• Exploring counsellors’ experiences of working with suicidal clients, with particular focus on the issue of responsibility

      Reeves, Andrew; Whitfield, Michael J. (University of Chester, 2011-11)
      A qualitative study is presented revisiting the work of Reeves and Mintz (2001) in exploring the experiences of counsellors working with suicidal clients and extending the focus to the issue of locus of responsibility. Following a review of the literature, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with six experienced counsellors currently or recently working with suicidal clients. These were recorded, transcribed and the material analysed using the constant comparative method (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) to yield twelve categories representing participants experience. Themes emerging included: the impact of training, experience and organisational context, issues of client autonomy and professional responsibility, contrasting thoughts and feelings of counsellors when clients disclose suicidal feelings, ways counsellors seek to work with suicidal clients whilst dealing with their own feelings and finally, the locus of responsibility for the suicidal client and young clients especially. These are placed in context of the literature and limitations; implications for practice and further research are discussed.
    • Exploring the Barriers and Motivators to Physical Activity and Healthy Diet

      Woodall, Aly; Papandreou, Christopher; Kelly, Alice M. (University of Chester, 2016-09-29)
      Lifestyle behaviours such as physical inactivity and unhealthy eating are associated with obesity and increased health risks including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This review explored previous research into the barriers which may be preventing people from adopting a healthier lifestyle. These barriers could generally be categorised into four major themes: culture; social factors; environment; and personal factors. There appears to be a current understanding of the types of barriers that exist. However there is a gap in research into how to motivate people and overcome perceived or actual barriers, so that future public health interventions can have greater impact and encourage adoption and maintenance of physical activity and healthy eating.
    • Exploring the effectiveness of remote line-management: A case-study at MWH IT

      Walford, Robert; Fox, Katherine (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      Globalisation of organisations is increasing (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002) and with that, as are the existence of globally distributed teams (Global Workplace Analytics, 2016). The IT department at the engineering firm MWH, now part of Stantec has a number of globally distributed teams which means that the line-manager of each employee is often not based in the same office or even geographical region. This research uses semi-structured in-depth interviews with members of the IT department at MWH to build a qualitative case-study with an interpretivist phenomenological epistemology and subjectivist ontological paradigm. The research answers the question: ‘To what extent can globally remote line-management be as effective as local line-management for IT at MWH?’. The effectiveness of line-management is established by exploring the motivation and engagement of employees through their responses to interview questions. The findings show that line-managers can be equally effective when either local to their employees or in a different geography, but that there are additional challenges when remote. The research identifies methods to maximise the effectiveness of remote line-management, such as the usage of metrics. Recommendations are made based on the results of the research.
    • Exploring the experiences of African refugees and asylum seeking women in a northern town in the UK

      Harlow, Elizabeth; Taiwo-Pala, Adenike R. O. (University of Chester, 2012-04)
      This research aims to gain an insight into the experiences of African women refugees and asylum seekers, in order to provide an in-depth perspective of their experiences since arriving in the UK. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 5 participants in a northern town in the UK; this means participants were selected due to their specific characteristics to fit in with the study design. The main criteria for the subjects of the study were that they are African women refugees or asylum seekers, aged 21 and above. Participants were recruited through a drop-in centre in a northern town in the UK and were interviewed in the English Language, using semi-structured interviews in order to generate in-depth information. The interviews were hand written as the women in the study did not consent to tape recording as originally planned. However, this allowed a deeper flow of information, and I was able to immerse myself in the interview contexts and gained a robust understanding of the responses. Thematic analysis was the most appropriate method for analysis. Major interpretation from this study revealed themes of restricted access to state welfare provisions as well as employment restrictions. The study further reveals other themes such as, communication difficulties, racism, uncertainties, powerlessness, segregation and isolation, provision of help through voluntary organisations, choice of destination and finally theme of peace and safety. The themes in this study reflect existing academic literature on asylum seekers. However, this research added to the existing body of knowledge by exploring how women who participated in the study felt about the UK. They believed it is more peaceful and secure than where they have come from. They also believe that the UK is a good choice of destination based on the justice and welfare system, also because their countries were colonised by the UK. The main limitation of this study was that the samples were small and not representative of all African women refugees and asylum seekers in the UK. Therefore, recommendations are made for a larger scale project that will gather information from more refugees and asylum seeking women. This research should look for examples of lack of social and economic engagement within the environment and the community. It should compare the experiences of asylum seekers and refugees in different parts of the UK in order to ascertain the impact of current dispersal policy on asylum seekers in the UK. Moreover, studies that examine the long-term effects of the entire asylum processes on health and well-being of asylum seekers in the UK are also deemed important. Finally, recommendations are made that Social Workers who work with these groups of people should endeavour to work in an anti-discriminatory way and try as much as possible to offer emotional support in form of counselling services for these groups of individuals.
    • Exploring the place of counselling for parents who have lived with child-to-parent violence

      Swinton, Valda; Mintz, Rita; Le'Surf, Anne; Bridges, Ruth M.; Thomas, Jennifer (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      This study set out to explore the part played by counselling in the lives of parents afflicted by child-to-parent violence, in response to a perceived lack of literature in the area. It is a qualitative study with data generated from audio-recorded, semistructured interviews, which were subsequently analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis guidelines. Three participants explored their experiences facing child-to-parent violence, focusing upon the interventions offered, in particular counselling. Master themes from the data clustered around ‘living with abuse’, ‘negotiating a way through’ and ‘support’. An emergent theme was ‘unhelpful service interventions’, which contrasted with the theme of ‘helpful individuals’. A common emergent theme was the persistence of abuse from the child. Just as interventions appeared to depend upon how practitioners conceptualised child-to-parent violence, so too the response of participants depended on the meaning made of their different experiences. Participants’ experiences of counselling also emerged from how they had conceptualised their situations. Implications for practice indicate the need for a non-judgemental stance by counsellors to counter parental self-blame, and a greater clarity when supporting parents who are caught in a dilemma about their rights to personal safety.
    • Exploring the potential of a writing group to encourage academic staff and postgraduate students to publish

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Keen, Adam (University College ChesterUniversity of Liverpool (University College Chester), 2005-11)
      The aim of this research dissertation is to explore the potential of a writing group to encourage post graduate students and academic members of staff to publish. Writing for publication is identified as a desirable, if not essential, element of personal and organisational development. A triangulated survey is presented based on the interpretivist research paradigm. The methods used included a self administered questionnaire which provided quantitative and qualitative data. The design of this instrument was informed by the use of focus groups. In addition, five semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis for the quantitative element of the study was based on the provision of descriptive statistics and non-parametric comparisons. Microanalysis and axial coding as described by Strauss & Corbin (1998) were applied to qualitative data sources, in order to identify data categories and their associated properties. Triangulation was based on the notion of data completeness as opposed to data confirmation. The results of the study show that writing groups have a significant potential to encourage those interested in writing for publication. However, the concepts of motivation and time have a major impact on those expressing an interest in becoming involved in writing for publication. It is therefore concluded that writing groups do not represent a panacea, but rather should be implemented as one of many support strategies used.
    • Exploring the psychological impact of miscarriage: Qualitative analysis of email messages contributed by women contacted through pregnancy forums on the internet

      McNab, Stuart; Carr, Lesley (University of ChesterLesley Carr Associates, 2011-10)
      To explore women's experience of miscarriage with particular interest in: the presence of trauma responses post miscarriage; sources of social support and the impact of e-communication. A qualitative approach was used to analyse 26 messages written to the author in response to a request posted on 9 parenting - pregnancy e-forums. A data analysis software package (MAXQDA10) was used to conduct both a deductive and inductive analysis of themes developed from the participant's narratives of their miscarriage experiences. Deductive analysis of the data indicated that a significant number of the symptoms in the behavioural, physical and emotional domains (Bowes et al 2000) were referenced in the data. Specific references to the cognitive domain, as proposed, were however absent on this occasion. Results from the inductive analysis indicated that anxiety featured strongly in the 'aftermath' phase and in the 'early weeks' phase for those with prior experience of miscarriage. Women felt vulnerable and powerless on 'finding out' about the loss and coping with procedures associated with involuntary pregnancy loss (IPL). Confusion caused by chaotic emotional responses arose as a theme at the point of 'finding out', but continued and deepened through the 'miscarriage experience' and the 'aftermath'. The need for information and sensitive support was a recurrent theme from the point of 'finding out' onwards. During the 'aftermath' and 'reflection' phases, 'trying to make sense of or integrate the experience-was a common theme. Some had achieved this while others had not and some were not at a point in their journey (at the time of writing) where they were able to reflect upon their traumatic loss. The trauma responses experienced by this group of women are evident throughout the data and the impact of the research on the author confirms that a good level of self-care is needed in conducting research on this topic. Some recommendations for future research are suggested including the need to explore trauma responses further with miscarried women as well as their preferences in terms of support at stages of the 'miscarriage journey'.
    • Exploring the relationship between act variables and sleep disorders in predicting suicidal ideation

      Hochard, Kevin; Fanioudaki, Venetsiana (University of Chester, 2018)
      Suicidal Ideation (SI) is undoubtedly a major risk factor for suicide which is a fundamental public health phenomenon as every year in all regions of the world nearly one million individuals end their own lives. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia and nightmares are risk factors of SI and ACT has been shown to decrease SI. The study aimed to investigate the moderating role of ACT components (measured with the AAQ-II and CompACT) in the relationship between sleep disorders (insomnia and nightmares) and suicidal ideation. The study employed correlational quantitative analysis and conducted four hierarchical linear regressions. Findings from the e-survey (n= 274) showed that sleep disorders did not significantly predict SI beyond the effects of anxiety, stress and depression. However, ACT components decreased SI scores after controlling for depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and nightmares (β = -.31, p < .001). In addition, ACT variables (measured with the AAQ-II) moderated the relationship between insomnia, but no nightmares, and SI by decreasing SI scores (β= -.09, p < .05). Taken together, these findings provide support for the protective role of psychological flexibility against SI and the effectiveness of ACT components in decreasing suicidal thoughts and behaviors in individuals with high scores of insomnia symptoms. The study suggests that an ACT based intervention could benefit individuals with insomnia from developing SI. Further evaluation of the relationship between sleep disorders and SI and possible mediators is warranted.
    • Exploring the relationship between personal and perceived public attitudes of mental health difficulties and professional help seeking: Does self-compassion play a role?

      Evans, Gemma; Jones, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2017-11)
      Previous literature suggests that there is a relationship between mental health stigma and help seeking attitudes. There are however mixed results when determining the effects of specific elements of stigma: personal stigma and perceived public stigma. There is also limited research into the effects of self-compassion on this relationship, with initial studies suggesting increased self-compassion has a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. The current survey based study of 40 students examined the relationship between personal and perceived public attitudes of mental health difficulties and professional help seeking. The study also examined the role of self-compassion in this relationship. The findings revealed a significant relationship between perceived family and community views of mental health and help seeking. No correlation was found between personal attitudes towards mental health and help seeking. Self-compassion was significantly correlated with personal attitudes towards mental health but not help seeking. Findings indicate that perceived public stigma is an important barrier towards mental health help seeking attitudes and should be the focus of future interventions. Results also suggest that an increased level of self-compassion is associated with more positive personal attitudes towards mental health, indicating that compassion-based therapy is an important and promising tool for reducing stigma and its impacts.
    • Exploring the view of financial professionals on ethical and corporate governance: A qualitative study within the accounting department of a financial shared services centre

      Page, Steve; Barbon, Ana J. D. (University of Liverpool (University College Chester), 2005-09)
      This report aims to provide an accurate an up-to date vision of business ethics and corporate governance performance in the context of business organisations. Furthermore the aim of the report goes beyond the theoretical level, trying to unveil the practical side of ethics and corporate governance practices within a specific live organisation. Accordingly this piece of research explores the perceptions of financial professionals on ethical and corporate governance performance within the Accounting Department of Company A. Two instruments are used to this purpose: interviews and questionnaire. The analysis of the data collected will disclose some strengths in the views of the staff about the ethical performance of company A such as high commitment of both employees and company to the duty of business ethics and to report financial information with integrity. Alternatively weak areas in need of improvement would be an employees' low level of familiarity and comfort with whistleblowing tools available within Company A, the little applicability of company code of ethics in practice and the lack of an appropriate performance measurement system to assess ethical and corporate governance performance and to communicate it to stakeholders. Ultimately a list of recommendations is included in chapter 6, based on the conclusions raised in the report. It includes among others: the use of value-based codes, a formal introduction of the code to employees, additional formal ethics training, periodic updates to employees on whistleblowing policies and procedures, the use of external channels to report misconduct or the development of a combined performance measurement system that integrates not only financial and business indicators but measures to assess ethical and corporate governance performance.
    • Exploring the views and experiences of early years practitioners with regard to consultation with children under five

      Artaraz, Kepa; Davies, Sarah (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2006-10)
      Recent Government agendas have highlighted a need for children to be involved in policy and service design, provision and evaluation, in relation to services they use or which affect them. This has the aim of producing better services, leading to better outcomes for children. No lower age limit of children has been set for participation policies. While consultation with older children has become more usual in children's services, this is not yet the case for younger children. Relevant literature suggests that the attitudes and beliefs of the adults who work with them can be a significant barrier to the participation of young children. This study aimed to explore the current practice and the experiences, perceptions and views of a sample of professionals who work with children under five years old, with regard to consultation with young children. A qualitative research strategy was selected as appropriate for the study. A cross-sectional study design was utilised and potential research participants were identified through a purposive sampling strategy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of nine early years practitioners. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was used. In exploring current practice amongst the practitioners the study examined definitions and understanding of consultation, use of consultation, and methods of consultation employed. Findings revealed a number of factors that can influence whether or not practitioners consult with young children. The influencing factors included the views, attitudes and beliefs of practitioners with regard to consultation with young children. In particular, their perceptions of children's competence and their understanding of child development, as well as their views of childhood, were found to be important. Additional factors that could be influential included the aims and focus of the service, the ethos of the setting, training opportunities, and current Government policies and initiatives. Three spheres of influence were discovered in which the different factors could have a varying impact upon practice. These were the spheres of the individual practitioner, the service setting, and the wider policy context. Therefore while training for early years practitioners may be important in introducing consultation with young children, service and setting level influences may also need to be addressed. A possible theoretical model was presented as a means of understanding the views, attitudes and practice regarding consultation with young children among the early years practitioners interviewed for the study. The model suggests that the different factors that can influence whether or not practitioners consult with young children are connected and interrelated. There are policy implications of the findings of this study, in signifying what may need to be in place for the Government drive to consult with young children to work in practice. Future research is recommended to further explore these factors, the nature of the relationships between them and the extent to which they can influence practice.
    • Exploring young people's perception of counselling: A qualitative study

      Lynch, Gordon; Le'Surf, Anne (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1997-02)
      This study explores young people's perceptions which are of relevance to the creation, operation and promotion of a Youth Counselling Service in Shropshire. It uses qualitative methods to interview youth workers/counsellors and young f people (both individually and in groups). The constant comparative method is used to analyse the data. The outcomes reveal the existence of significant perceptual blocks in this hard to reach group which would inhibit them from asking for help in counselling and suggest some ways of overcoming these through the design and promotion of the youth counselling service. A clear picture emerges from the data of the nature of the counselling service they would find acceptable. The relevance of the outcomes to the wider issues of access to counselling and the nature of counselling services in the future is discussed.
    • Facilitating change in the occupational and personal self-perceptions of workers in the community: A co-operative inquiry

      Knight, Madeline A. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1996-05)
      This study presents an exploration and evaluation of the impacy of a ten session counselling skills course on workers within the community, using new paradigm experiential research as described by John Heron (1994a). The ten participants who completed the course were employees of two registered charitable organisations: three from The Chester, Cheshire and Clywd Blinf Welfare Society and seven from Crossroads Care Attendant Schemes. Results were obtained by means of self-report, group presentations, appraisal forms, facilitator observation and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. The combined results suggest that the course enhanced job-satisfaction, self-esteem and well-being for the particioants; while also promoting their learning of counselling skills by experiential means.
    • Facilitating effective change management in the charitable giving trust

      Page, Steve; Williams, Deborah (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      Given the pace of change and the many aspects of managing change which organisations need to address, effective change management has become an increasingly business critical capability of organisations. The collaborating organisation, The Charitable Giving Trust (TCGT) has embarked on a substantial Information Systems Project which will replace or radically improve all technology infrastructure and information systems used to deliver services to clients. TCGT requires effective change management throughout the project and in addition, the development of organisation capability to manage emergent and contingent change to its systems and business mode. Understanding the potential impact of change on employee well-being is vital, as is helping organisations manage to accept and embrace change. The people within an organisation can be the key to successful change or the biggest obstacle to it. Academic research in the field of change management process and change models was reviewed. The role of organsiational leadership and culture on the organisational propensity and capability to change was investigated. The reserch sought to identify the best practice approaches to change management which can facilitate employee committment to, involvement in and acceptance of change. The areas of academic research informed the research conducted within TCGT. The research sought to identify TCGT current apprach to managing change, in order to inform recommendations for improvement and for adoption of applicable best practice.
    • Factors affecting access to fruit and vegetables in Chester and the importance of eating healthily: A case study of Blacon and Hoole

      Ellahi, Basma; Smith, Adam (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2008-11)
      The link between diet and the aetiology of chronic diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease is widely accepted. Consumption of fruit and vegetables is known to have a protective effect on such health issues. Research shows that access to and availability of such foods are key to facilitating change and sustainable healthy behaviours. This study examines the access to fruit and vegetables at a community level using the Chester wards of Blacon and Hoole. A phenomenological perspective was adopted to explore the attitudes, perceptions and behaviours of a sample of Chester based female adults living in Blacon, a ward characteristic of multiple deprivation, or Hoole, a ward characteristic of only health deprivation. Qualitative data was collected using semi-standardised interviews and data was analysed using a framework approach. Few differences emerged between the two wards across all aspects of access. Intakes of fruit and vegetables were consistent with national averages. Access to healthy food in both wards was percived to be 'good'. Time and cost were the barriers most frequently stated to fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants were aware of the need to consume fruit and vegetables but the desire to include them in their diets was equally positive and negative. Information available and level of access was percieved to be good in both wards, however, a lack of follow-up initiatives has meant that a majority of participants were unaware of ways to integrate such information and behaviours into their busy lifestyles.
    • Factors affecting small-sided game demands among high-level junior rugby league players

      Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Foster, Christine (University of Chester, 2012)
      Small-sided games (SSGs) are commonly incorporated into the conditioning programmes of rugby league (RL) players. However, although several studies have examined the physiological, perceptual, movement and skill demands of SSGs, the majority of research in this area has focused on these responses in soccer players. Therefore, the purpose of this programme of research was to examine the effects of altering selected variables (player number, playing area size, the role of the player and the role of the coach) on the physiological and technical demands imposed on junior, high-level RL players during SSGs. In addition, SSG responses were investigated in different junior age groups to determine if playing age has an effect on SSG demands. Finally, given the role of SSGs as a conditioning tool, the consistency of the exercise intensities generated was assessed over repeated trials. Chapter 3 investigated the influence of player number and playing area size on the heart rate (HR) responses elicited by junior male RL players during SSGs. Twenty-two players from a professional club (mean age: 14.5 ± 1.5 yr; stature: 172.5 ± 11.4 cm; body mass: 67.8 ± 15.1 kg; 2OVpeak: 53.3 ± 5.6 ml·kg-1·min-1; HRmax: 198 ± 7.8 b·min-1) participated in two repeated trials of six four-minute conditioned SSGs over a two-week period. The SSGs varied by playing area size; 15x25 m, 20x30 m, and 25x35 m, and player number; 4v4 and 6v6. Analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) effects of trials and playing area size on HRs, but a significant effect of player number in the U16 age group only (P<0.001), with HRs being higher in the 4v4 (90.6% HRmax) than the 6v6 SSGs (86.2% HRmax). The HR responses were found to be repeatable in all SSG conditions (within ± 1.9% HRmax) apart from the small 6v6 condition in the older players. Chapter 4 investigated the HR responses and incidence of specific game actions during attacking and defending play in SSGs, with and without coach encouragement. Seventeen boys from a professional club (mean age: 13.4 ± 1.1 yr; stature: 168 ± 11.8 cm; body mass: 61.5 ± 14.9 kg; 2OVpeak: 55.0 ± 5.6 ml·kg-1·min-1; HRmax: 202 ± 6.5 b·min-1) participated in two repeated trials of four, four-minute conditioned SSGs over a two-week period. It was observed that attacking play elicited a greater amount of time above 90% HRmax than defending (62.0 ± 31.5 versus 48.4 ± 31.3% of total time). Compared to the older junior players (U15), the younger junior players (U13) elicited a greater average SSG intensity (90.5 ± 1.7% versus 87.9 ± 0.6% HRmax) and spent a greater amount of time above 90% HRmax (68.6 ± 22.5% versus 43.3 ± 34.6% of total time). Moreover, compared to the U15 players, the U13 players completed a greater volume of passes (20.8 ± 2.9 versus 15.5 ± 2.6), successful passes (21.3 ± 0.0 versus 17.4 ± 3.1), pass plays (6.6 ± 1.4 versus 3.0 ± 0.5) and tries (2.5 ± 1.1 versus 0.6 ± 0.3), but a lower volume of attacking runs (25.9 ± 1.3 versus 32.3 ± 0.2), dummy runs (10.6 ± 1.8 versus 18.9 ± 1.8), touches (30.0 ± 35.0 versus 35.8 ± 6.3), successful touches (30.5 ± 0.5 versus 42.1 ± 1.1) and completed sets (1.6 ± 0.0 versus 3.5 ± 0.6). The addition of coach encouragement had no effect on the HR responses or volume of game actions conducted. The SSGs demonstrated large trial-to-trial variability in the game actions and average and peak HR intensities (bias of 3.7 ± and ± 4% HRmax) and percentage of time in HR Zones (bias of ± 25% percentage of time), indicative of poor reliability. The findings from this research demonstrate that SSGs specific to RL can generate HR responses suitable for aerobic conditioning that, whilst unaffected by the size of the area used, are sensitive to the player number, player role and age. Moreover, coach encouragement may not affect SSG demands when players are habituated to SSG conditioning. Furthermore, manipulating SSG rules can adversely affect the reproducibility of HR responses.
    • Factors associated with the detection of the signs of child sexual abuse

      Wright, Clea; Goddard, Nick (University of Chester, 2018)
      Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major international societal concern, with up to 48% of women and 29% of men having experienced it, often with severe resultant psychological issues. The utility of offender management programs in reducing CSA is disputed and the reporting rate of CSA is low, so the ability to detect sexually abusive relationships between adults and children is of increased importance. However, media propagation of child sex offender stereotypes inhibits their detection. This study used a vignette-based online questionnaire to explore if the signs of abuse can be detected in a child’s relationship with their football coach and if the ‘dirty old man’ age stereotype impacts detection. Whether adults already trained in detecting CSA rated the potential for sexual abuse differently than untrained adults in scenarios where it was included was also explored. The analyses indicated a significantly higher rating for CSA in ‘abuse’ scenarios than ‘no-abuse’ scenarios across all participants, with a large effect size. However, there was no significant difference in rating based on abuser age (none given, 19, 50). Additionally, CSA trained participants did not rate abuse scenarios significantly differently than untrained participants. Lack of trust in the media, extensive reporting of high-profile cases that did not include a stereotypically-aged sex offender, and the personal experiences of participants were considered as potential mitigating factors for the age stereotype. The focus of existing CSA training on symptoms rather than relationships is considered as a potential explanation for similar ratings between trained and untrained participants.
    • A feasibility study of carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin dosing in adults with type 2 diabetes: MATCH IT (MAtching Treatment to CarboHydrate in Insulin-treated type Two diabetes

      Mellor, Duane; Joseph, Frank; Ellahi, Basma; Fitzgerald, Sarah (University of Chester, 2012-11)
      Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition which is associated with serious microvascular and macrovascular complications and diminshed quality of life. Intenstive glycaemic control has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes-related complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but can further decrease quality of life. Carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin dosing is known to improve glycaemic control and quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Limited evidence suggests that this diabetes management method can also reduce glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using prandial insulin (Bergenstal et al., 2008) but this has not been investigated rigorously and no studies have investigated the impact on psychosocial outcomes. Does insulin dose adjustment in line with mealtime carbohydrare intake in adults with T2DM using prandial insulin improve the primary outcomes HbA1c and quality of life? Impact on secondary outcomes including treatment satisifaction and vascular risk facors was also assessed. A feasibility study, using a randomished controlled delayed start (waiting list) trial design, was conducted. Adults with T2DM using prandial insulin were trained to count carbohydrates and adjust insulin doses through group education sessions. Carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin dosing in adults with T2DM was found to be non-inferior to static dosing insulin regimes, and was associated with improved quality of life and reduced perception of hypoglycaemia. This was associated with non-significant reducations in body weight, waits circumference and total daily insulin dose and was achieved despite increased dietary freedom, and without significane deterioration in other vascular risk factors. This management method has the potential to improve quality of life whilst maintaining or optimising glycaemic control in individuals with T2DM who require a variable insulin regime. This rising incidence of T2DM, its economic and health burden, and the increasingly younger patient profile make these findings particularly pertinenet. Further research is warranted to explore these initial findings.
    • The final campaigns in the West Indies 1808‐1810

      Rainbow, Malcolm S. (University of Chester, 2014)
      This dissertation discusses British strategic policy in the West Indies and the conquest of Martinique and the Battle of Les Saintes.
    • Finite difference approximation for stochastic parabolic partial differential equations

      Yan, Yubin; Patel, Babubhai M. (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      Differential equations, especially partial differential equations (PDES) have wide range of applications in sciences, finance (economics), Engineering and so forth. In last decade, substantial amount of work has been done in studying stochastic partial differential equations (SPDES). A SPDE is a PDE containing a random ‘noise’ term. SPDES have no analytical solutions. Various numerical methods have been developed from time to time and tested for their validity using Matlab program. In this thesis, the author will discuss the finite difference method for stochastic parabolic partial differential equations. Matlab software is used for simulation of the solution of this equation. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the finite difference approximation of a stochastic parabolic partial differential equation with white noise. The author discusses alternative proof for error bounds using Green function in support of this method.