• Relationship Patterns between Self-esteem, Self-respect and Cognitive Effort as Measured by Story Recall and the Eye Tracker

      Clucas, Claudine; Kelecsenyi, Hedvig (University of Chester, 2018)
      High levels of self-esteem has been associated with success for decades, while at the same time its utility to predict achievement-related behaviours has been questioned. This controversy brought self-respect (an independent, theoretically grounded construct) defined as a person’s positive, affective self-regard for being a moral, principled, and honourable person, to the forefront of empirical research. Accordingly, the current study intended to examine the relationship between self-report measures of self-respect, self-esteem and cognitive effort as measured by story recall and eye tracker measures of eye fixation with pupil dilation while reading a morally neutral and a morally charged story. A total of 40 participants, comprising of 11 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 34, from a convenience sample completed the study. A stronger positive relationship was expected between self-respect and measures of cognitive effort than between self-esteem and the same measures. Also, there was an anticipation of a stronger interaction between self-respect and the type of story tested, because higher self-respect might have implications for the processing of moral information. Four repeated measures of ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant negative relationship between self-respect and cognitive effort. They also revealed a strong trend towards a negative relationship between self-esteem and cognitive effort. The results quite interestingly are contrary to the declared hypotheses of the study with regards to the direction of the relationship. Findings indicate that the interaction between self-respect and story type on recall and eye tracker measures were not significant. Hence, failing to support the theory that high levels of self-respect enhances sensitivity to moral information through the link to the moral self. The outcome also highlights the possibility that certain factors undermine the effort or more meaningful engagement is needed, perhaps, through a more complex task. It would help to establish not only relationship patterns, but determine whether self-respect is unique enough as an independent construct that could add to the prediction of cognitive effort above and beyond what is explained by self-esteem.
    • Who cares for the carer: the impact of supporting those who self-harm on professional carers.

      Heath, Hannah; Armstrong, Laura (University of Chester, 2018)
      Self-harm is a serious health issue in the UK. One of the most vulnerable populations for self-harm is thought to be young people who are removed from their families and live in group home settings. There is existing literature about the effects and attitudes of medical professionals who care for those who self-harm, however very little that looks at self-harm from the prospective of residential care workers. From ten semi-structured interviews with residential care workers, analysed with Thematic Analysis, similar attitudes that have been reflected in recent studies with medical professionals were reflected in the residential care worker’s accounts. Participants felt it is necessary for better and more robust self-harm training for staff, and more available and structured organisational and colleague support. Additionally, over time, the care workers became accustomed to the behaviours, with some becoming emotionally disconnected from the care they provided. The study explores the previously unheard voices of the residential care workers and highlights the need to provide better support for residential care workers.
    • Issues, response and support needs of parents if their child had self-harmed, from a parents and professionals perspective

      Heath, Hannah; Ruck, Samantha (University of Chester, 2018)
      Self-harm for young people has been considered to be a significant health concern (Byrne et al., 2008) and is understood to be typical amongst young people (Hawton et al., 2002). Parents experience an array of overwhelming emotions on finding out about their child’s self-harm (Raphael et al., 2006). To date, little attention has been paid to exploring the understanding and experiences of parents whose children have not self-harmed or looking at the role of mental health (MH) professionals supporting parents from the professional view point. The aim of this research was to understand from both a parents and professionals perspective, what the perceived issues for parents are if their child self-harmed; how would/do parents respond to self-harm; and what support needs do the parents have. A multiple qualitative perspectives design was used. Seven parents were interviewed, alongside two focus groups and one interview with six Mental Health (MH) Professionals and were analysed with Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The results indicated that parents had a perceived lack of knowledge about self-harm and available support services. How parents respond to a child’s self-harm is influenced by their lack of understanding, how they find out and their natural desire to protect their child. Education about self-harm, strategies for parents and peer support group were identified as key mechanisms for professionals to provide support to parents. Parents and professionals both highlighted the lack of knowledge parents have about self-harm and their desire for support to help their child. There is a future research need to explore the processes which parents follow to seek information and help regarding self-harm and the impact of parent peer support in both community and clinical settings.
    • Brexit and its psychological impact: A qualitative study on the well-being of EU-citizens based in the UK

      Shepman, Astrid; Reimers, Kristin (University of Chester, 2018)
      Research on the relationship between well-being and environmental factors demonstrated that adverse living conditions and extreme life events can have temporary or longer lasting effects on the well-being of individuals, depending on the severity of the event and the resilience of those affected. This qualitative study aimed to investigate how Brexit impacted the well-being of EU-citizens living in the UK. By applying thematic analysis, 43 testimonies of individuals who shared their personal Brexit story, were analysed, revealing three main themes: ‘living with uncertainty’, ‘experiencing discrimination’ and ‘identity questioned’. Discussing these themes in light of previous research, this study suggests Brexit affected contributor’s subjective, psychological and social well-being negatively and was potentially traumatising for individuals of vulnerable groups. Although the majority of EU-citizens are likely to recover to their former level of well-being after Brexit, further studies on this population are needed to investigate how many EU-citizens are in need of professional help to overcome the psychological impact Brexit had on their lives. “Brexit means Brexit” for Theresa May but what it means for EU-citizens living in the UK seems to be defined by their current living situation and their resilience.
    • Understanding right from wrong: A quantitative study exploring accidental bullying in British school children.

      Boulton, Michael; Pritchard, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018)
      This study aimed to investigate a controversial new sub-type of bullying known as accidental bullying, which claims to explain why some children and young people can unknowingly bully others. This study did this by exploring possible causes including individual’s abilities to recognise bullying, and levels of kindness and moral disengagement. A total of 421 participants (females: n = 19, males: n = 180, undisclosed: n = 48) completed questionnaires within Primary and Secondary British schools. The data was subjected to several forms of analyses that included Pearson’s correlations, simple linear regression’s, a hierarchical multiple regression, and a series of two-way between subjects ANOVA’s. The findings identified that 84 % of the participants had previously accidentally bullied, and that primary school students were more likely to accidentally bully than secondary school students. In addition to this, an individual’s poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours was found as a significant negative predictor of accidental bullying. Furthermore, if individuals have low levels of kindness and high levels of moral disengagement, they are more likely to have a poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours. In conclusion, this study identified that it is possible that accidental bullying is taking place within British schools at a higher frequency than traditional bullying. Future studies may wish to further understand the complexities of accidental bullying to support educators to identify and address this often hidden form of bullying.
    • Exploring the relationship between personal and perceived public attitudes of mental health difficulties and professional help seeking: Does self-compassion play a role?

      Evans, Gemma; Jones, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2017-11)
      Previous literature suggests that there is a relationship between mental health stigma and help seeking attitudes. There are however mixed results when determining the effects of specific elements of stigma: personal stigma and perceived public stigma. There is also limited research into the effects of self-compassion on this relationship, with initial studies suggesting increased self-compassion has a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. The current survey based study of 40 students examined the relationship between personal and perceived public attitudes of mental health difficulties and professional help seeking. The study also examined the role of self-compassion in this relationship. The findings revealed a significant relationship between perceived family and community views of mental health and help seeking. No correlation was found between personal attitudes towards mental health and help seeking. Self-compassion was significantly correlated with personal attitudes towards mental health but not help seeking. Findings indicate that perceived public stigma is an important barrier towards mental health help seeking attitudes and should be the focus of future interventions. Results also suggest that an increased level of self-compassion is associated with more positive personal attitudes towards mental health, indicating that compassion-based therapy is an important and promising tool for reducing stigma and its impacts.
    • Tears, blushes and beating hearts: Masculinity, emotions and feelings in Elizabeth Gaskell's North and South, Thomas Hardy's Far from the Madding Crowd and Sara Jeannette Duncan's The Imperialist.

      Abletshauser, Alexandra C. (University of Chester, 2017-11)
      This dissertation explores the relationship between masculinity, emotions and feelings in Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South (1855), Thomas Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) and Sara Jeannette Duncan’s The Imperialist (1904). The Introduction gives an overview of gender theory and the ideology of masculinity in general, explains the terms ‘emotion’ and ‘feeling’ and discusses the relationship between the ideology of masculinity, emotions and feelings in the nineteenth century. Chapter One examines the relationship between masculinity, emotions and feelings in the industrial setting of North and South and studies the tension or discrepancy between them. In addition, it demonstrates the different functions of the display of emotions and feelings. Furthermore, it challenges the assumption that the expression of male emotions and feelings automatically emasculates a man. Chapter Two looks at the depiction of masculinity and emotions in relation to nature descriptions, such as landscape, weather and animals, in the rural setting of Far from the Madding Crowd. It further shows how the display of emotions changes in the second half of the nineteenth century to an indirect expression through nature descriptions. At the same time, this chapter indicates that emotions and feelings are natural for men and that their suppression can have destructive consequences. The final chapter investigates masculine identities in the imperial setting of The Imperialist. It shows how at the-turn-of-the 20th century the expression of male emotions and feelings is replaced by an increasing self-control. The Conclusion indicates the realignment of gender identities that are defined through the inclusion of feminine and masculine characteristics and demonstrate their application in further nineteenth-century texts.
    • A New Predictor-Corrector Method for Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations with Graded Meshes

      Yan, Yubin; Leedle, Natasha (University of Chester, 2017-10-09)
      In this dissertation we consider the numerical methods for solving non-linear fractional differential equations. We first review the predictor-corrector methods for solving the nonlinear fractional differential equation with uniform meshes and discussed in detail how to prove the error estimates. The convergence orders of the predictorcorrector methods for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations available in the literature are only O(h1+α ), where α ∈ (0, 1) denotes the fractional order and h is the step size. It will take a long time to obtain the good approximate solutions by using such method. Therefore it is necessary to construct some higher order numerical methods to solve the nonlinear fractional differential equations. We construct a higher order numerical method with the convergence order O(h1+2α) by approximating the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral with the quadratic interpolation polynomials. The graded meshes can be used in the numerical methods to capture the singularity of the problem. Numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
    • Group Algebras and Their Applications

      Gildea, Joe; O'Neill, Harrison T. (University of Chester, 2017-10-09)
      Let RG be the group ring of the group G and the ring R. If R is a field, we usually refer to RG as a group algebra. We initially describe the unit group of the group algebra F2 kD8 where F2 k is a Galois Field of 2k elements and D8 is the dihedral group of order 8. We then describe the unitary unit group of F2 kD8. Furthermore, we show the connection between unitary units in group rings and self-dual codes. Finally, we construct certain self-dual codes from the unitary units of the group algebra F2 kD8.
    • Optimization Methods and Applications on problem solving with MATLAB in the presence of Randomness

      Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Taylor, Daniel (University of Chester, 2017-10-07)
      A review of iterative methods used to nd optimal solutions to large sparse linear systems including methods based on line search descent algorithms and Krylov subspace methods. We also detail how to use the MATLAB optimization toolbox to solve a variety of optimization problems including linear and non-linear problems in Chapter 2. A review of the classical Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is provided in Chapter 3 with examples of solved problems. In Chapter 4 we used a MATLAB program to investigate the effect that randomness has on a system of ODE's namely the equation of a harmonic pendulum, we demonstrate these effects with a number of plots in the phase-plane and with respect to the time t.
    • Viral marketing in the music industry: How independent musicians utilise online peer-to-peer communications

      Marmion, Maeve; George, Sam (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      The aim of this research was to critically examine the use of viral marketing within the music industry. Specifically, how peer to peer communications can be utilised to gain a higher following. This was achieved by researching the uses of peer-to-peer communications through social media, the role of branding in the music industry and how specific audiences can be targeted through online platforms. Although there has been substantial research into the use of online peer-to-peer communications throughout various industries, there has been limited academic insight into how viral marketing is utilised within the music industry. However, with the use of online peer-to-peer communications becoming increasingly prevalent, it is a critical area for academics to consider. Due to this gap in literature, this research may be regarded as innovative. To ensure that the full context surrounding the research question was considered, the study was approached from an interpretivist stance and qualitative methods were used. By conducting semi-structured interviews, the researcher was able to collect deep and insightful data based on the narrative of each participant. Although there were key differences throughout the data, there were several themes that were consistent throughout. As social networks are a lucrative platform from utilising a viral marketing strategy, several participants suggested that it is essential for musicians to use a variety of them. The results showed that throughout the music industry it is crucial to develop a strong brand image and remain consistent within this. The research also suggested that consumers who are engaged with a brand are more likely to engage in peer-to-peer communications. As the most likely demographic to engage in peer-to-peer communications, this research suggested that millennials would be the most beneficial group to target a viral marketing strategy towards. As the sample contained participants from various roles within the music industry, each of whom had different motivations, performed separate styles of music and were at various stages of their career, it could be argued that this research contained too many variables and therefore, lacked depth. However, the aim of this research was to analyse the similarities and differences between a variety of roles within the music industry, therefore, collecting a multitude of data was the intention of the researcher. During the time of conducting, this research could have been considered innovative, due to not only the gap in literature, but also because of the relevance of the current uses of technology. However, due to the constant evolutions in modern technology, what may have been considered current at the time of research, may not be as relevant in future years. Therefore, similar research may need to be considered in future years.
    • Investigating the poor financial performance of Disneyland Paris

      Ullah, Farid; Yu, Irene H. H. (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Never judge a book by its cover. Never judge a beautiful theme park resort by its exterior, as well. Those whom have visited Disneyland Paris might have admired the appealing architecture and landscape of the park and not know that financially it is not doing well. This dissertation aims to investigate why Disneyland Paris is not financially successful when the Disney brand is so popular worldwide and its sister parks in the USA and Tokyo are making profits. Despite it being the most visited theme park resort in France and Europe, it had to ask its parent company, The Walt Disney Company, to bail it out at least three times. Recently, in July 2017, The Walt Disney Company, took over Euro Disney S.C.A., the company that manages Disneyland Paris. The research question is answered through a mixed methods approach, which collects both qualitative and quantitative data and analysed together to provide more solid explanations and results. Financial accounts, annual and quarterly reports, press releases, journal articles and relevant independent annual reports on theme parks worldwide supplemented with relevant theories namely, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and customer centric culture model, are used to help to draw a clearer understanding of the underlying reasons of what caused the financial issues at Disneyland Paris. The Disney brand is so popular and well-established worldwide. How a famous and seemingly attractive theme park is not profitable is intriguing. From the data collected and analysed, it was fairly clear that the root cause of Disneyland Paris’s poor financial performance is due to its poor management and financial strategies. The management should look for internal solutions instead of frequently accepting external investments to fix its financial problems. It is recommended to look at targeting international students studying in Europe as potential customers.
    • Evaluation and Improvement of the Design Process within Henrob Ltd

      Chandler, Keith; McFarland, Damien (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Henrob is a large engineering organisation that specialises in the manufacture of joining technology for use in the automotive sector. The company has recently been acquired by the large industrial organisation Atlas Copco Group. As part of this acquisition, Henrob has been tasked with the implementation of lean manufacturing methods to firstly evaluate and then improve product development lead time within the UK design team. The role of lean management methods within manufacturing organisations is very well understood. However, the role of lean within new product development is less well so. If Henrob could employ the well-known benefits of lean thinking like waste reduction and information flow and be aware of the complex and intangible nature of the product development stage, leading to reduced product lead times and improved process efficiency, then this could represent a substantial competitive advantage over its competitors. This research is a quantitative cross-sectional study using the experimental research method to test a series of hypotheses. The research initially used process mapping to uncover inefficiencies within the design process that were subsequently addressed by further research. The research experiments were based around the use of new CAD templates designed to reduce errors and improve work flow through the design office. The research was partially successful with regards to lead time reduction and increasing design output. However, improved information flow and higher quality, more cost-effective designs were considered more important outcomes of the research.
    • An exploration of the impact of the death of a child sexual abuser on the grief process of adult survivors who are counsellors

      Millar, Julie A. (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      The purpose of this research study was to explore the intersection of bereavement and child sexual abuse focussing on the specific experience of an adult survivor’s grief process when the abuser dies. Both bereavement and child sexual abuse have been extensively researched, however there is a lack of research on the intersection between these two fields. The literature search highlighted established theory from bereavement, child sexual abuse and trauma research, including complicated grief, disenfranchised grief, continuing bonds, attachment behaviour, and identity. This reflects the complexity of the impacts of the experience of the death of a child sexual abuser on the adult survivor. The research sample consisted of four counsellors/counselling students who had experienced childhood sexual abuse, and the abuser had died more than five years ago. Data was collected using semi structured interviews and analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. This process placed the focus on the experience of the participant as the key data. The research found complicated grief reactions to the death of the abuser. Exploration of the death of the abuser activated responses to other losses in childhood associated with the abuse, and identified consequences in adult life. Disenfranchised grief for the losses associated with the abuse was found. No continuing bonds were found, and this was significant in terms of identity and meaning making. Attachment issues and family context were explored in the findings. Disclosure, personal meaning making and counselling were also found to be important. These findings indicate that the experience of the death of a child sexual abuser for the adult survivor implicates many established theories, and that the constellation of loss is different for each survivor. The research indicates that counsellors working with survivors of child sexual abuse when the abuser dies may need to be aware of a wide range of theoretical positions, whilst maintaining awareness of the uniqueness of each survivor’s experience.
    • Numerical Methods for Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations with Non-Uniform Meshes

      Yan, Yubin; Broadbent, Emma (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      In this dissertation, we consider numerical methods for solving fractional differential equations with non-uniform meshes. We first introduce some basic definitions and theories for fractional differential equations and then we consider the numerical methods fro solving fractional differential equation. In the literature, the popular numerical methods for solving fractional differential equation include the rectangle method, trapezoid method and predictor-corrector methods. We reviewed such methods and the ways to prove the stability and the error estimates for these methods. Since the fractional differential equation is a nonlocal problem, the computation cost is very long compared with the local problem. Therefore it is very important to design some higher order numerical methods for solving fractional differential equation. In this dissertation, we introduce a new higher order numerical method for solving fractional differential equation which is based on the quadratic interpolation polynomial approximation to the fractional integral. To capture the singularity near the origin we also introduce the non-uniform meshes. The numerical results show that the optimal convergence order can be recovered by using non-uniform meshes even if the data are not sufficiently smooth.
    • Exploring the effectiveness of remote line-management: A case-study at MWH IT

      Walford, Robert; Fox, Katherine (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Globalisation of organisations is increasing (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002) and with that, as are the existence of globally distributed teams (Global Workplace Analytics, 2016). The IT department at the engineering firm MWH, now part of Stantec has a number of globally distributed teams which means that the line-manager of each employee is often not based in the same office or even geographical region. This research uses semi-structured in-depth interviews with members of the IT department at MWH to build a qualitative case-study with an interpretivist phenomenological epistemology and subjectivist ontological paradigm. The research answers the question: ‘To what extent can globally remote line-management be as effective as local line-management for IT at MWH?’. The effectiveness of line-management is established by exploring the motivation and engagement of employees through their responses to interview questions. The findings show that line-managers can be equally effective when either local to their employees or in a different geography, but that there are additional challenges when remote. The research identifies methods to maximise the effectiveness of remote line-management, such as the usage of metrics. Recommendations are made based on the results of the research.
    • Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Patients Taking Statins on Lipid Profile, Including Small Dense LDL: A Randomized Controlled Trial

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Dogay, Gediz (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Background: Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that high-dose intake of long-chain OM-3 FA have a favourable role in altering blood TAG and non-HDL-C when combined with statins in hyperlipidemic patients. Their efficacy in altering LDL-C particle size and concentration is yet to be confirmed. Aim: This study evaluated the effects of adding 4/day EPA+DHA to stable statin therapy on non-HDL-C, TAG, HDL-C, LDL-C and small&dense LDL-C particle concentration in a group of hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel group study, 44 subjects who were already on statin therapy for >8 weeks and had non-HDL-C levels above the National Lipid Association Recommendations were randomized into two groups. For 8 weeks, together with their prescribed atorvastatin, the intervention group received 4 g/day EPA+DHA (in ethyl ester form) while the control group received 4 g/day olive oil (placebo). Baseline measurements of non-HDL-C, TAG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C and LDL-C particle concentration were repeated at week 8. Differences in dietary intake was assessed with a weighted 3-day food diary at week 4. Primary outcome measures were the percent change in LDL-C III non-HDL-C and particle concentration from baseline. Results: At the end of treatment, the median percent change in LDL-C III particle concentration was significantly greater with OM-3 FA plus atorvastatin compared with placebo plus atorvastatin (-67.5% vs -0%, respectively; P <0.001). OM-3 FA plus atorvastatin was associated with significant reductions in non-HDL-C (-9.5% vs 4.7%, P<0.01), TAG (-21.5% vs 6.2%, P <0.001) and VLDL-C (-36.9% vs 4.0%, P<0.001) and TC (-6.6% vs 2.1%, P<0.001). Between the groups, no significant difference in percent change in LDL-C, HDL-C, as well as LDL-C I and LDL-C II particle concentration was observed. Conclusion: In these adult, white patients with hyperlipidemia, P-OM3 plus atorvastatin improved LDL-C phenotype, non-HDL-C and other lipid and lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than atorvastatin alone.
    • Can procurement deliver strategic value? An exploratory study within the UK higher education sector

      Ward, Anthony J.; Yu, Ai Chuin (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Since the turn of the 21st century, the UK higher education (HE) sector has been facing increased political and fiscal pressures brought about by economic uncertainty, austerity and enhanced student expectations. By giving rise to a hypercompetitive environment, it is posited that today’s HE institutions seek to fulfil their societal responsibilities by achieving teaching excellence and ensuring long-term and financial sustainability. This paper postulates that the sector’s quest is attainable by realising value of strategic relevance (SV) and that it is axiomatic for the role of procurement to deliver it. To determine whether procurement can achieve this, this study examines its role and the concept, relevance and influencing forces of SV. This research comprises a cross-sectional exploratory study with procurement influencers, leaders, practitioners and senior stakeholders representing 14 organisations within UK HE. The research methodology is based on a subjective ontology that follows an interpretivist epistemology allied to pragmatism. The conceptual nature of the research problem is examined through a qualitative research design. Review of literature facilitates appreciation of the enigma of the research problem whilst empirical findings gathered through a series of 23 semi-structured interviews, emphasise the symbiotic relationship between the role of procurement and its stakeholders. Conclusions reveal that the ability of procurement to deliver SV within UK HE is significantly influenced by stakeholders’ perceptions of its role. Moreover, it is contingent on institutions’ ascription of SV and overcoming internal challenges that are affected by the dynamic juxtapositioning of macro-environmental forces outside the influence of individual institutions. In exploring a number of attributes, this study makes recommendations as to how the role of procurement within UK HE may be enhanced to deliver SV. It is envisaged that this study may supplement existing research or contribute towards future discussions on the role of procurement within the UK HE sector.
    • Giving a Voice, Healing Trauma: Exploring the Usefulness of Art Therapy with Refugee Children

      Lovell, Andy; Lowndes; Akthar, Zahra (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Children who seek refuge to the United Kingdom have experienced a journey witnessing many traumatic events, separation and losses. These experiences can have a profound effect on a child’s well-being and resettlement in the host country. Art therapy is an avenue which can help these children to heal their trauma, and explore the feelings and changes that arise with becoming a refugee. This research set in an interpretive paradigm, informed by hermeneutic phenomenology explores the usefulness of art therapy with refugee children. It aims to investigate this enquiry through the lens of art therapists to gain insights from lived experiences and stories. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted, which were explored and analysed through using thematic analysis, which discovered five key themes these were identified as: (1) Giving Voice, (2) Rebuilding Trust, Opening Wounds, (3) Sharing Stories, Healing Pain, (4) Exploring Identity, Discovering New- Self, and (5) Understanding Art Therapy. Upon reflection, the four initial findings merged together highlighting the two key usefulness of art therapy, these were established as: (a) providing refugee children with a safe space to heal and discover new-self, and (b) giving refugee children a voice to express, and share their stories. Despite the last theme (understanding art therapy) being established as a limitation, this created an area for future research to help inform art therapy practice. From the findings discovered, it was concluded that art therapy is a useful form of psychotherapy for refugee children. Art therapy provides these children with a safe space to heal, and gives them a voice to express and be heard.
    • The relationship between compulsive overeating behaviour and self-harm: An analysis of YouTube videos

      Heath, Hannah; Wyatt, Claire (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      Self-harm behaviour and the relatively unrecognised behaviour of compulsive overeating are secretive and isolating in nature. Compulsive overeating behaviour is under-researched and frequently misaligned with Binge Eating Disorder due to a lack of understanding and knowledge. Research investigating self-harm behaviour exists, although qualitative research is limited. This study looked to address the research question, ‘How do those who have compulsive overeating behaviour differ from those who self-harm?’ The design of the study was a qualitative Thematic Analysis based on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six stages of analysis. Twenty participants’ describing their personal experience of compulsive overeating and self-harm behaviour, through the platform of YouTube, were analysed, revealing 18 main themes. The findings illustrate similarity in the psychological, emotional and behavioural processes of self-harm and compulsive overeating behaviour, although several differences were identified relating to the research question. Key differences identified were the age of onset of behaviour, with existing research and the results of this study showing the prevalent onset of self-harm behaviour in adolescence whereas the results suggest compulsive overeating emerges at a much younger age. Differences were also highlighted in the participants experience and response to life events, their need to belong, in the formation of self-esteem and in the recovery process. Future research furthering intrapersonal and interpersonal understanding of compulsive overeating behaviour as a disorder may inform the design of better prevention and treatment, in addition to exploring the concept of compulsive overeating behaviour as a method of self-harm. Further qualitative research exploring the self-harm recovery process is recommended, to further develop preventative measures and treatment.