• Reading between the blurred lines: A discussion into the representation of rape and rape culture in contemporary fiction

      Rees, Emma L. E.; Davies, Alice L. (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      In this dissertation, the focus will be on the representation of rape and rape culture within contemporary fiction; the aim of this is to discover how prevalent rape and rape culture is within this particular area. The thesis is split into three chapters, the first of which discusses the depictions of male rape and gender shifts in contemporary fiction, focusing on Lisbeth Salander as a rapist in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. The second chapter follows on from this, discussing the portrayal of victims of rape within contemporary fiction; and the last chapter debates whether or not a perpetuating rape culture means that women cannot be as sexually experimental as they wish to be. The aim of the dissertation is to focus on how authors depict rape, and whether or not this depiction is perpetuating rape culture, or simply addressing the issue within fiction. The introduction is a larger part of the dissertation, setting up exactly what rape and rape culture is, and how rape myths prevail in modern western society. There are certain areas that the dissertation has not addressed, such as race, because they are such complex issues that merely by giving them a single chapter within the dissertation would not be enough. The dissertation’s main purpose, and main area of focus, is to illustrate the perpetuating rape culture in western societies through gender inequality.
    • A realistic evaluation of an NHS community weight management programme

      Ellahi, Basma; Hogg, Samantha (University of ChesterNHS Ashton, Leigh and Wigan, 2010-11)
      The “Lose Weight, Feel Great” (LWFG) pathway was commissioned by NHS Ashton, Leigh & Wigan with the aim to reduce the rising tide of obesity within the Wigan Borough (Hogg et al. 2010). The Community Weight Management Programme (CWMP) is one of the services offered and involves dietary advice, physical activity sessions and methods for behavioural change. Approximately 35% of service users are successful at losing 5% or more of their initial body weight; however other service users are not as successful. The aim of this dissertation was to understand the context and mechanisms which may facilitate or impede success. Method: Following a framework of Realistic Evaluation (Pawson & Tilley, 1997), 25 semi-structured telephone interviews where undertaken with people who had previously accessed CWMP. The interviews where transcribed verbatim and then analysed using Thematic Analysis to identify common themes (Howitt & Cramer, 2007). Findings: Seven Themes emerged from the interviews. Four themes related to mechanisms of CWMP, two themes related to contexts surrounding CWMP and one theme related to outcomes from CWMP. Mechanisms involved: group sessions; Slimming World consultant & Wigan Leisure Culture Trust activity officers; physical activity sessions; the Slimming World Eating Plans. Contexts involved: the Healthy Foundations Segmentation Model; motivation & Readiness to Change. Outcome: Change in Lifestyle. Conclusion: Changes could be made to CWMP, such as increasing the number of free sessions, offer other LWFG services if CWMP does not appear to be appropriate, and provide more extensive information during the induction sessions. However, it is also important to take into account people’s motivation to change, the segment that they may fit into and that changes to lifestyle are not just limited to the service users, but also family members. Changes to the programme will improve success rate and ensure that resources are used effectively.
    • Recovery is a constant battle: Online exploration of sufferers' perspectives on anorexia and bulimia

      Sorfova, E. (University of Chester, 2016)
      Research into the problem of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) has previously focused predominantly on perspectives of these eating disorders from an external point of view. The subjective experiences of AN or BN sufferers, however, have not been sufficiently explored. Experiences, shared online, provide a rich source of data to provide a comprehensive understanding of eating disorders and their treatment. This study provides an insight into how individuals with AN/BN make sense of their eating disorder in the online world. Data were collected retrospectively from three online pro-recovery forums. Thematic Analysis revealed three inter-related themes: Paradox of control, Challenges, and Ambivalence, all of which describe the lives of individuals with eating disorder (ED), and demonstrate how they made sense of their eating disorder. Moreover, this study further shows differences between individuals with AN and BN that occurred within the key themes. Implications of the findings for clinical practice are discussed.
    • The relationship between compulsive overeating behaviour and self-harm: An analysis of YouTube videos

      Heath, Hannah; Wyatt, Claire (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      Self-harm behaviour and the relatively unrecognised behaviour of compulsive overeating are secretive and isolating in nature. Compulsive overeating behaviour is under-researched and frequently misaligned with Binge Eating Disorder due to a lack of understanding and knowledge. Research investigating self-harm behaviour exists, although qualitative research is limited. This study looked to address the research question, ‘How do those who have compulsive overeating behaviour differ from those who self-harm?’ The design of the study was a qualitative Thematic Analysis based on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six stages of analysis. Twenty participants’ describing their personal experience of compulsive overeating and self-harm behaviour, through the platform of YouTube, were analysed, revealing 18 main themes. The findings illustrate similarity in the psychological, emotional and behavioural processes of self-harm and compulsive overeating behaviour, although several differences were identified relating to the research question. Key differences identified were the age of onset of behaviour, with existing research and the results of this study showing the prevalent onset of self-harm behaviour in adolescence whereas the results suggest compulsive overeating emerges at a much younger age. Differences were also highlighted in the participants experience and response to life events, their need to belong, in the formation of self-esteem and in the recovery process. Future research furthering intrapersonal and interpersonal understanding of compulsive overeating behaviour as a disorder may inform the design of better prevention and treatment, in addition to exploring the concept of compulsive overeating behaviour as a method of self-harm. Further qualitative research exploring the self-harm recovery process is recommended, to further develop preventative measures and treatment.
    • The relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and declarative nutrition knowledge of residents in Blacon aged 17-45 years

      Woodall, Alison; Morris, Mike; Gleave, Mark (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      Despite the reported health benefits of consuming fruit and vegetables on a daily basis, many residents of areas of deprivation, such as Blacon, still do not appear to be meeting the ‘5 a day’ recommendations. This study assessed the correlation between declarative nutrition knowledge (the awareness of processes, events and constituents of food substances) and fruit and vegetable intake in a LLSOA (low-level super output area) in the North West of England. The aim was to understand the relevance of providing factual advice and recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Method: 42 participants (16 males and 26 females) took part in this cross sectional, correlational study. All participants completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (adapted from Parmenter and Wardle, 1999) and a dietary instrument for nutrition education (DINE) (Roe et al, 1994). During analysis, the participants were categorised in to age and gender groups. Average scores for fruit and vegetable consumption and declarative nutrition knowledge were compared. Nutrition knowledge was used as the independent variable against fruit and vegetable consumption in order to observe a correlation between the two. Spearmans Rank Correlation Coefficient showed that a statistically significant positive correlation was apparent between combined daily fruit and vegetable intake and total declarative nutrition knowledge (rs = 0.33, p = 0.033). Although numerous correlations were observed, none appeared stronger than combined daily fruit and vegetable intake and expert advice (rs = 0.368, p = 0.016). Females scored significantly better than males in expert advice (U = 124, p = 0.020) and daily fruit intake (U = 129.5, p = 0.035). The eldest age group (35-44 years) performed significantly better than the middle age group (25-34 years) for answers on health and disease (F(2,39) = 5.588, p = 0.007). The significant findings from this study indicate that, while food intake is a complex issue involving a wide range of factors, declarative nutrition knowledge could be used to predict a small percentage of variance of fruit and vegetable intake in Blacon. This is significant for health authorities, governments and local communities, as efforts should continue to convey health messages and provide advice to the people who consume the least amount of fruit and vegetables in the least affluent areas.
    • The Relationship Between Nutrition Behaviour and Physical Activity Levels on Body Mass Index in Students of the United Kingdom

      Fallows, Stephen; Oguz, Fadime M. (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      Objective: Adoption of an inactive lifestyle and inappropriate eating behaviour increases the risk of developing chronic illness in adulthood. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the body mass index (BMI), a critical factor in determining obesity, of the students of the University of Chester in the United Kingdom with their nutrition behaviour/habits and physical activity levels. Methods: Volunteers and randomly selected 377 students who are studying at the University of Chester were included in the study. Nutrition behaviour/habits, anthropometric measurements and physical activity levels of the participants were determined by a questionnaire. Results: This study included 150 males (39.8%) and 227 females (60.2%) with a mean age of 22.3 ± 4.2 years. There was no significant relationship (p=.856) between the score of positive attention to diet (33.58 ± 5.92) and BMI levels (24.19 ± 4.59 kg/m2) of the students. There was no significant relationship (p=.548) between weekly physical activity levels (3385.62 ± 3046.23 MET.min/wk) and BMI levels (24.19 ± 4.59 kg/m2) of the students. There was a significant relationship (p=.003) a very low positive correlation (r= .155) between the score of positive attention to diet (33.58 ± 5.92) and weekly physical activity levels (3385.62 ± 3046.23 MET.min/wk) of the students. Conclusion: It has been found that physical activity level correlates positively with positive attention to diet. However; positive attention to diet and physical activity levels may not solely effective factors on the body mass index. There might be some other factors affecting body mass index. More research is needed to assess the relationship between BMI and other factors which contribute to obesity.
    • The relationship between pretend play skills and language development in children aged three to five

      Kirkham, Julie; Nowell, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2018)
      Pretend play is a crucial component within child development, especially with regards to language. Pretend play and language both share commonalities which involve symbolic abilities (Lewis, Boucher, Lupton, & Watson, 2000). This study examined the influence that cognitive and affective aspects of pretend play and symbolic play has on expressive and receptive language development and whether these pretend play domains uniquely predict language development. This study also assessed whether age and sex effects pretend play and language development. A convenience sample of 50 children age three to five years old was used to collect the data. The Preschool Language Scale (Zimmerman, Steiner & Pond, 1997) was used to assess Auditory and Expressive Communication, the Affect in Play Scale – Brief Rating Version (Cordiano, Russ & Short, 2008) was used to measure cognitive and affective pretend play, and the Pretend Actions Task was used to measure symbolic play (Overton & Jackson, 1973). The results suggest that cognitive and affective pretend play and symbolic play did not uniquely predict expressive and receptive language. Only symbolic play was found to be a positive significant unique predictor of expressive language. There was also a significant effect of age on all three pretend play scores and expressive and receptive language, with five year olds scoring higher than four year olds and four year olds scoring higher than three year olds. There was no effect of gender on the play tasks. However, boys scored significantly higher on the receptive language test than girls. These findings demonstrate that pretend play is an important component for language development; however it may not be the only predictor. The results suggest that more research needs to be done in order to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between cognitive and affective pretend play and expressive and receptive language.
    • The relationship between Samuel Wilberforce and William Ewart Gladstone, 1835-73, with special reference to contemporary religious issues

      Swift, Roger; Whitehouse, Graham (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2010-12)
      This thesis examines the private and public relationship between Samuel Wilberforce and William Ewart Gladstone, who became great friends between 1835 and 1873. Wilberforce (1805-1873), who became Bishop of Oxford in 1845, was an outstanding preacher and diocesan, an effective speaker in parliament, and the best known Anglican clergyman of his time. Gladstone (1809-1898), who became Liberal prime minister on four occasions, was the most fervently religious prime minister of the Victorian period. The thesis is divided into two parts. Part One examines the nature and development of the private friendship between Wilberforce and Gladstone. Chapter One describes their early lives and the start of their friendship in the mid-1830s. The two men had much in common; they both came from devoutly Evangelical backgrounds, yet both became High Churchmen; both their fathers were Tory Members of Parliament, and both went to Oxford University. Chapter Two examines the consolidation of their friendship from the 1840s until Wilberforce's death in 1873. It shows their mutual respect and admiration, and enjoyment of one another's company. Their friendship reflected sympathetic and empathic responses to various family crises, including the defection of some of Wilberforce's relatives to Roman Catholicism, and the deaths of close friends and relatives. Wilberforce's ambitions for promotion were thwarted, but Gladstone was able to appoint him to the venerable bishopric of Winchester in 1869. Gladstone was clearly distraught by Wilberforce's sudden death in 1873 and fulsomely eulogised his friend. Part Two examines the public relationship between Wilberforce and Gladstone, with particular reference to contemporary religious issues in which they shared a mutual interest. Chapter Three examines the response of Wilberforce and Gladstone to problems faced by the Church of England during the mid-Victorian period, including the divisions between Evangelicals and High Churchmen, Tractarianism, Ritualism, the Broad Church and various other doctrinal disputes. On these and other issues the two friends frequently acted in tandem. Wilberforce and Gladstone both argued with the protagonists of Darwinism in the debate on Evolutional Theory, which challenged Christian belief. Chapter Four examines the views of Gladstone and Wilberforce on the difficult relationship between Church and State during the mid-Victorian period, and explores, by reference to the Hampden controversy, the Gorham Judgement, the re-establishment of Convocation and Papal Aggression, the extent to which they were mutually supportive. Finally, Chapter Five considers the parliamentary roles of Wilberforce and Gladstone regarding ecclesiastical legislation, where they frequently co-operated in the promotion of, and support for measures including the development of an independent Colonial Church and regulation of the Anglican clergy. Whilst Gladstone's aim to disestablish the Church of Ireland was initially opposed by Wilberforce, he came to accept it as a decision of the electorate and was instrumental in persuading the English and Irish bishops not to oppose the legislation promoting disestablishment in 1869. The parliamentary co-operation between Wilberforce and Gladstone also extended to some social legislation, including the question of divorce and the extension of elementary educational provision in 1870. In summary, this original thesis offers the first detailed examination of the relationship between Samuel Wilberforce and William Gladstone - a relationship hitherto largely ignored by historians - and argues that theirs was a true and enduring friendship which equated with Aristotle's criteria forphilia, despite differences in their personalities and occasional differences of opinion, and which also extended to mutual co-operation and support in their public lives.
    • Relationship between skinfold and optical density at upper and lower body measurement sites

      Sykes, Kevin; Lamb, Kevin L.; McLachlan, Alistair C. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1994-07)
      This study examined the relationship between Skinfold (SKF) and Optical Density (OD) at upper and lower body sites in 20 active (>30 mins per day) male subjects (19-34 years). The use of lower body measurement sites in regression equations developed to predict %BF was also investigated. Percent Body Fat (%BF) was calculated by Hydrostatic Weighing (HW), SKF and Near Infrared Interactance (NIR) using the Futrex 5000. SKF and OD measurements were taken at ten anatomical sites. Estimations of %BF by SKF and NIR were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from %BF by HW. OD1 and OD2 values generated from NIR and SKF thicknesses at each site were found to be poorly correlated in this population. Regression equations developed from SKF and OD data found that upper body sites were generally the best predictors of %BF (r2=.63, SEE +/- 2.15%). A combination of upper and lower body SKF and OD sites showed good predictive accuracy for Fat mass (r2=.96, SEE +/- .97Kg) and Fat Free Mass (r2=.98, SEE +/- .87Kg). In the population studied upper body measurement sites were generally the better predictors of %BF.
    • The relationship between the living and the dead - Contemporary interaction and deposition at mortuary sites as Intangible Cultural Heritage? How this illustrates collective memories and identities in North Wales

      Williams, Howard; Capper, Morn; Bound, Scott L. (University of Chester, 2018-10-10)
      The way in which the living interact with the past in the contemporary is ever-changing. New mortuary practices and forms of commemoration are formed by different groups and cultures, expressing the way in which they perceive death and so life. This interaction can be studied through the contemporary depositions and archaeological evidence left at sites, however, this has seen little coverage heritage and mortuary studies. Given the recent acknowledgement of intangible cultural heritage as an existing element of society within British heritage management these practices that exemplify interaction with ancestral, national or collective memories and identities could be protected or promoted by governing bodies. This thesis therefore aims to highlight such contemporary practices by giving close study to the three mortuary sites that experience this in North Wales, and the forms of intangible heritage that become evident from this. Bryn Celli Ddu passage tomb in Anglesey; Gelert's Grave fictitious dog grave in Snowdonia; and St Winefride's Well site of pilgrimage in Holywell all illustrate these practices, illustrating differing cultural group's formation of memory and identity in the process. By utilising the work on heritage established by Smith on authorised heritage discourses and outstanding universal value, and Houlbrook and Wallis' research on contemporary depositions this thesis expands on the already established, yet young, discourses, providing new information on a particular context within the United Kingdom. This thesis successfully highlights this, illustrates their importance as contemporary expressions and forms of heritage, and briefly sees the function of these within British governance.
    • The relationship between workplace stress and physical activity: A correlational study

      Fallows, Stephen; Grant, Loren C. (University of Chester, 2010-09)
      Objectives: This study examined associations between levels of physical activity (PA) in both leisure and work time and stress in a specific population of NHS managerial and administrative staff (n=174). Methods: Data was gathered via a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) on physical activity (PA), perceived stress levels at work and in personal life, health status, age, gender, job band, commuting distance and methods of transport, caring status and a range of perceived barriers to PA. The sample was stratified into low, moderate or high categories of activity using the IPAQ scoring protocol to calculate MET-mins/wk. Stress levels were coded 1(low) to 6 (high) from a Likert-scale type question. Results: Overall, there was a significant difference in stress levels between low activity and moderate and high activity groups. As levels of PA increased, levels of stress tended to decrease. The mean difference in stress scores between the low-activity and moderate activity groups was 1.14 (SE: 0.45) (p = 0.01) and the mean difference in stress scores between low-activity and high activity groups was 1.68 (SE: 0.48) (p = 0.00). However, there was no significant difference between the moderate- and high-activity groups although the high activity group had the lowest mean of stress (2.8). When results were separated for age groups, gender and income levels, some of these effects, especially for job bands (as a proxy for income levels) and health, could be confirmed. There were significant differences between some age groups in levels of PA, showing that older age groups are more active; and significant differences in PA amongst people in different job bands, with people on the highest job bands achieving the highest levels of PA and reporting the lowest levels of stress. ii Conclusions: Individuals reporting low levels of physical activity report higher levels of stress, with a trend showing that as PA levels increase, stress levels decrease. However, as this is a cross-sectional study, the direction of the effect could not be confirmed. Further investigation into some of the barriers to PA amongst similar sedentary working populations may be of value for workplace health interventions.
    • Relationship Patterns between Self-esteem, Self-respect and Cognitive Effort as Measured by Story Recall and the Eye Tracker

      Clucas, Claudine; Kelecsenyi, Hedvig (University of Chester, 2018)
      High levels of self-esteem has been associated with success for decades, while at the same time its utility to predict achievement-related behaviours has been questioned. This controversy brought self-respect (an independent, theoretically grounded construct) defined as a person’s positive, affective self-regard for being a moral, principled, and honourable person, to the forefront of empirical research. Accordingly, the current study intended to examine the relationship between self-report measures of self-respect, self-esteem and cognitive effort as measured by story recall and eye tracker measures of eye fixation with pupil dilation while reading a morally neutral and a morally charged story. A total of 40 participants, comprising of 11 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 34, from a convenience sample completed the study. A stronger positive relationship was expected between self-respect and measures of cognitive effort than between self-esteem and the same measures. Also, there was an anticipation of a stronger interaction between self-respect and the type of story tested, because higher self-respect might have implications for the processing of moral information. Four repeated measures of ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant negative relationship between self-respect and cognitive effort. They also revealed a strong trend towards a negative relationship between self-esteem and cognitive effort. The results quite interestingly are contrary to the declared hypotheses of the study with regards to the direction of the relationship. Findings indicate that the interaction between self-respect and story type on recall and eye tracker measures were not significant. Hence, failing to support the theory that high levels of self-respect enhances sensitivity to moral information through the link to the moral self. The outcome also highlights the possibility that certain factors undermine the effort or more meaningful engagement is needed, perhaps, through a more complex task. It would help to establish not only relationship patterns, but determine whether self-respect is unique enough as an independent construct that could add to the prediction of cognitive effort above and beyond what is explained by self-esteem.
    • Reliability and validity of the Chester treadmill walk test for the prediction of aerobic capacity

      Morris, Mike; McGuigan, Ross A. (University of Chester, 2009-09-30)
      The aim of this dissertaion is to assess the validity and reliability of the Chester Treadmill Walk test (CTWT) for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Four males and three females aged 25.1 (±3.3) years old that were active and healthy volunteered to take part in this study. The CTWT was carried out on two separate days and on the third occasion participants completed a maximal test called the Bruce Protocol treadmill test. Each day of testing was separated by no longer than seven days. Heart rate and RPE were measured during the sub-maximal testing and heart rate, RPE and VO2 were measured during the maximal testing. The bias ±95% limits of agreement technique was used to assess the validity of the CTWT against the maximal testing. No significant differences were found between trial one and maximal testing (0.226) and between trial two and maximal testing (0.252). The CTWT showed over-estimations in VO2max in trial one and trial two by 4.0±15.4 ml•kg-1•min-1 and 4.8±19.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 respectively. Trial one, two and maximal testing obtained VO2max mean values of 49.5±7.8, 50.3±8.4 and 45.5±10.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 respectiviely. 95% LoA technique found an over-estimation of HRmax by 6.4±14.6 beats/min, woth no significant difference found (0.062). ICC and 95% LoA techniques were used to assess VO2 (-0.8±5.2 ml•kg-1•min-1), HR (3.0 ±2.8bpm) and RPE (-0.2±0.6) reliability between trial one and trial two. ICC of 0.95, 0.99 and 0.99 were found between trial one and two in VO2, HR and RPE respectively. It is questionable whether or not the CTWT is a valid sub-maximal test to conduct, however it was found to be a reliable test. VO2max was over-estimated in both trials when compared to actual VO2max but positive relationships were found between the HR and RPE values in trial one and trial two.
    • Reliability of the incremental shuttle walk test and the Chester step test in cardiac rehabilitation

      Fallows, Stephen; Reardon, Melanie (University of Chester, 2008-09)
      Background: Cardiac Rehabilitation at Southport and Ormskirk NHS Trust has been in operation since 1998 and is carried out on two different sites. The latter has a very small exercise area and at this site the Chester Step Test (CST) is used to measure changes in exercise capacity after an eight week exercise programme and also to prescribe exercise for that patient. The former site has a much larger exercise area and historically has always used the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) for the same purpose. At both sites a practice test has not been routinely used to familiarise the patient with the test although anecdotally this seemed to show a difference in results. The results of performing a practice test would be analysed to look at the reliability. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT) and the Chester Step Test (CST). To compare results from the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT) and the Chester Step Test (CST) as measures of change in exercise capacity in patients following an 8-week, hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation exercise programme. Setting: Gymnasia at Southport & Ormskirk NHS Trust. Methods: 33 subjects (26 males and 7 females, mean age 57.3) attended an 8-week cardiac rehabilitation exercise programme. All were assessed using ISWT and CST on three separate occasions: firstly at the patient assessment appointment prior to attendance at the programme, secondly on commencement of the programme (within one week of the first test) and thirdly during the final session of the programme. Both ISWT and CST tests were performed on the same day with a rest period of at least 20 minutes between them, to allow the heart rate to return to normal. The patients were taken to either 80% of their maximum heart rate or RPE 15. The ISWT distance walked in metres was measured. The CST measures predicted VO2max which was worked out by plotting the heart rates on the appropriate graph. Results: The results demonstrated the ISWT showed an element of learning, there was a difference between the practice test and that carried out on the first session of the cardiac rehabilitation exercise programme. The difference between the practice test and the final test carried out after the eight week programme was 125.2m, and between the baseline test and final test was 74.3m, there was therefore an increase of 50.9m within one week. The CST did not show the same element of learning and the results from the two tests carried out within one week did not show a significant difference. The results also showed that the ISWT and the CST showed no significant difference in the percentage increase of parameters measured between the two tests. ISWT showed mean improvement of 21.3% whilst CST showed a mean improvement of 24.7%. The O2 Pulse showed a difference between the two tests, it did not improve in the ISWT but did in the CST. Conclusion: The ISWT requires a practice test to familiarise the participant with the running of the test whereas the CST does not. The ISWT and CST, in this study, showed no significant difference between the two tests in percentage increase of meters (ISWT) and predicted VC>2max (CST) measured and could be used on the two different sites to show changes in exercise capacity. The Patients preferred the ISWT. Relevance to practice: The CST can be used where space and/or time are limited. A practice test at the assessment to attend the cardiac rehabilitation would be performed for the ISWT to familiarise the patients with the test but not for the CST.
    • Religious Authority Online in the Diocese of York

      Course, Eleanor (University of Chester, 2016-01)
      My aim in this dissertation is to research who the online authorities are in the Diocese of York, whether they have roles of authority in the offline church, whether these online roles are considered important by people in the offline church, and whether the online spaces managed by these people are part of wider mission and ministry. In this dissertation, I investigate these topics by collecting qualitative data from some of these people via an online survey and a focus group. I argue that many of the people who are authorities online do have positions of authority in the offline church, and are part of its hierarchy and structure, but that this authority does not necessarily extend online. I argue that there is often a real disconnection between a church’s offline mission and ministry, and the role of the church’s online spaces. This is partly due to conflicting understandings of the purpose or role of online spaces, and partly due to the fact that they are simply not seen as important. Finally, I argue that validation of authority is crucial to both our understanding of the attributes of religious authority online, and to the effectiveness of the mission and ministry online, both from people in the offline church and for the online religious authority themselves.
    • Repeated side-cutting knee and hip biomechanics for a macro-cycle of a professional rugby league season

      Smith, Grace; Stirling, Ben (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      The aim of this study was to determine the variability of lower-limb side-cutting biomechanics in professional rugby league players during a season. Thirteen male professional players were included with a mean age of 22 ±3.4 years. The study used a one-way repeated measures experimental design. Subjects were tested at three time points, separated by four weeks, over the last three months of a season. Peak knee valgus and internal rotation moments (Nm/kg- 1), and flexion angle (°), and hip abduction moment (Nm/kg-1) during the weight-acceptance of the stance phase were collected for all side-cutting maneuvers. A one way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed on the data with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis identifying differences between testing sessions. Mean hip and knee kinematics and kinetics were similar for all measures. There was a significant difference in peak knee flexion angle (°) (Left = F(1, 17) =4.895, Right = F(2, 24) =6.603) and knee valgus moment (Nm/kg-1) (Left =F(2, 24) =9.535, Right =F(2, 24) =6.060) showing significant variability between testing sessions one and three for right knee flexion and knee valgus in both limbs. Bi-lateral knee valgus moments were also significantly different between sessions two and three. Professional rugby league players have shown to be more efficient during the weight-acceptance phase of a side-cutting manoeuver compared to recreational athletes which may be beneficial to reducing frontal plane knee loading and injury risk at the knee. In addition, this study has reinforced the link between the hip and the knee in providing proximal stability for distal mobility.
    • The Representation of Female Prostitution in Victorian and Neo-Victorian Literature

      Heeley, Kate (University of Chester, 2015)
      This dissertation discusses the representation of female prostitution in Victorian and Neo- Victorian literature by analysing the following texts: Oliver Twist, Mary Barton, The Crimson Petal and the White and Mrs Warren’s Profession. It analyses the stereotypical figure of the nineteenth century prostitute and looks beyond this representation by exploring image, maternity, female friendship and biblical symbols. The dissertation considers prostitution in Victorian culture as well as literature, and uses contemporaneous sources such as letters from Charles Dickens, newspaper articles and artwork in order to reinforce ideas. Ultimately the dissertation attempts to determine whether the prostitute was a powerful or a powerless figure by comparing the prostitutes in all four texts to each other and to their ‘respectable’ sisters.
    • Resveratrol-induced cell death in leukaemia cells: The effect of Hsp72 expression and combination treatments with TRAIL and ethanol

      Williams, John H. H.; Weaver, Annette S. (University of Chester, 2009-07)
      Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes and red wine, displays anti-cancer activities through a variety of mechanisms that include the induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Although high concentrations may be needed for the efficacy of resveratrol alone, the compound shows promise as a potent sensitizer of the apoptotic effect of other anti-cancer agents, including death ligand TRAIL. Intracellular heat shock proteins (Hsps) are frequently up-regulated in cancer cells, conferring resistance to apoptosis. Modulation of these proteins may overcome the resistance and increase efficacy of anticancer therapies. In this study, resveratrol caused significant dose-dependent apoptosis or necrosis in the lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia cell lines Jurkat and U937 at 50µM and above. Combination treatments with sub-lethal concentrations of ethanol or TRAIL showed synergistic effects on the dose-dependent cell death, such that significant apoptosis was achieved at 25µM resveratrol. Treatment with all compounds together showed the greatest efficacy with significant apoptosis occurring at 12.5µM resveratrol, but also greater toxicity demonstrated by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis occurring at 25-50µM as opposed to 100-200µM resveratrol in the other combination treatments. Low concentrations of resveratrol that were unable to induce apoptosis caused a significant increase in intracellular Hsp72, whilst intracellular Hsp72 was unchanged or reduced at higher concentrations. Increasing intracellular Hsp72 expression in cells with a mild heat shock prior to resveratrol treatment caused increased resistance to resveratrol-induced cell death at 50-200µM. It was not possible to show that lowering intracellular Hsp72 with ethanol treatment increased sensitivity to resveratrol-induced cell death. It was shown for the first time that resveratrol increased surface expression of Hsp72 at all concentrations, highlighting the potential for an additional anti-cancer effect in situ. The results indicate that combination treatments with resveratrol are promising for use in anticancer therapy, and manipulation of intracellular Hsp72 expression may modulate the efficacy of resveratrol-induced apoptosis. Further investigations are recommended into the clinical relevance of resveratrol, further synergistic compounds, and the effects of reducing intracellular and increasing surface Hsp72 levels.
    • A review of performance appraisal within Liverpool Direct Revenue Services

      Lamb, Frank (University of Chester, 2009-06)
      This dissertation sets out to review and explain the challenge of performance management and how this is addressed through the performance appraisal process within Liverpool Direct Revenues Service. The research will examine the elements which constitute a high performing appraisal process and consider the current problems inherent within the appraisal process within the revenues service and the impact this maybe having on service delivery. The study also considers the impact on staff and their development of an appraisal system which is not delivering key messages or addressing individual performance issues. The research used a number of data capture methods. Secondary survey data was used to underline and support findings from the primary interview data. In addition a survey of all frontline staff within the revenues service was undertaken to provide a greater wealth of data and enrich the overall research. As a result of this research it was discovered that the revenues service does not have a coherent performance appraisal process. There exists a clear dichotomy between senior managers and senior officers as to what elements should be present in the performance appraisal. The research also discovered there was little engagement or confidence in the process from the participants. The research makes several recommendations which include the training of all managers within the revenues service and the embedding of the appraisal process within the organisation. Further recommendations are made to improve staff engagement in the process and create better feedback of information.
    • A review of the methods for the solution of DEAs

      Ford, Neville J.; Lumb, Patricia M. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-06)
      Differential-Algebraic equation systems (DAEs) occur in a variety of applications in science and engineering and interest in them has grown considerably during the latter part of the twentieth century. The aims of this thesis are to provide the interested reader with a comprehensible and informative introduction to DAEs, whilst assuming no prior knowledge of the subject area; to give an indication to the reader with a DAE to solve whether or not they can hope to be successful; to introduce the reader to possible methods of solution (either analytical, numerical or both)