• Understanding attitudes of ethnic minorities towards uptake of cardiac rehabilitation services: A qualitative systematic review

      Kennedy, Lynne; Yung, Jenny (University of Chester, 2014-08)
      The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) varies across different ethnicities. Epidemiological studies show that people from a South Asian background, including Indians, Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have a higher risk of CHD. It is important to understand the risk factors that explain this increased prevalence, both conventional and unconventional i.e. applicable to the general population and also specific to a certain ethnic group. Modifying these risk factors is a vital part of secondary prevention measures to reduce the possibility of developing further cardiac disease. Cardiac rehabilitation is the recommended programme for post-MI care and aims to influence positively the underlying causes of cardiovascular disease through exercise and education. It has been shown to improve both cardiac mortality and morbidity. Despite the clear benefits of this intervention, uptake to cardiac rehabilitation is particularly low in ethnic minority populations. If the reasons and influences behind this can be understood, then the way that rehabilitation services are delivered can be altered to provide culturally sensitive care and maximize uptake.
    • Understanding right from wrong: A quantitative study exploring accidental bullying in British school children.

      Boulton, Michael; Pritchard, Jessica (University of Chester, 2018)
      This study aimed to investigate a controversial new sub-type of bullying known as accidental bullying, which claims to explain why some children and young people can unknowingly bully others. This study did this by exploring possible causes including individual’s abilities to recognise bullying, and levels of kindness and moral disengagement. A total of 421 participants (females: n = 19, males: n = 180, undisclosed: n = 48) completed questionnaires within Primary and Secondary British schools. The data was subjected to several forms of analyses that included Pearson’s correlations, simple linear regression’s, a hierarchical multiple regression, and a series of two-way between subjects ANOVA’s. The findings identified that 84 % of the participants had previously accidentally bullied, and that primary school students were more likely to accidentally bully than secondary school students. In addition to this, an individual’s poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours was found as a significant negative predictor of accidental bullying. Furthermore, if individuals have low levels of kindness and high levels of moral disengagement, they are more likely to have a poor ability to recognise bullying behaviours. In conclusion, this study identified that it is possible that accidental bullying is taking place within British schools at a higher frequency than traditional bullying. Future studies may wish to further understand the complexities of accidental bullying to support educators to identify and address this often hidden form of bullying.
    • Understanding teenage perceptions towards breastfeeding: A study of college students using focus group and questionnaires

      Jones, Rebecca K. (University of Chester, 2006-08)
      BACKGROUND: There is extensive evidence showing that breastfeeding makes a major contribution to infant health and development. Breastfeeding has a vital contribution to make towards reducing health inequalities in the UK, with breastfeeding remaining more prevalent among older, more educated and socially advantaged women. Health promotion initiatives are driven by the Department of Health's goals of increasing breastfeeding initiation rates by 2% annually and reducing inequalities in health with particular focus on women from disadvantaged groups. However despite these efforts, breastfeeding rates in the UK remain the lowest in Europe. AIM: This study aims to understand the perceptions of teenagers towards breastfeeding in a Sure Start area where bottle-feeding is deeply entrenched. It investigates the students' attitudes and beliefs of breastfeeding but also their normative standards and values of breastfeeding. METHOD OF RESEARCH: The chosen method of research was using focus groups and self-completion questionnaires. Three focus groups were conducted to generate definite themes to which the questionnaires were designed. The selected sample consisted of 72 teenagers between the ages of 14-20 attending courses within the Health and Social Care and Business Departments within a Shropshire College of Further Education. FINDINGS: The majority of students, 62.5% believe that breastfeeding is a natural way to feed a baby though only 34% plan to breastfeed. The key themes identified to influence the students perceptions of breastfeeding were: intergenerational normative pressures; lack of knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding; witnessing breastfeeding; and bottle-feeding being perceived as having less adverse reactions such as embarrassment and exclusion. CONCLUSION: This study identified that health promotion initiatives should target breastfeeding education in schools and colleges, as evidence suggests knowledge is gained and valued positively by the pupils. The research also addressed the wider societal issue with breastfeeding; strategies should be in place to improve better facilities for breastfeeding in public so that breastfeeding is seen, supported and viewed as part of the normal process of life so family and societal influences do not undermine a women's decision to breastfeed.
    • Understanding the challenges of trauma theory application in caring for looked after children: An Interpretative Phenomenological Approach exploring foster carers’ experiences

      Buxton, Tina; Hutchinson, Dawn (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      Research on foster care placements caring for traumatised Looked After children has often been quantitative in nature. Additionally, those with quantitative elements often focus on the application of parenting models or perceptions of behavioural outcomes. Whilst such research provides valuable insight into the field of childhood trauma, it is important to explore the complexities of individuals’ lived experiences. This qualitative research study investigates and provides detailed analysis of the lived experiences of trauma-informed foster carers within the setting of a Local Authority Social Services fostering agency. The study aims to develop and convey an in-depth understanding of participants’ perspectives, and of the meanings which they attach to these. Semistructured interviews were conducted individually with five participants; exploring the challenges in applying trauma-theory in caring for Looked After children. Interview data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four superordinate themes, each comprising two subordinate emergent themes, were identified. Themes were then structured within a 4-stage model of the Fostering Self, representing the ongoing and cyclical process which the trauma-informed foster carers experienced; ‘fragmenting through the dual Self’, ‘the evolving Self’, ‘reconstruction of the Self’, and ‘evaluation of the Self’. Findings demonstrate how components of existing literature are experienced as processes which occur through the lived experience during a cyclical formation and evolution of Self. These findings may in turn illuminate existing literature. Implications for practice are identified, including how the model may be used to assist individuals, professional relationships, and the wider organisation. Four main areas for further research are identified: the lived experiences of trauma-informed foster carers during each separate domain of the model, what assists trauma-responsiveness during the individual domains, carers’ experiences of progression from one domain to another, and what affects the transition between domains. Conducting further research on these areas could further illuminate the processes which trauma-informed foster carers experience as a whole.
    • The unfolding heart: What is the nature of courage in the therapeutic domain from the dual perspective of counsellors' personal therapy and their clinical practice? A qualitative study evaluated by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Mintz, Rita; Hewitt, Susan E. (University of Chester, 2014-05)
      Whilst the nature of courage has long been debated, it is only more recently that the psychology of courage has received attention. Although it is acknowledged that therapeutic courage informs counselling and psychotherapy, it is an underresearched and little understood phenomenon. This research sought to investigate the nature of therapeutic courage in a qualitative phenomenological study from the dual perspective of counsellors' personal therapy and their clinical practice. Semistructured interviews were conducted with four counsellors and psychotherapists and the study was evaluated using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three master themes were established: 1) Courage as the nexus of therapy; 2) The synergy of courage in the therapeutic dynamic and 3) Protecting and enhancing the profession. Therapeutic courage was identified as a fundamental element informing all therapeutic endeavours and its nature was described as a mosaic of psychological, moral, creative and embodied courage for both client and therapist. Therapeutic courage was characterized as a conscious choice and action in the face of fear and as a catalyst to change, albeit with ambiguous qualities. The therapeutic process was shown to demand courage of client and therapist experienced intrapersonally and interpersonally within the therapeutic relationship, where the symbiosis of courage and safety was required for therapeutic growth. Therapist courage was shown to facilitate ethical practice and enable client courage. A range of client courage was identified through the client's tenacity in processing fear, choice, loss and reality. Multiple levels of therapeutic courage were shown to manifest in depth therapy, pivotal moments, client context, liminal thresholds and ethical practice. The findings emphasized the value of therapists' personal therapy in generating a cyclical relationship between experiencing therapeutic courage as a client and in developing an empathic, compassionate presence as a therapist. The findings also revealed potential gaps in contemporary counselling and psychotherapeutic training in relation to therapeutic courage, ethical decision-making and organizational context. The findings confer implications for clinical practice in understanding therapeutic courage through the micro-processes in therapy to the macro level of the professional at large. These findings support extant research, but also provide fresh interpretations and many opportunities for future research.
    • The uninvited guests: Britain’s military forces in Iceland, 1940-1942

      McLay, Keith A. J.; Deans, Philip W. (University of Chester, 2012-10-11)
      Throughout 10 May 1940-22 April 1942, British forces conducted a military occupation of Iceland. There were two initial reasons for this venture: firstly, in order to acquire air and naval bases to combat German forces situated along the Norwegian coast; and secondly, in order to prevent the island from coming under German control, thus guarding against encirclement. Whitehall certainly considered it an advantageous undertaking. However, as this dissertation shall show, such beliefs were swiftly escalated. During June 1940, after France’s capitulation, the retention and defence of Iceland became all the more important. It was essential, for example, that Britain could maintain at least one clear access route in and out the North Atlantic. Failure to do so would surely have lead to her starvation and/or military defeat. As a result, and along with other important reasons discussed herein, over 20,000 British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel, supported at various points by American and Canadian troops, were eventually stationed there. Unfortunately, there are very few publications on the British invasion and occupation of Iceland, notwithstanding a few specialist works. Those works that do exist, however, read more like chronological narratives, rather than analytical studies. Consequently, there exists some exciting opportunities for the historiography’s expansion, not just in size, but also in nature of content. This dissertation, entitled ‘The Uninvited Guests: Britain’s Military Forces in Iceland, 1940-1942’, contributes to that much needed expansion. This dissertation looks at the British occupation of Iceland over two periods: the invasion period, 10-19 May 1940, and the occupation period, 20 May 1940-22 April 1942. It assesses the effects and consequences of both the invasion and occupation, and tries to determine how far they preserved Icelandic freedoms and secured Allied interests in Northern Europe. Indeed, this dissertation shows that the invasion and initial occupation of Iceland was a complete military disaster, one that offered no benefit to either the Icelanders or Allies. If iii anything, it put the Icelanders at greater risk of harm from German retaliation. This dissertation also shows that Britain made good its early deficiencies by eventually bringing security and prosperity to Iceland, where before there had been none, and by positively utilising Iceland in the war against Germany. The conclusions of this dissertation are fascinating; they show that it is possible to cultivate rich reward from an operation that could have been destined for complete disaster.
    • Units of modular group algebras

      Gildea, Joe; Okoh, Hilary C. (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      Let RG denote the group ring of the group G over the ring R and U(RG) denote the unit group of RG. The objective of this thesis is to become familiar with the techniques used to establish U(RG) in a recently published article. We begin with an introduction to groups, rings and elds. Group rings are then discussed and in particular, the decomposition of RG. We conclude with the structure of U(F3kD6).
    • ‘Unpacking the Box’: A Novel Tool to Assess the Development of Working Memory in Children

      Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Iranzo, Lisa (University of Chester, 2016)
      Children’s performance on working memory tests improves with age, although the reasons for this development are not well understood. Furthermore, the concept of enjoyment of task has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine a novel tool, ‘Unpacking the Box’, which has been designed by the charity ‘Triangle’ to assess working memory in a friendly and enjoyable way. Children were tested using four measures; a digit span task, a Corsi block task, a listening span task and a task using the novel resource ‘Unpacking the Box’. A 3x2 between-subjects design was employed with primary children aged six, seven and eight years old. A 3x2 within subjects Anova revealed a significant main effect of age on performance of ‘Unpacking the Box’, with the greatest differences between six and seven year olds and six and eight year olds. Non-parametric analyses revealed high levels of enjoyment with the novel tool ‘Unpacking the Box’. The tool is currently used to work with victims who are giving evidence in court. This study demonstrated that the novel resource is a highly effective, practical, enjoyable and engaging method for assessing working memory in children. As such, there are many possibilities for the future development of ‘Unpacking the Box’ for use in educational and clinical settings.
    • Unravelling the “equivalence paradox”: An exploration of possible mechanistic explanations for the equivalence of the person-centred approach and cognitive behavioural therapy

      Parnell, Tony; Garman, Andrew J. (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      This project adopted a neuroscience perspective to explore the reason for the Equivalence Paradox, that is the finding that quite different therapeutic modalities are, as an approximation, equally effective. The project focussed on the equivalence of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and person-centred therapy (PCT). This project is believed to be the first time that a practitioner group with a balance of allegiances has drawn conclusions from the intersection of neuroscience and psychotherapy. A literature search uncovered a set of findings or views (neuroscience elements) with possible relevance to the problem. In a focus group (or workshop) format, a group of PCT and CBT therapists contributed their understanding of healing processes based on their practice experience. They were then asked to match these experiences to the set of neuroscience elements provided. The group found that there are important similarities in terms of the therapeutic relationship and the desired endpoint, namely a more integrated, more congruent brain; however there were also significant differences in terms of processes that correlate to what is actually “done” in therapy. In CBT, affect-modulating left cortex and executive processes lead, whereas in PCT there is an emphasis on left-right and cortical-limbic “dialogue” and integration. Overall, together with literature observations, the project concluded that for CBT and PCT different healing routes can are progressed, most likely with the client filling in between sessions the healing steps that are not specifically catalysed by the therapy. However “equivalence” may be just about symptom reduction; a CBT-healed brain may differ from a PCT-healed brain.
    • The use of modelling techniques in the definition of the UK electricity market

      Zlosnik, John; Varley, Peter (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003)
      The electricity market in Great Britain has been progressively de-regulated over the last fifteen years. Competition has increased at an exponential rate during this period as new companies have begun operating in the market, which is now arguably the most sophisticated and successful competitive utility market in the world. This success has been achieved only with a degree of complexity. There are now more than a hundred “organisations” that must inter operate, where prior to competition there were only about twenty, operating independently. An organisation in this sense is an identifiable business unit carrying out one of more than a dozen defined roles. Within this complex structure individual organisations need to know their responsibilities and the processes for carrying out market transactions must be defined. (e.g. a customer wishing to change supplier) This requirement has been met by the production of an “industry model” which comprises a series of diagrams, formal definitions and English prose. These are delivered using a combination of a proprietary business modelling tool, a database and textual documents. In this paper the model is explored and an attempt made to classify its components by relating them to the Zachman framework. From this the model’s strengths and weaknesses are postulated. These are then tested by means of a survey of the intended users of the model. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the use of modelling techniques for the definition of a utility industry infrastructure, and recommendations for further research are made.
    • Using an intranet to deliver multimedia training material in colleges

      Furnival, Cameron (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2000-11)
      The development of web-based training is now well established and is leading away from the notion of software being released solely on a CD-Rom; instead, it is made available additionally via Internet portals. The significance of this is that colleges with Intranets capable of delivering multimedia via an Intranet are well placed to take advantage of the growing market place for such training. The basis for this research stems from the desire for increasingly faster and more efficient use of multimedia, which is delivered via an Intranet as opposed to the utilisation of CD-Rom technology. The implication is that software/ multimedia authors will develop more efficient systems that take best advantage of existing web-based technologies. The trends evident from the small survey reported, show a general acceptance of the Intranet as a medium for the delivery of teaching and learning materials in addition to the established use of CD-Rom multimedia software. The inference is that the Intranet will not replace CD-Roms; rather, it will be used to complement it. The education and training sector has become a major industry within the multimedia arena. Direction is sought to define the future trends in the development of multimedia training packages and styles from within this sector. The technology opens up new opportunities for learning and is an enabling factor in the restructuring of educational philosophies worldwide. However, the education and training sector has not allowed multimedia to cause a change in direction, rather, it is using it and other Information Technologies to engender and facilitate this required change. It is commonplace to find complex computing equipment in all areas of education and the uptake of multimedia, as a learning resource is widespread. This research seeks to investigate the means of delivering multimedia in an educational context comparing the efficiencies and deficiencies of established techniques for the deployment of educational multimedia.
    • Validating the MyFitnessPal mobile application in assessing dietary intake against the 7-day food diary: a randomised cross-over pilot study

      Al-Hassan, Soondus M. (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Background: Collecting accurate dietary records that represents habitual intake is essential for investigating future individual risk of chronic diseases in clinical and epidemiological research. Due to the many limitations in conventional methods presented in existing reviews, the search for more accurate methods that can reduce respondent burden and costs has been encouraged. The use of smartphone technology to develop more reliable measures of dietary intake has been on the rise in response to increasing popularity of smartphones in the population. MyFitnessPal is a highly rated dietary application designed for weight loss and diet-tracking and is available commercially for free on iTunes and Google app stores. Aim: The present study aimed to validate MyFitnessPal to facilitate dietary assessment against a reference measure of 7-day estimated food diaries. Methods: A sample of 16 volunteers were randomly allocated to record their dietary intake using either the MyFitnessPal application or the 7-day estimated food diary before crossing-over to the alternative dietary assessment method for 7 consecutive days each. Mean daily intakes of nutrients recorded on both methods were compared using paired t-tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess for agreement between the two methods. The Goldberg and Black approach was used to identify implausible energy reporters by directly comparing energy intakes with energy expenditure. Results: Paired-t tests demonstrated no statistically significant difference between mean intakes of nutrients reported between the 7-day food diary and MyFitnessPal, 42 | P a g e except for water (p=0.004). However, all dietary variables were lower with the MFP method compared to the 7FD method. An analysis of the Bland-Altman plots presented agreement between the methods with small mean differences and minimal proportional bias. However, they showed wide limits of agreement signifying high levels of variability at the individual level. 75% of the sample were under-reporters with EIMFP:EE ratios and EI7FD:EE ratios below the 95% confidence limits. This study presented mean differences between EE and EI of -3.24 ± 2.20MJ for the 7FD and -3.75 ± 3.16MJ for the MFP app. Therefore, relative to EE, EI reported by the MFP was as accurate as the 7FD. Conclusion: At the group level, the MyFitnessPal app demonstrates potential but further investigation with a larger sample in addition to qualitative research of its acceptability is required to assess its feasibility as a dietary assessment method.
    • Validity and reliability of a modified version of the Chester Treadmill Walking Test (Police) as an alternative to the 15-Metre Multi-Stage Police Fitness Test

      Birks, Andrew (University of Chester, 2015-10)
      Police forces in England and Wales require new recruits and serving officers to pass an annual fitness test, reaching level 5:4 on the 15-metre MSFT, a predicted VO2max of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1. This current standard is based on linear regression analysis from directly measured V O2max during a treadmill protocol and number of shuttles achieved during the 15-metre MSFT. The oxygen cost at level 5:4 has not been attained during the 15-metre MSFT, and the reliability of this test has not be investigated, therefore, the present study aims to investigate whether level 5:4 requires an O2 cost of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1, and whether this is a repeatable measure. Due to police officers unable to complete the 15-metre MSFT due to musculoskeletal impairments, the CTWT, used within the fire service, has been proposed as an alternative occupational fitness test. A modified version of the CTWT (Police) requires a constant treadmill speed of 6 km·h−1 with 3% increments in treadmill gradient every 2 minutes up until 10 minutes (12% gradient), when predicted V O2 of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1 will have been achieved. The validity and reliability of this test has not been examined using direct measurement of V O2, therefore, prior to potential inclusion as an alternative fitness test, the validity and reliability of the test require investigation to determine whether 10 minutes is a valid and reliable measure of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1, demonstrating that successful completion requires a VO2max of at least 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1.
    • The validity of predicting O2max from perceptually regulated treadmill exercise

      Morris, Mike; Hayton, John (University of Chester, 2008-06)
      Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting O2max from sub-maximal O2 values elicited during perceptually-regulated treadmill exercise tests. Methods: Eleven males and seven females with a mean age of 21.7 (±2.8) years completed three identical sub-maximal, perceptually-guided graded exercise tests (PGXTs) on a motorised treadmill and a final maximal graded exercise test (GXT) to establish O2max. Participants performed testing over a ten day period, allowing for two days rest between tests. When performing the PGXTs participants were required to produce intensities corresponding to levels 9, 11, 13 and 15 on Borg’s 6-20 ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale, in that order. Each RPE production level was performed for three minutes, measurements of O2 and heart rate were measured continuously and recorded in the final 30 seconds of each level. The Bruce protocol was selected for the maximal GXT ( O2maxGXT). Individual linear regression relationships between RPE and O2 for the RPE ranges of 9-15, 9-13 and 9-11 were extrapolated to both RPE19 and RPE20. Results: For the RPE range 9-15 prediction accuracy improved with practice across consecutive trials reporting 50.0±10.1, 49.1±8.1, and 47.3±6.9 ml•kg-1•min-1 for trials 1, 2 and 3 respectively, as the actual mean O2max reported was 48.0±6.2. The third and final trial produced the best LoA between predicted and actual O2max of -0.6±7.1 ml•kg-1•min-1, therefore achieving a worst case scenario range of 6.5 ml•kg-1•min-1 below the criterion O2max score and 7.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 above. Consistency soundly improved between trials reporting LoA of 0.90±12.3 between trial 1 and 2, and 1.72±8.50 between 2 and 3. However, the RPE ranges 9-11 and 9-13 decreased in accuracy and consistency from consecutive trials and thus reported considerably less favourable LoA analyses. The closest predictions to actual O2max when using the 9-13 and 9-11 range were generated from the first trial, providing poor worst case scenario ranges of 18.6 – 18.9 ml•kg-1•min-1 and 16.9 – 32.2 ml•kg-1•min-1, respectively. Conclusions: The data suggest that a sub-maximal, perceptually-guided, graded treadmill exercise protocol can provide acceptable estimates of O2max when employing a perceptual range including at least a high order RPE of 15. Estimates are further improved with practice in young, healthy individuals. The poor predictive performance when using the RPE ranges 9-11 and 9-13 were attributed to less apparent sensations of exertion.
    • Value proposition analysis for solid state lighting: A case study of Ahmedali Ahmed Electrical Contracting; Marketing the product in the Kingdom of Bahrain

      Black, Kate; Vinsend, Justin (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      The proposition given to a product or service in terms of its worth given by a customer is researched and analysed to find the underlying factors contributing to the value. The study is undertaken to investigate the different factors that lays ground for increased ‘Customer value’ and ‘Product Value’. The research objective is to find the “Value Proposition Analysis for Solid State Lighting: a Case Study AhmedAli Ahmed Electrical Contracting; Marketing the product in the Kingdom of Bahrain” Most businesses generate profits, when the customers give a certain value(s) to the service/product provided by the business entity. This could involve many attributes to consider. The project overlooks in to this value significantly to understand the attributes that collectively contributes to ‘Valued Relation’ between the customer and the business. This is achieved by making effective use of literature suggested by various authors and by employing research strategies to validate the literature through the findings. The research also looks in to the case study organisation to fully understand the capabilities of the company to market the product. Thus, this analysis will be specifically looking in to the value proposition given to Solid State Lighting by the current UK customers and by clients of AhamedAli Ahmed Electrical Contracting, Kingdom of Bahrain. However, this analysis must viewed critically, as the product comes at a premium price and the study will be much centred in the Kingdom of Bahrain and cannot be generalised for the other GCC countries or the Middle East. This study is focused to generate strategies in marketing Solid State Lighting in Bahrain taking A.A.E as the Case Study Organisation understanding the Value Proposition for Solid State Lighting.
    • Viral marketing in the music industry: How independent musicians utilise online peer-to-peer communications

      Marmion, Maeve; George, Sam (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      The aim of this research was to critically examine the use of viral marketing within the music industry. Specifically, how peer to peer communications can be utilised to gain a higher following. This was achieved by researching the uses of peer-to-peer communications through social media, the role of branding in the music industry and how specific audiences can be targeted through online platforms. Although there has been substantial research into the use of online peer-to-peer communications throughout various industries, there has been limited academic insight into how viral marketing is utilised within the music industry. However, with the use of online peer-to-peer communications becoming increasingly prevalent, it is a critical area for academics to consider. Due to this gap in literature, this research may be regarded as innovative. To ensure that the full context surrounding the research question was considered, the study was approached from an interpretivist stance and qualitative methods were used. By conducting semi-structured interviews, the researcher was able to collect deep and insightful data based on the narrative of each participant. Although there were key differences throughout the data, there were several themes that were consistent throughout. As social networks are a lucrative platform from utilising a viral marketing strategy, several participants suggested that it is essential for musicians to use a variety of them. The results showed that throughout the music industry it is crucial to develop a strong brand image and remain consistent within this. The research also suggested that consumers who are engaged with a brand are more likely to engage in peer-to-peer communications. As the most likely demographic to engage in peer-to-peer communications, this research suggested that millennials would be the most beneficial group to target a viral marketing strategy towards. As the sample contained participants from various roles within the music industry, each of whom had different motivations, performed separate styles of music and were at various stages of their career, it could be argued that this research contained too many variables and therefore, lacked depth. However, the aim of this research was to analyse the similarities and differences between a variety of roles within the music industry, therefore, collecting a multitude of data was the intention of the researcher. During the time of conducting, this research could have been considered innovative, due to not only the gap in literature, but also because of the relevance of the current uses of technology. However, due to the constant evolutions in modern technology, what may have been considered current at the time of research, may not be as relevant in future years. Therefore, similar research may need to be considered in future years.
    • Vitamin and micronutrient supplement advice given to post-bariatric surgery patients by UK dietitians

      Fallows, Stephen; Towers, Catherine (University of Chester, 2009)
      This study was to determine the vitamin and micro-nutrient supplementation recommendations made by UK registered dietitians to patients following bariatric surgery. There is a well recognised risk of nutritional deficit following bariatric surgery. Twenty one members (10.5%) of “Dietitians in Obesity Management UK” responded to an anonymous on-line survey about their bariatric activity and nutritional recommendations to patients following “food limiting” and “nutrient absorption limiting” surgery. Nine respondents had each consulted with over 100 patients last year, with 85% of dietitians’ caseloads being within the NHS. Compared against the 2007 Inter-disciplinary European Guidelines on Surgery of Severe Obesity, 90% of dietitians were meeting the recommended nutritional supplement guidelines for food limiting procedures. Only one respondent (5%) was meeting the supplementation guidelines for nutrient absorption limiting procedures. Two dietitians were recommending additional vitamin or micro-nutrients to their patients’ general vitamin and micro-nutrient supplement following food limiting procedures. Four out of twenty dietitians, with smaller caseloads, were only recommending a general vitamin and micro-nutrient supplement to patients following nutrient absorption limiting procedures. The range of nutritional composition of products named by the dietitians was substantial, with iron, vitamin B12, calcium and vitamin D levels below those known to prevent common nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Only five respondents (25%) stated that the results of laboratory tests influenced their recommendations. Increasing the awareness of the nutritional needs to this group of patients to all healthcare practitioners and exploration of the use of bariatric surgery specific nutritional supplements may reduce to risk of patients’ nutritional deficit.
    • Vitamin D status and shift work

      Davies, Luke (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      In the UK, there has long been a need for consuming foods high in vitamin D in order to prevent diseases associated with low bone mineral density such as osteoporosis in adults and rickets in children. It has been claimed that potentially, 50% of the UK adult population are vitamin D insufficient in winter and spring time, actual deficiency may be 16%. Those workers who commence their working hours in the evening may be deprived of vitamin D synthesising UVB. Moreover, the physical maladaption to altered circadian rhythms experienced by many shift and, particularly, night workers has been identified as a leading cause of change to dietary intake. The previous literature has documented associations between nocturnal working schedules and adverse health effects. The influence of working place shift schedules i.e. night and day shifts, on vitamin D status has not been researched extensively.
    • W. E. Gladstone: A love for trees and tree-felling

      Sewter, Peter (University of Chester, 2007)
      It is the aim of this dissertation to focus on William Gladstone's love of trees, his plantings and tree-felling, and with a section reflecting public interest in his hobby and its use by the press and others to make a political point.
    • Weaning: Risk factors for the development of overweight and obesity in childhood - a systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Kendall, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2011-09-08)
      Weaning practices including the age of the infant at time of weaning, nutritional composition of the weaning diet and rapid weight gain have been suggested to be risk factors for overweight and obesity in childhood. The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between weaning practices and overweight and obesity in childhood (from birth to 18yrs) and to identify the risk factors associated with weaning for overweight and obesity in childhood (birth to 18yrs). This was achieved through a systematic review of relevant literature, identified using a number of databases such as CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and through searching individual journals. Inclusion criteria consisted of children’s age 0-18yrs, details on stage of and weaning diet, studies published in English from 2000-2010 and human studies. The quality of the methodology of studies was assessed using the Downs & Black (1998) quality assessment tool. Thirteen studies out of an original 67 were included in the review. Study sizes varied from 90 to 10,553 subjects and quality assessment scores ranged from 14 to 23. All of the studies which considered the relationship between age at introduction of complementary foods and weight gain found those infants weaned before 16 weeks (wks) gained more weight than those weaned later; these findings were more significant in those infants who were not breastfed or breastfed for less than 4wks. One study (from 5) found a significant relationship between the age at introduction of complementary foods and overweight and obesity. Four studies (from 5) reported a significant relationship between nutritional composition of the weaning diet during the first year of life and overweight; the most significant effect being that of protein as a percentage of energy intake. The evidence for the impact of early weaning on adiposity levels, overweight and/ or obesity remains is inconsistent. Findings suggest that there is no relationship between adiposity and BMI in childhood with early weaning practices. However, the introduction of complementary foods before 16wks was shown to lead to greater weight gain in early childhood (independent of other confounding factors), especially in those infants who are fed formula food or is only breastfed for less than 4wks, which in turn could lead to overweight and obesity in later childhood. High protein intake (as percentage of energy) is strongly suggested to influence weight gain during infancy and BMI in early childhood.