• Facilitating change in the occupational and personal self-perceptions of workers in the community: A co-operative inquiry

      Knight, Madeline A. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1996-05)
      This study presents an exploration and evaluation of the impacy of a ten session counselling skills course on workers within the community, using new paradigm experiential research as described by John Heron (1994a). The ten participants who completed the course were employees of two registered charitable organisations: three from The Chester, Cheshire and Clywd Blinf Welfare Society and seven from Crossroads Care Attendant Schemes. Results were obtained by means of self-report, group presentations, appraisal forms, facilitator observation and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. The combined results suggest that the course enhanced job-satisfaction, self-esteem and well-being for the particioants; while also promoting their learning of counselling skills by experiential means.
    • Facilitating effective change management in the charitable giving trust

      Page, Steve; Williams, Deborah (University of Chester, 2011-10)
      Given the pace of change and the many aspects of managing change which organisations need to address, effective change management has become an increasingly business critical capability of organisations. The collaborating organisation, The Charitable Giving Trust (TCGT) has embarked on a substantial Information Systems Project which will replace or radically improve all technology infrastructure and information systems used to deliver services to clients. TCGT requires effective change management throughout the project and in addition, the development of organisation capability to manage emergent and contingent change to its systems and business mode. Understanding the potential impact of change on employee well-being is vital, as is helping organisations manage to accept and embrace change. The people within an organisation can be the key to successful change or the biggest obstacle to it. Academic research in the field of change management process and change models was reviewed. The role of organsiational leadership and culture on the organisational propensity and capability to change was investigated. The reserch sought to identify the best practice approaches to change management which can facilitate employee committment to, involvement in and acceptance of change. The areas of academic research informed the research conducted within TCGT. The research sought to identify TCGT current apprach to managing change, in order to inform recommendations for improvement and for adoption of applicable best practice.
    • Factors affecting access to fruit and vegetables in Chester and the importance of eating healthily: A case study of Blacon and Hoole

      Ellahi, Basma; Smith, Adam (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2008-11)
      The link between diet and the aetiology of chronic diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease is widely accepted. Consumption of fruit and vegetables is known to have a protective effect on such health issues. Research shows that access to and availability of such foods are key to facilitating change and sustainable healthy behaviours. This study examines the access to fruit and vegetables at a community level using the Chester wards of Blacon and Hoole. A phenomenological perspective was adopted to explore the attitudes, perceptions and behaviours of a sample of Chester based female adults living in Blacon, a ward characteristic of multiple deprivation, or Hoole, a ward characteristic of only health deprivation. Qualitative data was collected using semi-standardised interviews and data was analysed using a framework approach. Few differences emerged between the two wards across all aspects of access. Intakes of fruit and vegetables were consistent with national averages. Access to healthy food in both wards was percived to be 'good'. Time and cost were the barriers most frequently stated to fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants were aware of the need to consume fruit and vegetables but the desire to include them in their diets was equally positive and negative. Information available and level of access was percieved to be good in both wards, however, a lack of follow-up initiatives has meant that a majority of participants were unaware of ways to integrate such information and behaviours into their busy lifestyles.
    • Factors affecting small-sided game demands among high-level junior rugby league players

      Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Foster, Christine (University of Chester, 2012)
      Small-sided games (SSGs) are commonly incorporated into the conditioning programmes of rugby league (RL) players. However, although several studies have examined the physiological, perceptual, movement and skill demands of SSGs, the majority of research in this area has focused on these responses in soccer players. Therefore, the purpose of this programme of research was to examine the effects of altering selected variables (player number, playing area size, the role of the player and the role of the coach) on the physiological and technical demands imposed on junior, high-level RL players during SSGs. In addition, SSG responses were investigated in different junior age groups to determine if playing age has an effect on SSG demands. Finally, given the role of SSGs as a conditioning tool, the consistency of the exercise intensities generated was assessed over repeated trials. Chapter 3 investigated the influence of player number and playing area size on the heart rate (HR) responses elicited by junior male RL players during SSGs. Twenty-two players from a professional club (mean age: 14.5 ± 1.5 yr; stature: 172.5 ± 11.4 cm; body mass: 67.8 ± 15.1 kg; 2OVpeak: 53.3 ± 5.6 ml·kg-1·min-1; HRmax: 198 ± 7.8 b·min-1) participated in two repeated trials of six four-minute conditioned SSGs over a two-week period. The SSGs varied by playing area size; 15x25 m, 20x30 m, and 25x35 m, and player number; 4v4 and 6v6. Analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) effects of trials and playing area size on HRs, but a significant effect of player number in the U16 age group only (P<0.001), with HRs being higher in the 4v4 (90.6% HRmax) than the 6v6 SSGs (86.2% HRmax). The HR responses were found to be repeatable in all SSG conditions (within ± 1.9% HRmax) apart from the small 6v6 condition in the older players. Chapter 4 investigated the HR responses and incidence of specific game actions during attacking and defending play in SSGs, with and without coach encouragement. Seventeen boys from a professional club (mean age: 13.4 ± 1.1 yr; stature: 168 ± 11.8 cm; body mass: 61.5 ± 14.9 kg; 2OVpeak: 55.0 ± 5.6 ml·kg-1·min-1; HRmax: 202 ± 6.5 b·min-1) participated in two repeated trials of four, four-minute conditioned SSGs over a two-week period. It was observed that attacking play elicited a greater amount of time above 90% HRmax than defending (62.0 ± 31.5 versus 48.4 ± 31.3% of total time). Compared to the older junior players (U15), the younger junior players (U13) elicited a greater average SSG intensity (90.5 ± 1.7% versus 87.9 ± 0.6% HRmax) and spent a greater amount of time above 90% HRmax (68.6 ± 22.5% versus 43.3 ± 34.6% of total time). Moreover, compared to the U15 players, the U13 players completed a greater volume of passes (20.8 ± 2.9 versus 15.5 ± 2.6), successful passes (21.3 ± 0.0 versus 17.4 ± 3.1), pass plays (6.6 ± 1.4 versus 3.0 ± 0.5) and tries (2.5 ± 1.1 versus 0.6 ± 0.3), but a lower volume of attacking runs (25.9 ± 1.3 versus 32.3 ± 0.2), dummy runs (10.6 ± 1.8 versus 18.9 ± 1.8), touches (30.0 ± 35.0 versus 35.8 ± 6.3), successful touches (30.5 ± 0.5 versus 42.1 ± 1.1) and completed sets (1.6 ± 0.0 versus 3.5 ± 0.6). The addition of coach encouragement had no effect on the HR responses or volume of game actions conducted. The SSGs demonstrated large trial-to-trial variability in the game actions and average and peak HR intensities (bias of 3.7 ± and ± 4% HRmax) and percentage of time in HR Zones (bias of ± 25% percentage of time), indicative of poor reliability. The findings from this research demonstrate that SSGs specific to RL can generate HR responses suitable for aerobic conditioning that, whilst unaffected by the size of the area used, are sensitive to the player number, player role and age. Moreover, coach encouragement may not affect SSG demands when players are habituated to SSG conditioning. Furthermore, manipulating SSG rules can adversely affect the reproducibility of HR responses.
    • A feasibility study of carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin dosing in adults with type 2 diabetes: MATCH IT (MAtching Treatment to CarboHydrate in Insulin-treated type Two diabetes

      Mellor, Duane; Joseph, Frank; Ellahi, Basma; Fitzgerald, Sarah (University of Chester, 2012-11)
      Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition which is associated with serious microvascular and macrovascular complications and diminshed quality of life. Intenstive glycaemic control has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes-related complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but can further decrease quality of life. Carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin dosing is known to improve glycaemic control and quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Limited evidence suggests that this diabetes management method can also reduce glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using prandial insulin (Bergenstal et al., 2008) but this has not been investigated rigorously and no studies have investigated the impact on psychosocial outcomes. Does insulin dose adjustment in line with mealtime carbohydrare intake in adults with T2DM using prandial insulin improve the primary outcomes HbA1c and quality of life? Impact on secondary outcomes including treatment satisifaction and vascular risk facors was also assessed. A feasibility study, using a randomished controlled delayed start (waiting list) trial design, was conducted. Adults with T2DM using prandial insulin were trained to count carbohydrates and adjust insulin doses through group education sessions. Carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin dosing in adults with T2DM was found to be non-inferior to static dosing insulin regimes, and was associated with improved quality of life and reduced perception of hypoglycaemia. This was associated with non-significant reducations in body weight, waits circumference and total daily insulin dose and was achieved despite increased dietary freedom, and without significane deterioration in other vascular risk factors. This management method has the potential to improve quality of life whilst maintaining or optimising glycaemic control in individuals with T2DM who require a variable insulin regime. This rising incidence of T2DM, its economic and health burden, and the increasingly younger patient profile make these findings particularly pertinenet. Further research is warranted to explore these initial findings.
    • The final campaigns in the West Indies 1808‐1810

      Rainbow, Malcolm S. (University of Chester, 2014)
      This dissertation discusses British strategic policy in the West Indies and the conquest of Martinique and the Battle of Les Saintes.
    • Finite difference approximation for stochastic parabolic partial differential equations

      Yan, Yubin; Patel, Babubhai M. (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      Differential equations, especially partial differential equations (PDES) have wide range of applications in sciences, finance (economics), Engineering and so forth. In last decade, substantial amount of work has been done in studying stochastic partial differential equations (SPDES). A SPDE is a PDE containing a random ‘noise’ term. SPDES have no analytical solutions. Various numerical methods have been developed from time to time and tested for their validity using Matlab program. In this thesis, the author will discuss the finite difference method for stochastic parabolic partial differential equations. Matlab software is used for simulation of the solution of this equation. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the finite difference approximation of a stochastic parabolic partial differential equation with white noise. The author discusses alternative proof for error bounds using Green function in support of this method.
    • A finite element method for time fractional partial differential equations

      Yan, Yubin; Atallah, Samia A. (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      Fractional differential equations, particularly fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) have many applications in areas such as diffusion processes, electromagnetics, electrochemistry, material science and turbulent flow. There are lots of work for the existence and uniqueness of the solutions for fractional partial differential equations. In recent years, people start to consider the numerical methods for solving fractional partial differential equation. The numerical methods include finite difference method, finite element method and the spectral method. In this dissertation, we mainly consider the finite element method, for the time fractional partial differential equation. We consider both time discretization and space discretization. We obtain the optimal error estimates both in time and space. The numerical examples demonstrate that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
    • Fit for public consumption: An exploratory study of the reporting of nutrition research in UK tabloids and public attitudes towards it

      Hogard, Elaine; Basu, Andrea J. (University of Liverpool (University College Chester)North East Wales NHS Trust, 2005-11)
      Newspapers constitute a popular form of mass media within the UK; presenting a valuable opportunity for disseminating key nutrition and health messages. This qualitative, exploratory study examined tabloid articles reporting on nutrition research, and public attitudes towards them. All popular tabloids were included and articles were sampled over a full calendar month. A tool was designed to test for accuracy with respect to the original research, balance, and presence of appropriate contextualised information. Thirty-nine features were systematically assessed using the tool. Two focus groups were conducted to explore public attitudes towards specific tabloid articles. Questions were centred on the cognitive, affective and behavioural elements of attitude formation. The groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and emerging themes were established. Findings indicated that tabloid articles were essentially inaccurate, biased, and not effectively contextualised. Attitudes expressed within the focus groups were largely negative and suggested that tabloid articles could confuse members of the public. Articles were more likely to be disregarded than acted upon, however there was some value attached to newspapers providing nutrition information, inferring that opportunities to effectively use this media are not completely lost.
    • A focused qualitative assessment of primary school education needs to inform tailored resources supporting childhood obesity

      McNamara, Sorcha (University of Chester, 2017-09)
      Objective: To examine primary school education-needs to inform tailored resources supporting childhood obesity. Design: A qualitative study based on 8 semi-structured interviews. Questions addressed schools' approach to childhood obesity, resources, barriers, and possible enablers. Setting: Primary schools from the Manchester City Council jurisdiction. Participants: A purposive sample of 8 senior leadership school staff members (100% female). Phenomenon Of Interest: Types of perceived barriers and supportive tools to empower obesity discussions with parents. Analysis: Transcriptions were coded and analysed based on a socioecological framework using thematic analysis. Results: Five key themes emerged: complex families, primary schools as a key setting, the food environment, difficulties raising obesity and empowerment. The enabler training pack developed in response to these themes was received positively by school staff and initial feedback indicated it helped bridge perceived knowledge and skill gaps. Conclusions and Implications: Significant barriers exist to health behaviour change for families of a lower socio-economic status. Each school’s approach to childhood obesity varied greatly but all expressed a need for more healthcare professional guidance. Implications include training and tailored resources that can be applied to all primary schools and their staff.
    • Food security among first-year international students studying at the University of Chester (UoC) and the relevance of dietary acculturation as a determining factor

      Kennedy, Lynne; Abe, Opeyemi (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Food security is an important nutrition issue among vulnerable population groups such as; international university students. When physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy life is limited or uncertain, food insecurity exists. This study aimed to investigate the extent of food security among first-year international students at the University of Chester (UoC) and to assess factors affecting their ability to obtain their preferred traditional foods. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 124 first-year international students at the UoC, using self-reported validated questionnaires. Food security was measured using the Australian National Nutrition Survey (single item measure) and US Adult Food Security Survey Module from the United States Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Tool Kit (10-item measure). Socio-economic and demographic variables, and food access and availability questions were also included. Results: Food insecurity was evident in the student sample. The prevalence of food insecurity using the single item and multi-item measures were 21.8% (n=25) and 79.8% (n=99) (54.8% reported severe food insecurity and 25% reported some degree of food insecurity) respectively. Students’ food insecurity was associated with cost and quality of food, location and transport to food stores, low income, no employment, no scholarships and renting. Conclusion: Food insecurity is a significant problem among international students at the UoC. There is a need to increase the accessibility, availability and affordability of international students’ preferred traditional foods. It is necessary to broaden research on different university settings and further strengthen support systems to increase access to nutritious, preferred traditional foods for this population.
    • Food, physical activity and climate change perspectives in relationship to allotment ownership

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Ellahi, Basma; Hunt, Ann (University of Chester, 2010)
      Obesity and climate change are two of the biggest public health crises that the world currently faces and will face for many years to come, unless action is taken to halt the causes. The link between diet, physical activity and obesity has been firmly established. The causes of obesity are however, a multi-faceted problem, as are the causes of climate change. Current food production has been linked to increasing levels of CO2, and current eating habits can be responsible for a large carbon footprint. Growing your own food has been suggested as a method of reducing one’s carbon footprint, increasing physical activity levels and improving diet, little evidence exists to support this theory. This study looks at the fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity levels and climate change awareness of allotment holders in two wards of Stockport. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected via face to face questionnaires (n=28) at both allotments sites. Fruit and vegetable intakes of allotment holders were above those of the U.K. general public and intake increased after allotment ownership. Physical activity levels were on average, higher than the recommendation of thirty minutes a day for at least five days per week and generally increased after uptake of the allotment. Allotment owners rent their plots for a combination of reasons, the majority wanting to grow their own food, and get exercise and most also cite some form of environmental issue. All participants were aware of climate change and although not all thought it would affect allotments; most had ideas of what they would do to adapt to changes. There are synergies between solving climate change issues, such as Green House Gas emissions and improving our health, both physically and nutritionally. Growing your own fruit and vegetables on an allotment can increase your consumption of fruit and vegetables significantly, increase your exercise levels and reduce your CO2 emissions.
    • Forecast model for radon concentrations in visitor caves

      Mitchell, Kirsty A. (University of Chester, 2012-09-20)
      The aim of this project is to develop a mathematical forecast model which can be used to forecase the radon ceontrations in visitor caves and to assess its validity using statistical analysis of its outputs and datasets from other caves. The project consists of a literature review, the creation of a forecast model and a statistical analysis of the results of the model with comparison data. The aim of the literaure review is to identify any mathematical models involving radon concentrations and to find any datasets that could be used to develop a forecast model of the seasonal variations in radon concentrations. Having identified a suitable dataset for development of the model a model specific to that cave will be carried out. The results of this model will then be statistically anlysed using the original dataset and a second dataset for comparison purposes, following any necessary adjustments. This will identify whether a forecast model based on observed seasonal variations could be used to predict accurately the radon concetrations in a visitor cave. The use of a second dataset will indicate whether this model has the potential to be applied to other caves or whether predictive models would have to specifically developed for each cave system.
    • Fractional differential equations and numerical methods

      Ford, Neville J.; Landy, Alan J. (University of Chester, 2009-06-22)
      The increasing use of Fractional Calculus demands more accurate arid efficient methods for the numerical solution of fractional differential equations. We introduce the concepts of Fractional Calculus and give the definitions of fractional integrals and derivatives in the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo forms. We explore three existing Numerical Methods of solution of Fractional Differential Equations. 1. Diethelm's Backward Difference Form (BDF) method. 2. Lubich's Convolution Quadrature method. 3. Luchko and Diethelm's Operational Calculus (using the Mittag-Lefner function) method. We present useful recursive expressions we developed to compute the Taylor Series coefficients in the Operational Calculus method. These expressions are used in the calculation of the convolution and starting weights. We compare their accuracy and performance of the numerical methods, and conclude that the more complex methods produce the more accurate results.
    • ‘Fragile Worlds’: A literature-based heuristic exploration of the experiencing of presence within the person-centred therapeutic encounter

      Gubi, Peter M.; Bridges, Ruth M. (University of Chester, 2007-11)
      The quality of presence has been widely researched within the realms of both nursing and psychotherapy during the last two decades and yet would appear to continue to challenge our contemporaneous predilection for the more measurable and contained. Through heuristically informed literature-based research, the author examines facets of the personal, professional and spiritual dimensions of presence, offering an investigation of its experience and influence within the psychotherapeutic encounter. The study identifies five key aspects of presence and offers a discrete analysis of these, whilst simultaneously acknowledging the essential fluidity of the phenomenon. Co-creative elements of presence are emphasised incorporating recognition of the mutuality of encounter, alongside a consideration of presence as offering. The significance of the self is identified and the study concludes with a reflection on existential and spiritual dimensions. Within much of the literature presence is perceived as deeply therapeutic. Conversely, this research suggests that, whilst presence may clearly retain the capacity to support emotional and psychological growth, it may also possess the potential for harm. It is argued that, as therapists, we might offer our presence with care, guarding against a somewhat indiscriminate ‘holding’ and accompaniment of clients. The main implication is to training wherein the author argues that further attention might be paid to understanding the impact of the ‘self’ within the moment of meeting. Written from an existential-humanistic stance, this study concludes that however elusive presence may initially appear, it offers itself for a considerable degree of analysis and thus proves itself worthy of more focused attention during initial training and beyond.
    • Friends’ Experiences and Sense-Making of Providing Support for a Socially Anxious Young Person: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Heath, Hannah; Nielsen, Amanda K. (University of Chester, 2016)
      This study investigates how friends experience and make sense of providing support for a socially anxious young person. The experiences of friends who provide support for people with mental illnesses are rarely studied in their own right; studies tend to group friends with the experiences of partners or parents. This study aimed at analysing the overlooked perspective of the friends. Friends’ experiences were attained through semi-structured interviews with five self-identified friends of a young person with social anxiety. Through an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, three super-ordinate themes were generated: experiencing responsibility, the challenges in providing support, and the meaning of providing support. The analysis demonstrated that friends are a great source of support for socially anxious young people. Participants experienced a great responsibility because the socially anxious friends were dependent upon the support provided. Providing support was challenging; participants dealt with self-blame, worries about providing the right support and being a good supporter. However, participants valued their friendships, and providing support was also linked to feelings of reward, pride, success and achievement. The discussion indicated that great responsibility and dependency is commonly experienced among carers of people with mental illnesses, and that friends could benefit from sharing the responsibility with more people to reduce the challenges associated with providing support. Future research was recommended to examine the consequences of providing support alone versus in a group, and engage with the self-blame experienced among friends providing support. Last, more qualitative research on the experiences of friends was recommended for future studies.
    • From breaking news to broken communities: How does the representation of religion in local media contribute to maintaining or extending social cohesion in segregated communities?

      Graham, Elaine L.; Lees, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2017-01)
      Research suggests that Muslims in Britain have been, and continue to be represented and portrayed less favourably to other religions in mainstream media particularly within the print press, on a local and national scale (Knott, Poole, Tairu, 2013, Poole, 2009). This dissertation critically analyses how religion, specifically Christianity and Islam have been represented in the local media and to what extent this representation has had an impact on the maintaining or extending of social cohesion within Burnley; a town where segregation is apparent and integration is a challenge. Data collected through the application of content analysis and critical discourse analysis to two newspapers from 2001 to 2015 shows the patterns and trends in representation over a substantial period of time, whereby the community they serve became increasingly diverse with each Census. Findings from the research suggest that Christianity was referenced more times than Islam and more positively. However, significant changes to the practice of the press over the fourteen years resulted in the inclusion of more Muslim voices contributing to the enhanced religious literacy of the press. Recommendations for further research to add to this dissertation have been made in addition to enhancements to the practice of the local print media.
    • From Israel to Epworth: An assessment of the Psalms in the life of Methodist worship

      Christianson, Eric; Houghton, Gillian M. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003-07)
      This dissertation looks at contemporary use of the Psalms in Methodist public worship, showing how Methodism is abandoning the tradition of using the Psalms and losing touch with both Christian tradition and the wishes of its founding father, John Wesley. The literature review considers the history of the Psalms in worship and then looks at their contemporary importance for worship. This includes an assessment of the universality both of the emotions expressed in the Psalms and of the language used. The importance of the Psalms to early Methodism is also considered. By means of two questionnaires issued to preachers and worshippers in the Lytham St Annes' Circuit of the Methodist Church, the dissertation goes on to show the limited use made of the Psalms in Methodist worship and the detrimental effect of this limited use. Finally the dissertation outlines somes means by which the Psalms might be reincorporated into Methodist worship and offers reasons, drawn from the literature review, about why this is so important for the spiritual well-being of individual worshippers.
    • ‘From mechanisation may be born a David to slay a Goliath’ an assessment of the impact of Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart’s indirect approach on Operation Compass 1940 – 1941

      Hughes, Alexander J. (University of Chester, 2013)
      In the Second World War the Germans introduced a new form of warfare: Blitzkrieg, whereby rapid mechanised assaults supported by aircraft swept all before the advancing Wehrmacht. The topic chosen for discussion focuses on an often overlooked and indeed forgotten victory in the North African Campaign in the Second World War. History documentaries, Hollywood films and vast numbers of books have focused on the duel in the desert between Montgomery and Rommel, culminating in the Second Battle of El Alamein, almost endlessly. Prior to Rommel’s arrival in the desert, however, a series of battles took place as a part of a far larger operation, Operation Compass, where some 30,000 British and Empire Forces eventually destroyed the 250,000 strong Italian 10th Army. . It shall be the purpose of this dissertation to assess whether through Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart’s strategy of the ‘Indirect Approach’ the British mechanised forces were indeed the deciding factor in the outcome of Operation Compass during the opening phase of the North African campaign 1940-1941.
    • 'From service to Civvy street’: An exploration of therapists' experiences who support veterans facing a difficult transition from military to civilian life

      Parnell, Tony; Jones, Gemma L. (University of Chester, 2013)
      Approximately twenty thousand Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy personnel leave the U.K forces each year. For many, the transition from service to civilian life is an uncomplicated one. However, for some, numerous and significant problems can arise brought on by mental health issues which range in severity and complexity. The present phenomenological qualitative study aimed to explore counsellors' experiences of ex-service personnel facing difficult challenges upon transitioning to civilian life from the forces and within that, identify some of the barriers and facilitators which may inhibit/promote a successful transition. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted as a method of data collection. Use of the constant comparative method allowed an exploration of the data for analysis. Participants described their perceptions in terms of characteristics of a military life, including how identities may have been shaped; psychological & health issues upon return from deployment; social issues and the impacts difficult adjustments ensued; loss as experienced upon return to civilian life; the attempt to bridge the gap between the two lives including seeking help, coping strategies and mental adjustment; counsellor attributes and the role that therapy can play in assisting difficult transitions. Identity was recognised as a major significance throughout the findings, along with a shift in identity from soldier to civilian, assisted by challenges to maintain a service identity before a continuous transition could be attempted.