• Does performance during the ISWT truly reflect changes in physiological function?

      Innes, Geraldine (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      This aim of this dissertation is to evaluate whether changes in performance i.e. maximum distance walked (MDW) in the ISWT truly reflect improvements in physiological fitness in patients who have undergone a 3 month course of cardiac rehabilitation. (CR) A retrospective analysis of 184 patients was carried out and data was collected from an ISWT before and after CR. A Wilcoxan Signed Rank test was used to analyse the variables of heart rate (HR), RPE, MDW and walking speed index (WSI) for all participants. The inclusion of a WSI, looking at peak HR in relation to speed of walking, was used to determine if there was a significant decline in HR at increasing workloads post CR. This was used to signify if a true physiological change in fitness had occurred. There was a 27% mean increase (p=0.0005) in MDW for all participants post CR. Peak HR increased an average 7% (p=0.0005) and RPE significantly increased from 12 to 13 (p=0.0005). WSI indicated an 8% average (p=0.0005) increase in physiological fitness, based on HR, in all participants. In Men MDW increased significantly from 440metres to 555 metres (26%), peak HR increased by an average 6% (p=0.0005), RPE from12.6 to 13.6 (p=0.0005) and WSI by 7% (p=0.0005). In women mean distance achieved rose 30% from 303metres to 393metres (p=0.0005), peak HR by 6bpm (p=0.001), RPE rose from 11.8 to 12.4, which was not significant (p=0.131) and WSI showed an average increase of 9%. This study showed that 8% of a 27% increase in walking performance following a CR programme could be attributed to a true physiological (fitness) adaptation. In circumstances where a practice walk is not always carried out, the addition of HR in relation to a given walking speed should be used to assess and quantify the true physiological change related to a programme of exercise based CR.
    • Does physical activity reduce obesity and other modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors in children?: A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Sykes, Kevin; Shaw, Kirsten J. (University of Chester, 2007-10)
      The objective of this dissertation was to examine whether, physical activity (PA) can improve the modifiable coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors of obesity, blood pressure, and lipid profile in children (aged 5-16), through the process of a systematic review. CHD is the leading single cause of death in the U.K. The development of CHD is thought to be a lifelong process originating in childhood. Physical inactivity, obesity, lipid profile, and blood pressure are seen as major risk factor for CHD. Searches were made for relevant journal articles from a variety of scientific online databases and journals. 28 applicable articles met the requirements of the relevance criteria and were included and analysed in the review. The effects of PA on modifiable CHD risk factors were assessed, as were the PA levels of young people, and the differences in risk factor response between younger and older children, and between males and females. PA levels, in relation to recommended guidelines, among children varied, this was partly dependant on study methodology. Males and older children were seen to benefit more from PA than females and younger children. Positive associations were seen between PA and modifiable CHD risk factors but not in all studies. This review concluded that PA has been shown to induce short-term improvements on modifiable CHD risk factors in children, although this was not a consistent finding. The role of PA during childhood may produce greater health benefits in the long-term compared to during the years of childhood and adolescence.
    • Does preoperative education reduce anxiety in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery?

      Buckley, John P.; Isher, Sumeet K. (University of Chester, 2010-09)
      The main purpose of the study was to find out whether preoperative education helps in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), by means of systematic review. About 28,000 CABG surgeries are done in UK every year, but there is variation in terms of number of surgeries from place to place. Patients undergoing CABG faces many psychological issues such as anxiety and depression that may bring the worse outcome of the surgery and even leads to death or another cardiac event. This systematic review brings all these issues into light and 14 relevant studies obtained by search methodology have discussed the issues such as effect of anxiety on coronary heart disease, effect of preoperative patient education on the outcome of the surgery and the different forms of education and their effects. It was reported that anxiety does predict the post operative psychological outcome. Positive association were observed between different forms of education such as support from peer group and music and video information. The systematic review concluded that there is positive effect of education given to the patient prior to surgery, but few more studies need to be performed on large cardiac population to obtained better results for the practical implementation.
    • Does resistance training, combined with aerobic training, further improve cardiovascular fitness in cardiac rehabilitation patients?

      Fallows, Stephen; Campbell, Mark (University of Chester, 2009-09-30)
      The primary aim of this research project was to focus on the outcomes and benefits of performing a combined cardiovascular exercise and resistance training programme in post-myocardial infarction participants. Study methods involved 18 participants (15 males, mean (M) age 61 years (SD ± 6.6), (range 45 – 72 years), and three females (M= 51 ± 8.8 years, range 43 – 63 years). Participants were randomly selected into standard care (SC) or standard care plus (SCP) groups. Each group performed 30 minutes of supervised cardiovascular exercise over a six week period; the SCP group additionally performed one set, of three resistance exercises, for 10 repetitions. Dependent t-test data gathered from a 10 metre incremental shuttle walking test prior and post-intervention demonstrates an increase in mean walking distance; the SC group by 46.9% (p = 0.01), the SCP group by 24.4% (p = 0.001). Independent t-test data demonstrates no significant findings between the groups, pre-intervention (p = 0.10), or post-intervention (p = 0.74). Significant differences were found between the pre and post-strength variables, Leg Press (p = 0.005), Back Pull-Down (p = 0.005), and the Chest Press (p = 0.007). The main conclusion to be drawn from this study is the necessity of a need to apply specificity to exercise training. A recommendation from this study would be to ensure that strength training is introduced at an appropriate time for an individual and that this component of physical training receives as much endorsement as cardiovascular exercise.
    • Does Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety and Friendship Quality Predict Online and Offline Peer Victimisation?

      Boulton, Mike; Kirkham, Rachel (University of Chester, 2017)
      The current study aimed to investigate whether self-esteem, social anxiety and friendship quality predicted online and offline peer victimisation. Previous literature highlighted that self-esteem, social anxiety and friendship quality was likely to predict offline victimisation (Boulton, Trueman, Chau, Whitehand and Amayta, 1999; Hodges Boivin Vitaro & Bukowski, 1999; Boivin & Hymel, 1997; Egan & Perry, 1998). However, there was limited and inconsistent literature around the predicting factors and online victimisation (Ybarra and Mitchel, 2004; Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Prizant-Passal et al, 2016). Self-report questionnaires were administered in schools, to children who were 10-16 years old (N=653). 2 X multiple regressions revealed that self-esteem, social anxiety and friendship quality all collectively predicted online and offline victimisation. Therefore, 2 hierarchical regressions were carried out to see if each factor uniquely predicted each dependent variable. Findings revealed that self-esteem and social anxiety both uniquely predicted online and offline victimisation; however, friendship quality did not. The current study raises recommendations for methodological improvement. Nevertheless, the current findings contribute towards existing research as specific factors, which leave children vulnerable to peer victimisation, are highlighted. This raises awareness for teachers and parents as they can identify vulnerable children and monitor their online and offline activity. Additionally, the current study allows for future researchers to expand upon these findings, and create early interventions for children who are at risk of victimisation, which would contribute towards the prevention of peer victimisation for future generations.
    • Downsizing and the impact on employee job satisfaction: An analysis of employee job satisfaction with regard to organisational downsizing and merger, between two major BT business departments - BT Retail and BT Wholesale Markets

      Page, Steve; Brenton, Cullum (University College Chester, 2005-06)
      This dissertational report represents analytical findings and conclusions following a six month investigation into the issue of downsizing and its impact on employee job satisfaction. Through qualitative, case-study research, the aim was to explore not only the impact on job satisfaction downsizing had on employees, but also to identify existing literature, in order to understand and establish the subjects being studied. The data is drawn from two stages of case study research. Stage one involved a literature review of downsizing and employee job satisfaction. This was necessary, in order to build a theoretical background, allowing the author to discuss the findings with the primary research resulting from the survey. Stage two consisted of the primary research tool relating to a distributed questionnaire to one hundred and eight two (182) employees from British Telecom's retail division, identified as the most affected staff group of the BT downsizing strategy. The main results from this study are presented through tables and pictorial diagrams and are aligned to the existing literature in order to present any similarities with the existing literature or is there new evidence stating opposites the existing literature. The aims of the investigation are to analyse post downsizing, job satisfaction scores using a job satisfaction survey (JSS).
    • The drive for the 'perfect body': A Bourdieun analysis of the body image perceptions and health behaviours among male weight trainers

      Gill, Luke (University of Chester, 2013-10-04)
      Whilst there exists a small body of literature that has examined male weight-trainers body image perceptions and health behaviours, very few have employed a sociological perspective or a qualitative research approach. The central objective of this thesis, therefore, is to investigate, using Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field and capital, the body image perceptions and health behaviours among male weight-trainers. To do this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven male weight-trainers who attended weight-training gyms in the North-West of England. The results indicate that male weight-trainers hold specific body image habituses. These perceptions were athleticism, leanness and muscularity. To all weight-trainers in this study, these body image perceptions encompassed a ‘perfect body’. The health behaviours of weight-trainers revealed that their diets are structured and organised. There was evidence to suggest that weight-trainers consume particular foods, including a diverse source of protein foods, all of which were to complement their weight-training goals. Supplementation was widespread among weight-trainers. However, few health concerns were considered when using them. The results of this study indicate that supplementation use was guided on one principle, trial and error. All in all, the study provides evidence to suggest that the social fields (e.g. weight-training gyms) that weight-trainers engage in help to construct and develop their body image perceptions and health behaviours. Those that possessed a physique that represented the dominant habitus, were inclined to possess high levels of cultural capital, in this case, trusted and valued knowledge regarding weight-training, nutrition and supplementation.
    • e-HR transformation projects within the UK public sector: Critical success factors

      Nicholas, Alison (University of Chester, 2010)
      The paper sets out the findings of a study of e-HR Transformation Projects within the UK Public Sector using the lens of Critical Success Factors. Key problems of training (knowledge transfer) and post-implementation management are critically examined. The vast field of e-HR Transformation theorisation is mapped and the project management approaches are scrutinised. Base on qualitative, interpretive research methods, the results provide a rich empirical data set and show clearly the contested nature of “traditional” Critical Success Factors related to these specific projects. Information is based on the assessment of staff involved in both pre and post implementation situations and their experiences in a project and operational capacity. It is concluded that there are specific Critical Success Factors related to e-HR Transformation Projects which should be highlighted as a focus for attention in the construction of the initial Business Case and prior to the selection of the technical solution. Therefore, implications for the e-HR agenda are advanced and specific recommendations are made for project managers and practitioners.
    • Early rebellion and its links to later success and conquest: Why was it that some Norman rulers profited from rebellions early in their reigns, whilst others did not?

      Doran, John; McLay, Keith A. J.; Burke, Matthew P. (University of Chester, 2011)
      The subject of this dissertation is the Normans. Its objective is to analyse the development of their civilisation, and to give reasons for their numerous accomplishments, both in Northern Europe and in the Mediterranean. Yet, unlike the many scholars who have studied the Normans before, the main focus here will be on rebellion, and in particular those rebellions which followed the succession of each Norman ruler (either a king or a duke/count), as it will be argued that when dealt with correctly these revolts did not hinder, but instead created the seeds of power and progress; since they gave the new ruler an opportunity to establish a lasting precedent early on, that insolence to their authority would not be tolerated; which if accomplished, then led to harmony (internal peace), development and conquest for the rest of the ruler’s reign.
    • East Sussex school nurses' experiences of the National Child Measurement programme in 2008/09 and their views on the role of school nurses in tackling childhood obesity

      Fallows, Stephen; Bunker, Caroline (University of Chester, 2009-11-08)
      The National Child Measurement Porgramme (NCMP) is one element of the government's Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives strategy. It aims to gather population level data to analyse trends in childhood obesity, inform local planning and engage with families about healthy livestyles and weight issues. Routine feedback of NCMP results has recently been introduced in order to inform parents if their child's weight is unhealthy. Moreover, Primary Care Trusts are being encouraged to proactively follow up children with unhealthy weights and offer parents appropriate advice and referral.School nurses are instrumental in weighting and measuring reception and year 6 aged children for the NCMP on an annual basis. As health professionals working in an educational setting, they also have a unique position in schools and are viewed as playing a pivital role in tackling childhood obesity, often being the first point of contact for parents who are concerned abouth their child's weight. Yet there is a dearth of studies into their experiences of how the NCMP is working in practice, how they perceive their role in the routine feedback of results and how they view their wider role in tackling childhood obesity in school settings. This study undertook one-to-one interviews with a sampe of 15 school nurses working in East Sussex primary schools. It aimed to find out their experiences of the NCMP in 2008/09, how the programme is working in practice and their views of the role of school nurses in tackling childhood obesity, particuarly when routine feedback of results is introduced in the county in 2010. Findings suggest that measuring children has impacts on school nurse workloads and is often viewed as an inappropriate use of time. Moreover, it is not always easy to adhere to some of the NCMP guidelines for measuring children. The findings also suggest that issues suck as a lack of training provision and care pathways for childhood obesity undermine the competence and confidence school nurses to tackle childhood obesity in East Sussex. recommendations are made as how this might be addressed.
    • Eating habits and body weight control methods of national hunt and flat race jockeys in the UK

      Fallows, Stephen; Higham, Arabella (University of Chester, 2012)
      Horse racing is a high risk sport requiring jockeys to have strength, balance, cardiovascular fitness, specific handling skills and the ability to maintain high levels of concentration. Racing's handicapping system makes it unique because the ability of the horse determines the jockey's weight with jockets being required to make weight repeatedly and for prolonged periods year round. Jockeys must weight-out 30 minutes prior to a race and maintain their weight throughout to weight-in immediently after with no opportunity to refuel or rehydrate. The challenges of making weight appear to be an entrenched and accepted culture of the sport. Forty-six jockeys (29 National Hunt, 12 Flat and 5 Dual Purpose) completed a 27 item questionnaire designed to gather information on the methods of weight control used and the perceived associated negative physiological or psychological effects. National Hunt jockeys were taller (p=0.006) and significantly heavier at their non-racing weight and lowest racing weights than flat (p=0.000; p=0.000) and dual purpose jockeys (p=0.001; p=0.004). Dual purpose jockeys were heavier than flat jockeys at their non-racing and lowest racing weights (p=0.008; p=0.002). Only National Hunt jockeys had a significantly heavier non-racing weight than lowest racing weight (p=0.000). Rapid weight loss methods were used 1+/-1.5 days prior to a race. There were no significant differences between weight control methods, perceived negative effects or between jockey codes. Several weight control methods were associated with a number of negative physiological and psychological effects. The strongest correlations existed for weight control methods promoting dehydration, fluid restruction, sauna, holt salt bath and exercise induced sweating. Jockeys often have low levels of body fat and increased muscle mass and therefore induce dehydration to further reduce their body weight. Jockey code does not influence weight control demands as flat jockeys tend to be naturally shorter and lighter than their National Hunt counterparts.
    • Ebb and flow: A collection of short stories

      Wall, Alan; Hopper, Denise R. (University of Chester, 2009-10)
    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.
    • The effect of beta blockers on heart rate response during the Chester Step Test

      Buckley, John P.; Gilchrest, Joanne (University of ChesterCountess of Chester Hospital, 2011-10)
      The objective of this study is to ascertain that as the intensity of exercise increases through the stages of the Chester Step Test (CST) does the difference between the beta blocked(BB) and the non beta blocked(NBB) participants heart rate(HR) response increase. The study utilised a repeated measures design. Twenty males with a mean age of 58.9 (±6.1) taking Beta Blocker medication completed the CST on two occasions within one week of another. A further Seven males and thirteen females with mean age 61.5 (± 6.3) who were not taking Beta Blockers data from previous study data using the Chester Step Test was used to compare the HR and Rating of Perceived Exertion(RPE) responses at each stage of the CST. Each stage of the CST lasted two minutes after which HR and RPE were collected until the participant achieved 80% of predicted Maximum Heart Rate or RPE 15. HR was significantly different between the two groups at each stage of the CST p=<0.05. RPE was significantly different between the two groups at each stage of the CST p=<0.05. Limits of Agreement suggested test-re-test reliability of the CST for BB participants with the worse case HR being 11bpm above the mean in the final stage of the CST. The data suggests that as intensity of exercise increases as does the difference between the BB and NBB HR response. The data implies there may be some sex differences which will need investigating further. RPE was shown to be significantly different between the two groups. The data also showed that the CST is reliable for participants taking BB.
    • The Effect of Channels of Communication on Accuracy in Detecting Deception in High-Stakes situations

      Wright, Clea; Parry, Jonathan (University of Chester, 2017)
      Much of the past research into deception detection has utilised low-stakes lies as stimulus, with globally poor results in accuracy levels. The present research used real-life recordings of high-stakes lies to investigate a between-subjects model of four different channels of communication: Audiovisual; Visual Only; Audio Only; Transcript Only. The dependent variable was the accuracy score obtained in each channel of communication in detecting deception. Considering available research results, it was hypothesised that the Audio Only group would score significantly higher than the Visual Only group, the Audiovisual group would score significantly higher than the Transcript Only group, and that the Transcript Only group would score significantly higher than participants in the Visual Only group. The lack of research into the channel of communication of Transcript Only provided further rationale for the present study. Due to the high-stakes nature of stimuli materials it was hypothesised that all participants would score higher than chance. Each participant group (N=20) observed 20 clips of people making public pleas for information about a missing or murdered relative. Half of the clips included people involved in the crime (attempting to deceive the public) and the other half were innocent (truthful, and not attempting to deceive the public). Scores ranged between 50.8% accuracy (audio visual) and 56.5% accuracy (visual only). There was no statistically significant difference between mean scores, F(3,76)=.30, p=.826, η²=.01. T-tests were conducted to test accuracy levels within each group. Accuracy levels were not significantly above chance. Suggestions for further research are discussed.
    • The effect of cultural diversity on team work in the postgraduate school of the Chester Business School

      Webb, Paul; Fadeyi, Oluwafisayo (University of Chester, 2010)
      The research examines the effect of cultural diversity on team performance. The research presents the findings of a study on team work in the postgraduate class of the Chester Business School. The study examines the concept of team work and cultural diversity. Team working is increasingly being used by many organisations to improve employee performance. To be effective, a team should comprise the right number of people with the right skill, knowledge and expertise. On the other hand cultural diversity in a broad sense refers to the variety of human culture in the world. However, in the context of this study, cultural diversity means that the people have a different way of viewing the world and how it operates and this difference affects every aspect of their life. Culture provides a selective screen between man and the outside world. Culture determines what we pay attention to and what we are most likely to ignore. Merely putting people from different cultural background together in teams does not guarantee that the team will function effectively. How well these people will work together remains a major concern. From the study it was concluded that there is an indirect relationship between the cultural background of the members of a team and the team’s performance. The study also found out that while the cultural background of each member of the team influences how they learn, what they learn and how knowledge is shared; education, work experience, life experience and personal aspiration provide the platform and drive to learn. All these factors work together to influence the participation and contribution of each individual team member in the team’s activity. It was also noted that what makes a team perform better than another team is not determined solely by the cultural background of the team members. Other factors, internal or external also influence team performance.
    • The effect of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) on outdoor running performance

      Twist, Craig; Graham, Oliver (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      This study examined the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) elicited by a bout of plyometrics on outdoor running performance. Seventeen males (mean ± SD: age 37 ± 8 years, height 180 ± 5.3 cm, body mass 75.4 ± 7.5 kg) were recruited from running and triathlon clubs within Cheshire. They were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 8) or control group (n = 9) with the study adopting a randomized, controlled, repeated measures design. Before and 48 hours after treatment the subjects underwent testing on EIMD markers (muscle thigh circumference, muscle function and muscle soreness) and ran a 5 km outdoor time-trial. During the time-trial speed, heart rate and RPE were measured at each kilometre along with blood lactate at the finish. On completion of the 5 km run the treatment group completed a bout of 10 x 10 drop jumps from a 35 cm bench to elicit EIMD. Multiple independent t-tests along with multiple two-way and three-way ANOVAs were used for analysis. Muscle soreness significantly increased within the treatment group after EIMD (p<0.05), however no significant change occurred in muscle circumference and force production (p>0.05). During the time-trial RPE, heart rate, average running speed and blood lactate did not significantly change in the treatment group (p>0.05). Although average running speed did not significantly change, a decrease was observed with a significantly slower time-trial completion times between the two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, EIMD significantly affects endurance performance among well-trained athletes through an altered perception of effort.
    • The effect of flavonid supplementation in alleviating the symptoms of eccentric exercise induced muscle damage in humans: a systematic review

      Hansson, Josefine (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Background: Eccentric exercise can cause damage to skeletal-muscle fibres, which can lead to loss of strength, swelling, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and increased blood levels of muscle damage markers. Antioxidant supplements containing flavonoids are used by many athletes and recreationally active individuals hoping to counteract the damage produced by eccentric exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence for flavonoid supplementation on the symptoms associated EEIMD. Methods: Four electronic database literature searches were conducted (PubMed, Sport Discus, Science Direct, and Wiley Online Library) to identify studies investigating the effect of flavonoid supplementation on symptoms associated with EEIMD. Randomised controlled trials that utilised supplementation of flavonoids on human subjects exhibiting EEIMD were included. The Jadad scale were used to assess the quality of the studies. Results: Six studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. All studies were randomised, whereas four were double blinded. One study demonstrated reduced muscle strength-loss and pain after supplementing with cherry, and one study found that blueberry supplementation enhanced muscle speed recovery. Black currant supplementation reduced circulating markers of muscle damage but had no effect on pain. Three studies were unable to demonstrate any significant effect of flavonoid supplementation (fruit/berry/vegetable supplement, quercetin, and grape) on recovery from eccentric exercise. Conclusion: For any particular flavonoid studied within an eccentric exercise context, few papers are available, and there is a variation with regard to the supplementation dose and regimen, the mode of exercise as well as outcome measures. However, in the majority of the well- designed, bias-controlled studies compared to placebo receiving subjects’ flavonoid supplementation were unable to influence symptoms associated with EEIMD.
    • The effect of glycomacropeptide-based foods upon blood phenylalanine control in adults and children with phenylketonuria

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Thomson, Roderick (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      Conventional treatment for phenylketonuria restricts dietary phenylalanine to ‘control’ plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Its widespread adoption has largely eradicated the severe neurocognitive defects that previously characterised phenylketonuria. However, interest in alternative treatments continues as deficits in intelligence and other health outcomes remain problematic, conventional treatment has limitations and adherence proves difficult. Glycomacropeptide-based foods (GMP) are a novel treatment that may improve the satiety and acceptability of dietary treatment and address suboptimal health outcomes. However, glycomacropeptide contains some phenylalanine, raising safety concerns regarding its effect on plasma phenylalanine in adults and particularly children who tolerate less phenylalanine. This narrative review attempted to resolve these concerns. Its findings suggest adults and children can maintain control on GMP but individualised titrations, adjusting the amount of GMP consumed whilst monitoring plasma phenylalanine, are necessary in children. Equivalent control is a supportive finding given GMPs many advantages but this must be viewed cautiously as only seven studies were located, predominantly employing bias-prone, heterogeneous designs. GMPs effect upon control thus requires clarification via a systematic review using evidence-based, transparent methods to synthesize the entire evidence base and consider the impact of design quality, bias and heterogeneity upon results.
    • The effect of increasing foot rigidity on maximal cycling power through the use of cycling specific orthotics

      Sharland-Wong, Luke (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance enhancing capabilities of cycling specific orthotics during maximal cycling and how they relate to subject specific foot morphology and function. Twelve recreational cyclists took part in the study: eight male (age, 38 ± 8 yr; height, 180.41 ± 3.55 cm; body mass, 80.90 ± 6.50 kg) and four female (age, 35.92 ± 20.82 yr; height, 176.57 ± 1.94 cm; body mass, 77.20 ± 2.05 kg). Navicular height measurements were taken in weight bearing and non-weight bearing conditions to describe foot mobility. Subjects performed 2 maximal sprints (4s) on an isokinetic cycling ergometer at a cadence of 120rpm separated by 4mins of recovery in either conventional insoles or CSOs. Once completed the insole type was changed and the sprint protocol was repeated. Crank and joint-specific powers were obtained from instrumented force cranks and inverse dynamics methods respectively. Results from the paired samples t-test show no significant difference on a group level. Single subject analyses using magnitude based inferences show subjects could be grouped based on response (positive=2, non-responders=4, negative=6). Post-hoc analysis of joint-specific powers revealed negative responders tended to demonstrate reduced ankle reduced ankle power and range of motion (F= 4.97; d.f. 1, 9, p= 0.05), (F= 7.52; d.f. 1, 9, p= 0.02). The results highlight the need for caution when considering orthotic interventions and confirms the importance of the dual role of the ankle plantar flexors in cycling.