• Balancing financial growth and social aims in a third sector mental health charity

      Murray-Howard, Catherine (University of ChesterMaking Space, 2010-06)
      The charitable sector in the UK has grown significantly the last 20 years it is now worth billions of pounds per annum. Those charities that are funded by public sector finance are those that have seen the biggest growth. Public sector funders, such as local authorities and the National Health Service have increasingly seen the financial benefits of sub-contracting key elements of their services. They are able to sub-contract to specialist providers, measure and manage the impact of these organisations and control costs. Mental Health Care and Support is worth an estimated £7 Billion per year and 80% of this funding is sub-contracted to specialist providers, many of whom are charities or third sector organisations. Inevitably as funding opportunities became available, entrepreneurial third sector organisations grew and developed to maximise their chances of securing funding. These charities, also known as not-for-profit organisations have increasingly been expected to become more professional, applying traditional business techniques in order to be accepted as a sub-contractor. They have had to adapt and change their services to secure business in a competitive environment. This study examines how this need to grow, to come professional, creates new and innovative services is balanced with the desire to stay organisations that have a set of core social aims at their heart. It will consider how possible it is to grow into a multi-million pound organisation while still staying true to the desire to offer care and support. The study focuses on mental health charity Making Space.
    • The ball in play demands of elite rugby union

      Worsfold, Paul R.; Finnigan, Nicola; Nicholls, Scott (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the competitive ‘ball in play’ (BIP) locomotive demands of elite rugby union and establish whether differences exist between overall match demands and those experienced during BIP. A total of 144 performances from eight English Premiership Clubs were tracked using global positioning systems (GPS) during 42 competitive matches (2010/11 season). Player positions were categorised in three ways: (1) Forwards and Backs; (2) Front Row, Second Row and Back Row Forwards, Scrumhalf, Inside and Outside Backs and (3) individual playing position (position numbers 1-15). Results indicated a number of significant (P < 0.05) differences between the Forwards and Backs including; the relative distances (m . min-1) and distributions (%) of the standing/walking, jogging and sprinting speed zones. The scrumhalf covered the greatest relative distance (93.1 m . min-1), which was 44 % more than the lowest (Second Row). The tight head prop (1:20.7) illustrated the greatest mean work to rest ratio (WRR) whereas the lowest was identified for the loose head prop (1:4.7). Furthermore, the fly half demonstrated the greatest proportion of sprinting activities (1.4 % of total locomotion). Overall, the study provides insight into the BIP demands of rugby union, highlighting a greater percentage of high intensity (striding and sprinting) activities performed within a game than previously established. The findings demonstrate notable position-related differences and further reinforce the need for individualised player conditioning programmes.
    • Barriers to healthy eating and the prevention of overweight and obesity: A qualitative study of sixth form student’s perceptions

      Ellahi, Basma; Witherup, Amy (University of Chester, 2012-02)
      This dissertation aimed to elicit the views of sixth form students on barriers to healthy eating and the prevention of overweight and obesity. It explores the kind of interventions that should be in place to support them to make healthier choices and also considers the type of services that should be available for those who are overweight or obese. This study used qualitative research through conducting 4 focus groups in sixth form college settings. A topic guide was developed for use in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to identify key themes and sub themes. 4 focus groups were conducted in 3 college settings, with a total of 25 participants, 18 females and 7 males aged between 16 and 19. 11 participants were studying A levels, 3 were studying BTEC’s and 11 were studying vocational courses. Whilst participants could define a healthy diet, they did not appear to endeavour to meet these guidelines. There was recognition of the long term health consequences of a poor diet, but this did not have a strong influence food choice in the here and now. Cost appeared to be the biggest barrier to healthy eating and this related to both within and external to, the college environment. The role of parents and college seem to have the greatest influence on facilitating healthy eating. There were clear and consistent views about what support they would like in college; water, more information on foods served in the canteen and inputs in tutorials. In relation to treatment services, participants felt that these should be located outside of college and be young person friendly. Young people in general are aware of the components of a healthy diet; however knowledge does not appear to be enough to facilitate behaviour change. Whilst colleges are taking steps to become healthier settings, there is more that could be done, namely; provision of free drinking water, nutritional information on food available at college, better use of tutor time for healthy eating information and practical cookery skills. Any treatment services should be young person friendly, specific to this age group, delivered by individuals with experience of working with young people and offered outside the college setting.
    • Barriers to participation in cardiac rehabilitation in Malta

      Gauci, Marilyn (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Patients who have had a cardiac event require special attention to regain their quality of life and to maintain and improve their functional capacity; which could be achieved through cardiac rehabilitation. Literature is continuously showing that cardiac rehabilitation needs to be recognised as part of the treatment to cardiovascular disease, as it is beneficial to the patient’s health. It reduces morbidity and mortality, improves exercise capacity, and through education enables the patient to adhere to lifestyle changes. Despite its proven benefits, cardiac rehabilitation participation remains low globally. Primarily, lack of knowledge and understanding of the importance of lifestyle changes and maintaining a balanced diet might hinder participation. Gender, age and level of education also plays a role in enrolling in the programme. Timing of cardiac rehabilitation also affects the patient’s decision to attend for rehabilitation. Early referral, especially during the patient’s hospitalisation by healthcare professionals, particularly doctors, is recommended to improve uptake to cardiac rehabilitation. Encouragement by staff enables the patients more to participate in such programme. Further research is recommended to identify the barriers which patients find in attending cardiac rehabilitation. Research should also focus on preventive cardiology programmes which should be easily accessible by all hospitals worldwide.
    • 'Bear one another's burdens'. An examination of the experiences of parents bereaved of a child through drug use, who volunteer to support other parents bereaved in a similar way. What meaning and significance do parents attach to the role and how do they support themselves?

      Skinner, Philippa J. (University of Chester, 2016-06)
      Aim: The purpose of this small-scale, heuristic qualitative study was to learn from the experiences of parents bereaved of a child through drug related causes. Specifically, it explored the meaning and significance they attach to the role of becoming peer supporters of others similarly bereaved. Method: This is a heuristic study in which semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants who had all lost a child aged between eighteen and thirty. The findings were analysed using thematic analysis, a method described by Braun and Clarke (2006, 2014) which covers a spectrum of epistemological approaches, and is well-suited to the heuristic approach (Moustakas, 1990). The researcher, also a parent bereaved of a child through a drug overdose, is explicitly part of this work and uses her own experience, alongside those of the participants, to inform the work. Findings: There were four main themes highlighted by the researcher. Firstly, the devastating nature of the bereavement and the difficult grief process, encompassing disenfranchisement, shame, and stigma. Secondly, how the parents found support for themselves after their loss and gradually moved to becoming a supporter of others. Thirdly, the parents' reflections on the role of being a helper, both positive and negative. Fourthly, how they continue to support themselves in the role of a bereaved parent volunteer supporter. Conclusion: The work supports previous research suggesting this is a devastating form of bereavement which has been seldom studied. The findings endorse the necessity of meaning making and sense finding felt by many bereaved people, and the fact that finding meaning may be harder after a traumatic loss such as the ones represented here. The parents found meaning by maintaining a bond with their deceased child through their work, and connection by keeping company with others who had understanding of what they had suffered. The study illustrates aspects of posttraumatic growth, while emphasising that such a process is neither easy nor inevitable.
    • Beeston Castle, Cheshire: An analysis of interpretation and presentation methodology

      Pardoe, James; McGuicken, Rachel (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2000-11)
      The aim of interpretation is to display a thing of significance to the public by communicating its values. It is argued here that, while acknowledging its significance, the heritage management of a monument should not isolate it, either from its continuity, or from its wider context. Although heritage interpretation and presentation methodologies are discussed, the definition of 'heritage' itself is not, this being considered a subject and debate in its own right. The dissertation effectively consists of two parts: Chapters 1 and 2 discuss issues and considerations regarding interpretation and presentation for both monuments and their exhibitions, and attempt to place English Heritage's role within this process. The second part, Chapters 3 to 5, is a case study based on Beeston Castle, Cheshire. Its significance historically, architecturally and archaeologically, is discussed before placing it in a wider context and concludes with an analysis of English Heritage's interpreation and presentation methodology at the site, drawing on comparisons with other monuments and their exhibitions. The dissertation finds that Beeston Castle embodies a power that has metamorphosed over centuries, now lying with the visitor and English Heritage. A sustainable future for Beeston Castle is dependent on English Heritage's ability to serve different people, managing conflicts and balancing the needs of each group with the need to preserve the site for future generations. Such balancing results in the failure, in the main, to convey the continuity of this site and isoloates it from its wider context, this opinion itself being open to interpretation.
    • Behaviours of successful weight loss maintainers

      Fallows, Stephen; Gunessee, Eileen (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      Objective: The aim of this exploratory study was to determine if there were any significant differences in the behaviours of weight loss maintainers and weight loss re-gainers within a local population in the North West of England. The behaviours of the National Weight Control Registry were examined. Method: Thirty eight patients, 26 female and 12 male, with an average age of 55 years, who had been attending a weight management service for at least one year, agreed to participate in this study. Participants attended a 30 minute interview with a dietitian where they were asked questions regarding their diet, activity levels and television viewing. Based on their current weight, participants were assigned to either the weight loss maintainer group or weight loss re-gainer group. Results: Of the 38 participants, 21 were weight loss maintainers with 17 being weight loss re-gainers. Independent t-test and Mann Whitney U tests were conducted. No significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to the behaviours being examined or in baseline characteristics. There was a difference in the frequency of monitoring food intake with 57% of weight loss maintainers monitoring their food intake on a daily basis whereas 53% of weight loss re-gainers reported that they never monitored their food intake. Weight loss maintainers commented that the most important factor in maintaining their weight loss was portion control. Conclusion: There were no significant differences found in the behaviours of weight loss maintainers and weight loss re-gainers in this study population. Portion control and regular monitoring of food intake were reported as the most beneficial behaviours for long term weight maintenance.
    • The bereaved therapist speaks: An exploration of humanistic therapists' experiences of significant personal bereavement and its impact on their therapeutic practice. A qualitative study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

      Mintz, Rita; Broadbent, Jeanne R. (University of Chester, 2011-12)
      The death of a loved one is an event that can shatter the carefully constructed edifice of one's everyday life and which can cause us to question out basic assumptions about ourselves and the world we inhabit. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experienes of four humanistic therapists who had suffered a significant bereavement, and how this had affected their therapeutic practice. I chose a qualitative approach to the research underpinned by the epistemological and philosophical paradigms of phenomenology. The method chosen for analysing the data was Interpretative Phenomenoliogical Analysis (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009). Data was collected by using semi-structured interviews which were subsequently transcribed and analysed using an inductive, iterative approach that starts with the particular and builds up themse. Four master themes emerged from the data analysis comprising eight sub-themes. The findings suggest that bereavement is a unique experience that can be influenced by a variety of factors, and which can challenge one's sense of self and social identity. It can also result in personal growth and renewal as the bereaved relearn the world and reconstruct their identity. A major finding was the theme relating to the interface between the personal and professional and how continued professional development, including supervision, informed the participants' practice. Finally, the findings suggest that through the process of working through their own grief, the particpants' personal experience results in enhanced empathic understanding and connectedness in their therapuetuc relationships. The findings are generally consistent with other research in this area, although there are also significant differences. Further research in this area could involve a longtudinal study on the relationship between the changing impact on practice and the evolving process of grieving.
    • Beyond the stereotypes: An exploration of female counsellors’ experience of working with male survivors of sexual abuse

      Parnell, Tony; Archdeacon, Jane (University of Chester, 2012-10)
      This study examines the experience of female counsellors working with male survivors of sexual abuse in the context of the social conditions which are brought into therapy by both the counsellor and the client. The concept of male sexual abuse stands in stark contrast to the notion of masculinity and male survivors often face the additional distress of their perceived failure to live up to our cultural notions of what it is to be a real man. Counsellors are exposed to the same cultural conditioning and bring preconceptions into therapy. This qualitative phenomenological study explored the experience of four female person-centred counsellors using semi-structured face to face interviews. The findings indicate that the counsellors were aware of the impact of social conditioning on their clients and recognised the additional distress this may cause. They were also aware of their own preconceptions about masculinity but seemed less conscious of the lingering impact that traditional gender role stereotyping has on their emotional responses to their clients. The participants found this work challenging personally and yet their commitment to their clients enabled them to offer a deep therapeutic relationship. Their clients were ready to work and fully engaged in the therapeutic process and somehow together they managed to find a healing space beyond the stereotypes.
    • Biomechanical variables of the Yurchenko Vault

      Eden, Lorna (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The first aim was to identify the key temporal and spatial biomechanical variables of the Yurchenko vault from the deterministic model in relation to judges’ score. Secondly, to identify differences between international and national level gymnasts of temporal and spatial biomechanical variables identified in the deterministic model. Twenty female gymnasts, divided into national or international level gymnasts, were filmed using two 300 Hz cameras placed perpendicular to the movement. The data were manually digitised using an 18-point model and filtered using a Butterworth’s low pass filter of 6 Hz. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to identify the relationship between biomechanical variables and judges’ score. Independent t-tests were used to compare national to international level gymnasts. A significant correlation to judges’ score was found for body angle at vault touchdown (p = 0.002) and post-flight time (p = 0.027). Furthermore, a significant difference (p < 0.001) for five out of 31 variables were found between national and international level gymnasts which included; pre-flight time, post-flight time, body angle at vault touchdown, shoulder angle at vault touchdown, and vertical velocity at vault take-off. In conclusion, to perform a high scoring vault, it is important to minimise the body angle at vault touchdown and maximise the post-flight time. Finally, international level gymnasts’ exhibited a shorter pre-flight time and a lower body angle at vault touchdown, whereas national level gymnasts demonstrated a lower shoulder angle at vault touchdown, a lower vertical velocity at vault take-off and a shorter post-flight time.
    • Blood lactate responses of heart failure patients to cardiac rehabilitation exercise

      Marriott, Helen (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      This review paper looks at blood lactate responses of heart failure (HF) patients during exercise, in comparison to healthy individuals and following exercise training. HF patients exhibit significantly higher lactate levels compared to healthy controls during sub‐maximal exercise at the same workloads. Exercise training can significantly reduce these lactate levels at matched sub‐maximal workloads in HF patients. Resting lactate levels in HF patients are generally no different to healthy individuals, but patients with lower functional capacity due to more advanced HF may exhibit higher levels. There is no evidence of resting lactate levels being reduced following exercise training. Lactate levels at peak exercise capacity are significantly lower in HF patients compared to healthy individuals. No significant differences in peak lactate levels have been noted following endurance exercise training, although significant increases in peak lactate have been seen following a combined endurance/resistance exercise programme. Although there is lots of published data on blood lactate levels during laboratory‐based exercising testing in this patient group, to date there appears to be no published data of blood lactate levels in HF patients in an applied setting, i.e. during cardiac rehabilitation exercise sessions.
    • Breaking the silence: Exploring the impact of pregnancy loss on women who delayed childbirth and remain childless

      Swinton, Valda; Sives, Amanda (University of Chester, 2014-11)
      Pregnancy loss and involuntary childlessness have long been recognised as having potentially devastating impacts on women who desire to be biological mothers. Despite the existence of a number of studies in these areas, no research has been undertaken which explores the relationship between postponing pregnancy, pregnancy loss and childlessness. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of six women who underwent pregnancy loss at an advanced maternal age and remain childless. The findings illustrate the multiple losses that result, not only is there a loss of a hoped for child but also of an expected, anticipated future. The study explores how women experienced these painful processes as deeply isolating, how they impacted on their sense of self and how they struggled to rewrite a new future. The research demonstrates the continuing silence surrounding pregnancy loss and involuntary childlessness and highlights the fundamental importance of acknowledging the immediate pain and the lingering sadness associated with being childless. It contributes to an understanding of the multiple losses experienced and in doing so, hopes to raise awareness in counsellors of the depth of the existential crisis and the need for the multiple losses to be acknowledged and validated.
    • Brexit and its psychological impact: A qualitative study on the well-being of EU-citizens based in the UK

      Shepman, Astrid; Reimers, Kristin (University of Chester, 2018)
      Research on the relationship between well-being and environmental factors demonstrated that adverse living conditions and extreme life events can have temporary or longer lasting effects on the well-being of individuals, depending on the severity of the event and the resilience of those affected. This qualitative study aimed to investigate how Brexit impacted the well-being of EU-citizens living in the UK. By applying thematic analysis, 43 testimonies of individuals who shared their personal Brexit story, were analysed, revealing three main themes: ‘living with uncertainty’, ‘experiencing discrimination’ and ‘identity questioned’. Discussing these themes in light of previous research, this study suggests Brexit affected contributor’s subjective, psychological and social well-being negatively and was potentially traumatising for individuals of vulnerable groups. Although the majority of EU-citizens are likely to recover to their former level of well-being after Brexit, further studies on this population are needed to investigate how many EU-citizens are in need of professional help to overcome the psychological impact Brexit had on their lives. “Brexit means Brexit” for Theresa May but what it means for EU-citizens living in the UK seems to be defined by their current living situation and their resilience.
    • British handball: How can performance analysis aid the coaching process?

      Worsfold, Paul R.; Connelly, Christopher D. (University of Chester, 2013)
      Despite being the second most popular team sport in Europe (Beech, 2012) handball in Britain it is a developmental sport, trailing behind the majority of Europe in both playing standard and talent pool (England Handball Progress Report, 2011). A crucial factor in the development of youth players is the impact from a coach (Fry; 2010), with performance feedback from a coach essential in aiding athlete improvement (Carling, Williams & Riley, 2005). The purpose of the study was to investigate coach recollection in elite adolescent British handball to explore if the use of Performance Analysis (PA) could aid the coaching process. To further the research into how PA can aid the coaching process, the study also aimed to examine whether game outcome (winning or losing) affects coach recollection. The study gathered results in two sections: firstly 8 coaches completed questionnaires which explored previously defined key indicators of handball performance immediately following three competitive games and secondly data on the same indicators was generated using PA. Following data collection the results were compared and statistically analysed using chi-square goodness of fit tests and tests of independence. Findings of the study reinforce previous literature which has examined coach recollection capabilities, with an overall recollection rate of 33.10% of all indicators. This is similar to the majority of PA studies, which typically discuss the inadequacy of coaches to recall any greater than 40% of pertinent information (e.g. Franks & Miller’s, 1986). The study also found that coaches more frequently recalled attacking indicators correctly compared to defensive ones, as well as having more competent recollection ability when a game was lost as opposed to won. These findings not only add to current literature on the subject but also offer insights into potential areas were the coaching process could be aided. This in turn promotes the use of PA, which could potentially aid the development of elite level adolescent British Handball.
    • The British media's portrayal of Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon deviant burials with emphasis on the vampire myth

      Williams, Howard; Guilliano, Shameem (University of Chester, 2013)
      The aim of this dissertation is to discuss and investigate how the British online media portrays discoveries of deviant burials, particularly decapitation burials from Roman Britain, early Anglo-Saxon and late Anglo-Saxon periods, as well as some recent Eastern European discoveries. An investigation into how the media portray deviant burials and whether they are quicker to call deviant or decapitated burials ‘vampire burials’ in Eastern European examples due to their history of vampire folklore will also take place. Finally, comments made by the public on these online news stories will be analysed in order to understand how society is reacting and viewing these stories within their wider context. The main focus will be on decapitation burials suggested to be ‘vampire’ burials, or burials used solely for the purpose of burying those who were feared would return as vampires once deceased.
    • Building from the middle: How middle managers construct their identities both as leaders and followers

      Page, Steve; Rostron, Alison I. (University of Chester, 2009-06)
      This dissertation addresses the question of identity construction in the middle manager role, and seeks to integrate contemporary research on identity construction and leader-follower identity with research on the position of the manager “in the middle”. A conceptual model, the Middle Manager Role Matrix, is developed which identifies and interprets varying descriptions of middle manager behaviour within the context of key choices facing middle managers: whether to act as leaders or followers, and whether to prioritise relationships with subordinates or superordinates. The Middle Manager Role Matrix is tested through a case study of the Team Leader role within a large public sector organisation, using qualitative methods. The findings of the case study support the validity of the Middle Manager Role Matrix and the thesis that middle manager identity construction is related to the choices of leader/follower behaviour and subordinate/superordinate relationships. The dissertation therefore proposes ways in which the Middle Manager Role Matrix might be further refined, tested and integrated with existing models of leader-follower identity construction.
    • Business process re-engineering in local government: Does one size fit all?

      Thomas, Neil (University of Chester, 2006-09)
      Organisational Change is firmly on Liverpool City Councils agenda, however managing change to achieve successful outcomes and at the same time maintain buy in from the workforce, often seems like to much to ask. Change will mean different routines, different processes, and quite often different surroundings; therefore opposition can often be fierce from those who have embedded themselves in a silo mentality, and refuse to look beyond their normal daily duties. Many fail to recognise that change is inevitable. By ensuring Liverpool City Council provides quality cost effective services, the executive management team is providing customers with services they want, and workers with long term employment prospects. With this in mind, the executive management team has chosen Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) to implement organisational change. Critics, however argue that BPR has served its purpose and LCC is now in danger of pursuing a course of action without proof of its success across the public spectrum, or an explanation as to the rationale behind the strategic decision made by the Executive Management team? Change can be introduced using various techniques. Investing all available resources into BPR as a vehicle for bringing about change, may prove costly if the skills and abilities of staff are lost during the process and the desired outcomes are not achieved. BPR like TQM or Benchmarking, is accepted as an effective tool for managing change, however there is very little research carried out to support the view that it is effective in all areas of public services. If LCC adopt a one size fits all approach, it may be in danger of becoming entrapped pursuing a process that many believe has served its purpose. There has been extensive research carried out as to the value of BPR as a change management tool, but little in service areas that cannot repetitively follow a process approach. The purpose of this report is to critically evaluate BPR s value in service areas that historically provide services to the most vulnerable members of our community, and asks whether LCC is in danger of running down high quality services, in pursuit of its vision to become a City with services rated quantitatively, as excellent. The methodological approach to the research was focused on a select group of people who had recently undergone change, experiencing BPR both in its use and implementation, and are therefore in the best position to offer personal perspectives on its strategic and operational use. The main methods used include a basic yes / no questionnaire for quantitative feedback and semi structured interviews to capture perspective on its qualitative value. The semi structured interviews proved most valuable in that much of the information, while not being tangible in quantitative terms, was excellent for offering personal insight into what works and why. The data gathered can be found in chapter 4 and is split into ten data display tables. None of the details of the interviews have been omitted, as all participants agreed to allow all the information to be used in the final report. Both methods proved useful in that they enriched the research with valuable insight into people’s perspectives, and offered a holistic view on BPR as a change management tool. Further, a lot of useful information was gained which can be used to improve the process during future change. Given the limitations of this study it is recommended that any conclusions are put in perspective before changes to any current processes are made. Further research would be necessary to underpin the findings in this study, albeit this piece of work may serve to identify if it is indeed necessary to explore the topic in greater detail. The findings in Chapter 4 provide a brief yet interesting insight into the outcomes of the research and can be directly linked to the research question. In the main most of the participants in the research agree that there are three key themes to emerge. They are: • Lack of Consultation • Poor Communication • Poor Information Management These three themes are further discussed in the conclusions in Chapter 5 and the recommendations in Chapter 6.
    • Business project for Morakot Gallery: Focusing on the Chester, Cheshire market

      Webb, Paul; Sinlapawanich, Supapat (University of Chester, 2011-11)
      This dissertation considers whether it would be feasible for the jewellery shop MORAKOT GALLERY to open a business in Chester, Cheshire. The research presents perspectives on the decision making process, marketing strategies, consumer behaviour, the Internet and E-commerce of a focus group of people who specifically live in Chester, Cheshire. The study includes academic references used to compare and contrast the jewellery business around the world as well as in the UK. The study shows that the focus group seems to love the products from MORAKOT GALLERY, making positive comments about them. The study also shows that demographic factors influence the views of the focus group. The study, therefore, provides suggestions for MORAKOT GALLERY’s future business strategy.
    • Business/IT alignment during a post merger integration

      Holman, Dennis; Marley, Andy (University of Chester, 2009-10)
      Alignment between an Information Technology (IT) function and the organisation it serves is the process that drives successful investments in the effective and efficient use of IT to reduce internal and external business costs, and to create a competitive edge. Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) have a high impact on the organisations involved and the stressful post-merger integration process often includes anxiety, restructuring, and a new corporate identity, all of which create a high degree of uncertainty for those involved. This research project considers the subject of Business/IT alignment within the time-frame of a post-merger IT integration. Within this period of great change the IT function needs to plan and execute a complex project that joins together the Information Systems (IS), IT infrastructure, and IT staff of two companies, while balancing the needs of the Business to take advantage of the positives, and avoid the negatives of its new position. Specifically this study examines the key factors relating to Business/IT alignment at a tactical level that contribute to a successful IT integration, using a case study of a single manufacturing business unit, adding to the knowledge of the IT governance subject. i A key alignment criterion and two individual alignment factors\were identified from the case study as supporting Business and IT strategies during a post-merger IT integration.
    • Bystander behaviour in response to traditional/cyber bullying scenarios: a consideration of victimisation/perpetration, empathy and severity

      Boulton, Michael J.; Macaulay, Peter (University of Chester, 2016)
      The current study aimed to investigate bystander behaviour across traditional and cyber bullying scenarios that changed in severity: mild, moderate and severe. Participant’s victimisation/perpetration and emotional/cognitive traits were also measured and considered in respect to bystander behaviour. A total of 868 adolescent pupils’ (males: N = 458, females: N = 410) completed a self-report questionnaire comprising of three hypothetical traditional and cyber bullying scenarios respectively that increased in severity. Victimisation/perpetration and emotional/cognitive trait items were also included within the questionnaire. The findings showed that positive bystander behaviour was higher in cyber compared to traditional bullying, with females showing higher positive bystander behaviours in both traditional and cyber bullying scenarios. No relationship of age was found. A positive relationship was found between victimisation and perpetration experience in both types of bullying, although victimisation experience was not associated with positive bystander behaviour. With the exception of traditional perpetration, cyber perpetration was associated with negative bystander behaviour where males had higher perpetration scores compared to females in both types of bullying. No gender differences on victimisation were found. Findings to support previous literature on empathy were found. It was found that severity did have an effect on bystander behaviour with more severe scenarios leading to positive bystander behaviour in both types of bullying, although no difference between severe traditional or cyber were found. The practical application of these findings encourages educators and intervention developers to utilise adolescent’s bystander knowledge to reduce bullying acts in the school environment. Future research should examine the effect of bystander awareness training on adolescent’s positive bystander behaviour across two time periods.