes. To have the children complete a lunchbox questionnaire, and for the parents/guardians to complete a General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults. The study population consisted of 35 8-9 year old children from a South Dublin primary school and their parents/guardians formed the study population. A lunchbox questionnaire was completed by the children and a General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults was completed by the parents/guardians. SPSS was undertaken to determine whether any correlations existed between the level of nutritional knowledge and the foods provided; the level of nutritional knowledge and the level of education; and to determine any differences between the boys’ and the girls’ lunchboxes. The results from this study show that level of parental nutritional knowledge does not reflect the foods they provide in their child’s lunchbox (p>0.05). There was no relationship found between level of nutritional knowledge and level of education (p>0.05), nor was there any significant difference (p>0.05) between the health status of the boys and girls lunchboxes. The standard of lunches was low, as was the level of nutritional awareness of the parents/guardians. This study attempts to fill a gap in the literature, investigating whether the level of parental nutritional knowledge reflects the lunches they provide in their children’s packed lunch. The results from this study found that level of nutritional knowledge does not reflect the foods parents/guardians provide in packed lunches. Health promotion strategies are needed to target new areas in order to broaden nutritional awareness in the Irish adult population. Healthy lunchbox strategies are recommended to be employed by parents and/or schools in order to improve the nutritional quality of these meals.
    • Office cake consumption in the UK: an exploration of its characteristics and associated attitudes among office workers

      Flannery, Orla; Fallows, Stephen; Walker, Louise (University of Chester, 2017-08)
      Objective: The present study explored the characteristics of office cake (OC) consumption and the attitudes of UK-based office workers towards it, to gain insight into the effects of OC consumption on workplace health promotion programmes (WHPPs). Design: A cross-sectional, self-administered online survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Setting: The UK, between 1st and 31st May 2017. Subjects: Office workers (n=940), n=368 (39.3%) male, aged ≥18yrs Results: Two thirds of respondents ate OC at least once/week and OC was available in most workplaces up to five times/week. Respondents reported both positive, morale-boosting and negative, weight- and diet-related consequences of OC consumption and identified aspects of OC availability and display that increased consumption. Nearly all (94.8%) respondents thought the ideal OC frequency was once/week or less but only 36.1% said they would support an initiative to reduce OC consumption. Gender and age significantly affected attitudes and behaviour but not the amount eaten. Conclusion: OC consumption has characteristics which influence the workplace eating environment and eating behaviour. Attitudes towards OC vary widely and are significantly affected by gender and AG. WHPP designers should recognise the existing gender and age profile. Use of choice architectural techniques to effect environmental change might be useful in reducing OC consumption.
    • 'Official' recognition and effective lay Ministry in the Diocese of Chelmsford

      Lloyd, Shelia (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-10)
      The dissertation aims to explore the value lay people in the Church of England today attach to "official" recognition in encouraging them to exercise a ministry. The author's own experience both of parish ministry and tutoring a diocesan course of Christian education convinced her that there was a wealth of gifts amongst lay people which was in danger of being unrecognised or at least seriously undervalued. Three factors appeared particularly significant: firstly the lack of any universal recognition for lay ministry apart from Readers; secondly the perception of a lay/clerical divide. Despite the biblical picture of the church as a body with many equal but different parts, clergy have been seen as the paid professionals and laity as the amateur volunteers. Yet at parochial level the laity, mostly unlicensed, have taken a significant role in the running of the local church and its outreach to the community; Thirdly the rapid changes in contemporary postmodern society. Most lay people are now used to role definition, recognition, and job specification in secular employment. Moreover changing patterns in both family life and the employment field have started a revolution, in consequence of which a vast army of lay women is rapidly disappearing from 'active service1 in the church. This dissertation relies heavily on unstructured interviews with a number of past students from the Chelmsford Diocesan Course in Christian Studies for which the author was a senior tutor. To balance these the author also interviewed lay people from her own church who had not undertaken this course. The aim was to focus on the perceptions of lay people themselves. The dissertation also draws on research material from a follow-up survey of CCS students and information about a range of current diocesan schemes of lay training as well as studying current literature and thinking on this subject. The research found that certain common issues arose from my interviews. Lay people valued highly both the "official" recognition of a formal diocesan scheme and the informal affirmation of their role and gifts by clergy within their local church. They also viewed lay education as foundational to any ministry, both stimulating it and giving confidence to exercise it. In considering this lay perspective and also taking into account Scriptural tradition, the contemporary cultural context, and the current diversity of diocesan practices, the dissertation makes a case for: appropriate training and commissioning of all confirmed church members as disciples called to Christian service; national recognition of lay pastoral ministry in the local church; a reformed permanent diaconate incorporating many who currently exercise a ministry as Readers, Non-Stipendiary Ministers and Ordained Local Ministers.
    • Optimization Methods and Applications on problem solving with MATLAB in the presence of Randomness

      Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Taylor, Daniel (University of Chester, 2017-10-07)
      A review of iterative methods used to nd optimal solutions to large sparse linear systems including methods based on line search descent algorithms and Krylov subspace methods. We also detail how to use the MATLAB optimization toolbox to solve a variety of optimization problems including linear and non-linear problems in Chapter 2. A review of the classical Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is provided in Chapter 3 with examples of solved problems. In Chapter 4 we used a MATLAB program to investigate the effect that randomness has on a system of ODE's namely the equation of a harmonic pendulum, we demonstrate these effects with a number of plots in the phase-plane and with respect to the time t.
    • Organisational impact of developing reablement services

      Webb, Paul; Wong, Philip (University of Chester, 2010)
      Under the Community Act, Local Authorities have a legal responsibility to provide an assessment of need to people that require assistance and subsequently commission services that will meet the assessed needs. In 1997 Central Government started to implement a number of social care reforms which prioritised independent living, the building of sustainable communities and empowering service users to have more control and say about the services that they wished to use and access. As part of these changes Central Government made it compulsory through the National Health Act for Local Authorities and the National Health Service to work closely together to deliver services through partnership working. One of the joint strategic aims is to develop reablement and prevention services to increase people’s level of independence thereby reducing the demand for traditional long term care support. Reablement services are designed to offer short term intensive support which aim to maximise an individual’s ability for independence thereby reducing reliance on the need for either residential or nursing care. The development of reablement services presents a massive challenge for the Local Authority and the National Health Service as the change means that two very different organisations have to find a way to overcome a number of organisational barriers to enable workers from both organisations to work successfully together. This study will analyse the impact of developing reablement services through partnership working and critique how different Primary Care Trusts and Local Authorities are working together to deliver reablement services. This will involve examining different models of reablement, identifying what is required to make a successful model work and determining how the organisations overcome organisational and cultural differences. The study is based on Liverpool City Council and its work with Allied Health Professionals to deliver reablement services the study will also undertake a comparison exercise with 2 other Local Authorities within England.
    • Outsourcing v insourcing: Analyse the business proposition in the case of Chester Racecourse's catering contract

      Webb, Paul; Gretton, Edward (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      This research paper looks at the strategic business process of sourcing and how it has evolved within theory and practice. The main aim of the paper is to comment on and provide recommendations for Chester Racecourse's decision as to whether it takes its catering operation in-house or remains with an external supplier. Based on the study of Chester Racecourse's current situation and a review of the literature, the paper proposes the best fit strategic framework for the sourcing decision and its implementation. This framework is developed using both the existing theories from the literature and also through a qualitative research method. This process uses interviews with key executives both within Chester Racecourse and also in other organisations of different scale and scope that have made similar decisions. The paper then proposes and develops a framework which best suits the specific needs of Chester Racecourse. The sourcing decision-making, implementation and resulting impact on an organisation involve a complex and dynamic process. There are suggested existing frameworks in the literature, although most of these centre on the outsourcing decision as opposed to the in-sourcing equivalent. The paper concludes that Chester's best decision is to in-source this function, as it is so closely aligned with its core product and revenue streams, as well as its strategic aims going forward. There are, however, considerable risks associated with this and the paper puts forward methods by which these can be mitigated.
    • P.E. teachers : Their knowledge and opinions related to exercise management of pupils with diabetes

      Fallows, Stephen; Clarke, David N. (University College ChesterFaculty of Education, St Martin's College, 2004-10)
      This study investigated Physical Education (PE) teachers' experiences, knowledge and attitudes towards exercise management of pupils with Type I diabetes. It was hypothesised that because of the specialist nature of Type I diabetes, PE teachers with experience of, or education in the condition, would score higher in a knowledge test then those without; additionally, PE teachers in this country would exhibit a similar lack of knowledge and understanding of Type I diabetes as their contemporaries in the USA. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire was issued to 100 PE teachers from partnership schools of St. Martin's College. 34 respondents, (19 male and 15 female, mean age 38 years, standard deviation (SD) = 9.5 years, mean years teaching experience 13.4 years, SD = 10.7 years) completed open questions assessing opinions and closed multiple-choice knowledge questions. Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated no significant differences in the knowledge test scores for those with personal experience of, or previous education in Type I diabetes compared to those without prior experience (Z = -0.935, p = 0.35 or p > 0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in the overall group mean scores for the UK teachers compared to their USA peers were detected (Z = -1.061, p = 0.289 or p > 0.05). Overall, knowledge scores were low with the UK teachers' group mean score 15.3 % correct. This study has established a need for Initial Teacher Training (ITT) Institutions to include a knowledge and understanding of diabetes and exercise management as part of a student's training.
    • Parental Wellbeing: Stress, Parental Sense of Competence, Social Support and Hope in parents of children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

      O'Neill, Linda; Keane, Kerry (University of Chester, 2018)
      Parents of children raising a child with a disability, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), often report higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing (TD) children. Much research focuses on the psychological impact of caring for a child with additional needs, with little providing a more inclusive insight into the overall effect on parental functioning. The current study used multiple self-report measures to explore stress, parental sense of competence, social support and hope in parents raising a TD child compared to those raising a child with a disability or ASD. Results showed significant differences between the groups. Parents raising a child with ASD reported the highest level of stress, and alongside parents raising a child with a disability, had significantly higher levels than parents raising a TD child. Additionally, parents of children with a disability and ASD had significantly lower perceived parental competence, social support and hope than parents of TD children. Further variations between the groups were discussed. The results highlighted that raising a child with a disability or ASD is a unique and variable experience, shaped by a body of factors that need to be reviewed comprehensively to support positive parental adjustment. Implications and suggestions for future research were also discussed.
    • Parents' and carers' understandings of the nature and purposes of parent-based intervention groups delivered by the paediatric Speech and Language Therapy service in Telford & Wrekin and Shropshire Primary Care Trusts: An exploratory study

      Thurston, Miranda; Moseley Harris, Barbara (University of ChesterNHS Telford & Wrekin, 2011-11)
      Speech and language therapists regularly offer indirect group interventions providing parental advice or training, rather than direct treatments for communication-disabled children. Although this has been found to benefit children, there has been little research into the impact of such parent-based intervention groups on parents themselves. This is despite evidence that parents and speech and language therapists have differing perceptions regarding aspects of speech and language therapy and children's communication development. The aim of this study was to explore parents and carers' experiences of attending parent-based intervention groups in a local context, in order to investigate their perceptions of the nature and purposes of the groups they had attended and to develop a preliminary theoretical understanding of their experience. Nine mothers and one father who had completed at least one parent-based intervention course were interviewed. This generated descriptive qualitative data, which was analysed using grounded theory approaches to reflect the parents' priorities and concerns. Themes of parents' experiences of intervention sessions, parental gains during session attendance, intervention facilitating processes of personal change and empowerment, and impacts of parent-based intervention courses in the wider context, were identified. The study findings were used to produce a description, grounded in the data, of parents' understandings of the nature and purposes of parent-based intervention groups in speech and language therapy. Connections were made between the role played by the groups in the experience of parents in the current study and processes of parental adaptation and empowerment described in the literature on chronic illness and disability in children. A theoretical model of parents' experience of parent-based intervention groups was also developed. This study provides a preliminary overview of parents' experiences of parent-based intervention groups and includes a number of findings that support discrete observations and suggestions extant in the literature. It adds to the information available on parents' perceptions of speech and language therapy and indicates areas for further research into the costs and benefits of intervention from a parental perspective. The study findings, connections identified between the groups and processes of parental adaptation and empowerment, and the theoretical model presented have potential implications for clinical practice in the local area and may be transferable to other settings. However, the study was limited in size and scope and further research to test these findings will be required.
    • Parents’ experiences of using labelling information when making breakfast cereal choices for their children

      Riley, Claire (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The consequences of a poor quality diet are slow to develop and easy to ignore, however, the impact on the health of communities as a whole is great (Lean, 2015). With the current upward trend in obesity, especially in children, this review looks into a variety of food labelling systems in order to determine their influence on consumers’ eating habits. The food labelling systems currently in place are only partially effective, with some seeming to demonstrate complete operational failure, therefore more research is needed in order to understand the cognitive processes used by consumers when making decisions using food labels. As a commonly consumed product which varies widely in nutritional content, and displays an array of different types of labelling information, breakfast cereal could benefit from further research into how the different food labelling systems are used and understood by consumers.
    • Parents’ understanding of front of pack orange juice labelling

      Ellahi, Basma; Giddins, Sian E. (University of Chester, 2010-11-01)
      Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the difficulties consumers face in understanding FoP labels of foodstuffs despite the government’s effort to introduce a system to ensure they are understood by all. A previous study (FSA, 2002) has demonstrated that knowledge regarding the terminology used on FoP orange juice labels was poor. Orange juice is the most popularly consumed juice within the UK (Galaverna, et al., 2008) and it has been shown that primary school aged children consume the highest amount of fruit juice (Bates, Lennox, & Swan, 2010). Objective: This study investigated the knowledge of parents of primary school aged children in relation to their understanding of orange juice labelling. The study also investigated the purchasing factors which affect the selection of the orange juice purchased. Both of these results will be compared in terms of Social-economic status (SES), age, the school recruited from, gender, level of education and perceived nutritional knowledge. Methodology: Questionnaires were distributed to all parents of two schools of different indices of multiple deprivations (IMD) to gain quantitative and qualitative data, a total of 130 participants were recruited, n = 95 from the school of low IMD and n = 35 from the school of high IMD. Results: Despite differences in the response rates between schools of varying IMD, knowledge and understanding of the terminology displayed on front of pack (FoP) orange juice labels was poor across all demographics. The vast majority of participants purchased a juice which they didn’t perceive to be the healthiest form; purchasing behaviour was shown to be greatly influenced by price. Conclusion: Price is a major factor in purchasing behaviour which may lead consumers to purchase a juice of lower quality as a response to tighter constraints on household budgets. Consumers still demonstrate poor knowledge in terms of the understanding of the terminology used on FoP orange juice labels despite efforts to increase consumer use and understanding of FoP labels of foodstuffs. Simplifying the terminology and wording used on FoP orange juice labels would be an effective way of enabling consumer understanding as current packaging is not understood by the major demographic groups.
    • Participatory budgeting - a neighbourhood manager's perspective

      Stockton, Jim; Naylor, Sara (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      This study reports the impact of the requirement to consult with citizens on budgeting decisions through Participatory Budgeting. The Duty to Involve agenda was imposed as a legal duty in April 2009 on all local authorities set out by the Labour administration. A number of key strategies support the Duty to Involve agenda in which Participatory Budgeting was one with the aim to increase engagement with citizens in decision making. The Participatory Budgeting national strategy was launched in 2008 with its key objective to ensure all authorities utilise its use by 2012. The increase in engagement initiatives over the past 10 years has increased the level of direct democracy to which Local Government managers have to comply and as a consequence has an impact on their role. Empirically the specific research question identifies the impact of the requirement to involve citizens in budgetary decisions by local government Neighbourhood Managers. Theories in relation to citizen engagement and participation in democracy and specifically in the UK are described and elaborated. The research considers the successes of the Participatory Budgeting originally practised in Brazil, it’s use to date in the UK and the pilots carried out in the Neighbourhood Management Areas in Liverpool City Council. The paper also considers the budgeting process in Local Government to assess the impact on budgets, if any. The main contribution of the study is the finding that the use of Participatory Budgeting has had a minimal impact on a manager’s role. Research identified that the PB pilot in Liverpool delivered a more transparent process to deciding how to spend an allocated pot of money but participation was area dependent and some bias was evident in the process by localities. The impact on budgets was not seen as a concern due to limited amount of funding available for participation however the application of Participatory Budgeting to larger budgets and service areas would require dedicated administrative support and education in communities to ensure decisions take account of all contingent factors about where funding should be prioritised.