• Validating the MyFitnessPal mobile application in assessing dietary intake against the 7-day food diary: a randomised cross-over pilot study

      Al-Hassan, Soondus M. (University of Chester, 2016-09)
      Background: Collecting accurate dietary records that represents habitual intake is essential for investigating future individual risk of chronic diseases in clinical and epidemiological research. Due to the many limitations in conventional methods presented in existing reviews, the search for more accurate methods that can reduce respondent burden and costs has been encouraged. The use of smartphone technology to develop more reliable measures of dietary intake has been on the rise in response to increasing popularity of smartphones in the population. MyFitnessPal is a highly rated dietary application designed for weight loss and diet-tracking and is available commercially for free on iTunes and Google app stores. Aim: The present study aimed to validate MyFitnessPal to facilitate dietary assessment against a reference measure of 7-day estimated food diaries. Methods: A sample of 16 volunteers were randomly allocated to record their dietary intake using either the MyFitnessPal application or the 7-day estimated food diary before crossing-over to the alternative dietary assessment method for 7 consecutive days each. Mean daily intakes of nutrients recorded on both methods were compared using paired t-tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess for agreement between the two methods. The Goldberg and Black approach was used to identify implausible energy reporters by directly comparing energy intakes with energy expenditure. Results: Paired-t tests demonstrated no statistically significant difference between mean intakes of nutrients reported between the 7-day food diary and MyFitnessPal, 42 | P a g e except for water (p=0.004). However, all dietary variables were lower with the MFP method compared to the 7FD method. An analysis of the Bland-Altman plots presented agreement between the methods with small mean differences and minimal proportional bias. However, they showed wide limits of agreement signifying high levels of variability at the individual level. 75% of the sample were under-reporters with EIMFP:EE ratios and EI7FD:EE ratios below the 95% confidence limits. This study presented mean differences between EE and EI of -3.24 ± 2.20MJ for the 7FD and -3.75 ± 3.16MJ for the MFP app. Therefore, relative to EE, EI reported by the MFP was as accurate as the 7FD. Conclusion: At the group level, the MyFitnessPal app demonstrates potential but further investigation with a larger sample in addition to qualitative research of its acceptability is required to assess its feasibility as a dietary assessment method.
    • Validity and reliability of a modified version of the Chester Treadmill Walking Test (Police) as an alternative to the 15-Metre Multi-Stage Police Fitness Test

      Birks, Andrew (University of Chester, 2015-10)
      Police forces in England and Wales require new recruits and serving officers to pass an annual fitness test, reaching level 5:4 on the 15-metre MSFT, a predicted VO2max of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1. This current standard is based on linear regression analysis from directly measured V O2max during a treadmill protocol and number of shuttles achieved during the 15-metre MSFT. The oxygen cost at level 5:4 has not been attained during the 15-metre MSFT, and the reliability of this test has not be investigated, therefore, the present study aims to investigate whether level 5:4 requires an O2 cost of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1, and whether this is a repeatable measure. Due to police officers unable to complete the 15-metre MSFT due to musculoskeletal impairments, the CTWT, used within the fire service, has been proposed as an alternative occupational fitness test. A modified version of the CTWT (Police) requires a constant treadmill speed of 6 km·h−1 with 3% increments in treadmill gradient every 2 minutes up until 10 minutes (12% gradient), when predicted V O2 of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1 will have been achieved. The validity and reliability of this test has not been examined using direct measurement of V O2, therefore, prior to potential inclusion as an alternative fitness test, the validity and reliability of the test require investigation to determine whether 10 minutes is a valid and reliable measure of 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1, demonstrating that successful completion requires a VO2max of at least 35 mL · min–1 · kg–1.
    • The validity of predicting O2max from perceptually regulated treadmill exercise

      Morris, Mike; Hayton, John (University of Chester, 2008-06)
      Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting O2max from sub-maximal O2 values elicited during perceptually-regulated treadmill exercise tests. Methods: Eleven males and seven females with a mean age of 21.7 (±2.8) years completed three identical sub-maximal, perceptually-guided graded exercise tests (PGXTs) on a motorised treadmill and a final maximal graded exercise test (GXT) to establish O2max. Participants performed testing over a ten day period, allowing for two days rest between tests. When performing the PGXTs participants were required to produce intensities corresponding to levels 9, 11, 13 and 15 on Borg’s 6-20 ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale, in that order. Each RPE production level was performed for three minutes, measurements of O2 and heart rate were measured continuously and recorded in the final 30 seconds of each level. The Bruce protocol was selected for the maximal GXT ( O2maxGXT). Individual linear regression relationships between RPE and O2 for the RPE ranges of 9-15, 9-13 and 9-11 were extrapolated to both RPE19 and RPE20. Results: For the RPE range 9-15 prediction accuracy improved with practice across consecutive trials reporting 50.0±10.1, 49.1±8.1, and 47.3±6.9 ml•kg-1•min-1 for trials 1, 2 and 3 respectively, as the actual mean O2max reported was 48.0±6.2. The third and final trial produced the best LoA between predicted and actual O2max of -0.6±7.1 ml•kg-1•min-1, therefore achieving a worst case scenario range of 6.5 ml•kg-1•min-1 below the criterion O2max score and 7.7 ml•kg-1•min-1 above. Consistency soundly improved between trials reporting LoA of 0.90±12.3 between trial 1 and 2, and 1.72±8.50 between 2 and 3. However, the RPE ranges 9-11 and 9-13 decreased in accuracy and consistency from consecutive trials and thus reported considerably less favourable LoA analyses. The closest predictions to actual O2max when using the 9-13 and 9-11 range were generated from the first trial, providing poor worst case scenario ranges of 18.6 – 18.9 ml•kg-1•min-1 and 16.9 – 32.2 ml•kg-1•min-1, respectively. Conclusions: The data suggest that a sub-maximal, perceptually-guided, graded treadmill exercise protocol can provide acceptable estimates of O2max when employing a perceptual range including at least a high order RPE of 15. Estimates are further improved with practice in young, healthy individuals. The poor predictive performance when using the RPE ranges 9-11 and 9-13 were attributed to less apparent sensations of exertion.
    • Value proposition analysis for solid state lighting: A case study of Ahmedali Ahmed Electrical Contracting; Marketing the product in the Kingdom of Bahrain

      Black, Kate; Vinsend, Justin (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      The proposition given to a product or service in terms of its worth given by a customer is researched and analysed to find the underlying factors contributing to the value. The study is undertaken to investigate the different factors that lays ground for increased ‘Customer value’ and ‘Product Value’. The research objective is to find the “Value Proposition Analysis for Solid State Lighting: a Case Study AhmedAli Ahmed Electrical Contracting; Marketing the product in the Kingdom of Bahrain” Most businesses generate profits, when the customers give a certain value(s) to the service/product provided by the business entity. This could involve many attributes to consider. The project overlooks in to this value significantly to understand the attributes that collectively contributes to ‘Valued Relation’ between the customer and the business. This is achieved by making effective use of literature suggested by various authors and by employing research strategies to validate the literature through the findings. The research also looks in to the case study organisation to fully understand the capabilities of the company to market the product. Thus, this analysis will be specifically looking in to the value proposition given to Solid State Lighting by the current UK customers and by clients of AhamedAli Ahmed Electrical Contracting, Kingdom of Bahrain. However, this analysis must viewed critically, as the product comes at a premium price and the study will be much centred in the Kingdom of Bahrain and cannot be generalised for the other GCC countries or the Middle East. This study is focused to generate strategies in marketing Solid State Lighting in Bahrain taking A.A.E as the Case Study Organisation understanding the Value Proposition for Solid State Lighting.
    • Viral marketing in the music industry: How independent musicians utilise online peer-to-peer communications

      Marmion, Maeve; George, Sam (University of Chester, 2017-10)
      The aim of this research was to critically examine the use of viral marketing within the music industry. Specifically, how peer to peer communications can be utilised to gain a higher following. This was achieved by researching the uses of peer-to-peer communications through social media, the role of branding in the music industry and how specific audiences can be targeted through online platforms. Although there has been substantial research into the use of online peer-to-peer communications throughout various industries, there has been limited academic insight into how viral marketing is utilised within the music industry. However, with the use of online peer-to-peer communications becoming increasingly prevalent, it is a critical area for academics to consider. Due to this gap in literature, this research may be regarded as innovative. To ensure that the full context surrounding the research question was considered, the study was approached from an interpretivist stance and qualitative methods were used. By conducting semi-structured interviews, the researcher was able to collect deep and insightful data based on the narrative of each participant. Although there were key differences throughout the data, there were several themes that were consistent throughout. As social networks are a lucrative platform from utilising a viral marketing strategy, several participants suggested that it is essential for musicians to use a variety of them. The results showed that throughout the music industry it is crucial to develop a strong brand image and remain consistent within this. The research also suggested that consumers who are engaged with a brand are more likely to engage in peer-to-peer communications. As the most likely demographic to engage in peer-to-peer communications, this research suggested that millennials would be the most beneficial group to target a viral marketing strategy towards. As the sample contained participants from various roles within the music industry, each of whom had different motivations, performed separate styles of music and were at various stages of their career, it could be argued that this research contained too many variables and therefore, lacked depth. However, the aim of this research was to analyse the similarities and differences between a variety of roles within the music industry, therefore, collecting a multitude of data was the intention of the researcher. During the time of conducting, this research could have been considered innovative, due to not only the gap in literature, but also because of the relevance of the current uses of technology. However, due to the constant evolutions in modern technology, what may have been considered current at the time of research, may not be as relevant in future years. Therefore, similar research may need to be considered in future years.
    • Vitamin and micronutrient supplement advice given to post-bariatric surgery patients by UK dietitians

      Fallows, Stephen; Towers, Catherine (University of Chester, 2009)
      This study was to determine the vitamin and micro-nutrient supplementation recommendations made by UK registered dietitians to patients following bariatric surgery. There is a well recognised risk of nutritional deficit following bariatric surgery. Twenty one members (10.5%) of “Dietitians in Obesity Management UK” responded to an anonymous on-line survey about their bariatric activity and nutritional recommendations to patients following “food limiting” and “nutrient absorption limiting” surgery. Nine respondents had each consulted with over 100 patients last year, with 85% of dietitians’ caseloads being within the NHS. Compared against the 2007 Inter-disciplinary European Guidelines on Surgery of Severe Obesity, 90% of dietitians were meeting the recommended nutritional supplement guidelines for food limiting procedures. Only one respondent (5%) was meeting the supplementation guidelines for nutrient absorption limiting procedures. Two dietitians were recommending additional vitamin or micro-nutrients to their patients’ general vitamin and micro-nutrient supplement following food limiting procedures. Four out of twenty dietitians, with smaller caseloads, were only recommending a general vitamin and micro-nutrient supplement to patients following nutrient absorption limiting procedures. The range of nutritional composition of products named by the dietitians was substantial, with iron, vitamin B12, calcium and vitamin D levels below those known to prevent common nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Only five respondents (25%) stated that the results of laboratory tests influenced their recommendations. Increasing the awareness of the nutritional needs to this group of patients to all healthcare practitioners and exploration of the use of bariatric surgery specific nutritional supplements may reduce to risk of patients’ nutritional deficit.
    • Vitamin D status and shift work

      Davies, Luke (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      In the UK, there has long been a need for consuming foods high in vitamin D in order to prevent diseases associated with low bone mineral density such as osteoporosis in adults and rickets in children. It has been claimed that potentially, 50% of the UK adult population are vitamin D insufficient in winter and spring time, actual deficiency may be 16%. Those workers who commence their working hours in the evening may be deprived of vitamin D synthesising UVB. Moreover, the physical maladaption to altered circadian rhythms experienced by many shift and, particularly, night workers has been identified as a leading cause of change to dietary intake. The previous literature has documented associations between nocturnal working schedules and adverse health effects. The influence of working place shift schedules i.e. night and day shifts, on vitamin D status has not been researched extensively.
    • W. E. Gladstone: A love for trees and tree-felling

      Sewter, Peter (University of Chester, 2007)
      It is the aim of this dissertation to focus on William Gladstone's love of trees, his plantings and tree-felling, and with a section reflecting public interest in his hobby and its use by the press and others to make a political point.
    • Weaning: Risk factors for the development of overweight and obesity in childhood - a systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Kendall, Rebecca (University of Chester, 2011-09-08)
      Weaning practices including the age of the infant at time of weaning, nutritional composition of the weaning diet and rapid weight gain have been suggested to be risk factors for overweight and obesity in childhood. The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between weaning practices and overweight and obesity in childhood (from birth to 18yrs) and to identify the risk factors associated with weaning for overweight and obesity in childhood (birth to 18yrs). This was achieved through a systematic review of relevant literature, identified using a number of databases such as CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and through searching individual journals. Inclusion criteria consisted of children’s age 0-18yrs, details on stage of and weaning diet, studies published in English from 2000-2010 and human studies. The quality of the methodology of studies was assessed using the Downs & Black (1998) quality assessment tool. Thirteen studies out of an original 67 were included in the review. Study sizes varied from 90 to 10,553 subjects and quality assessment scores ranged from 14 to 23. All of the studies which considered the relationship between age at introduction of complementary foods and weight gain found those infants weaned before 16 weeks (wks) gained more weight than those weaned later; these findings were more significant in those infants who were not breastfed or breastfed for less than 4wks. One study (from 5) found a significant relationship between the age at introduction of complementary foods and overweight and obesity. Four studies (from 5) reported a significant relationship between nutritional composition of the weaning diet during the first year of life and overweight; the most significant effect being that of protein as a percentage of energy intake. The evidence for the impact of early weaning on adiposity levels, overweight and/ or obesity remains is inconsistent. Findings suggest that there is no relationship between adiposity and BMI in childhood with early weaning practices. However, the introduction of complementary foods before 16wks was shown to lead to greater weight gain in early childhood (independent of other confounding factors), especially in those infants who are fed formula food or is only breastfed for less than 4wks, which in turn could lead to overweight and obesity in later childhood. High protein intake (as percentage of energy) is strongly suggested to influence weight gain during infancy and BMI in early childhood.
    • The weaver at the loom: A discussion of Guy Gavriel Kay’s use of myth and legend in The Fionavar Tapestry

      McColvin, Sarah (University of Chester, 2013-09)
      This work will examine the ways in which contemporary fantasy author, Guy Gavriel Kay, uses myths and legends in the construction of his high fantasy trilogy, The Fionavar Tapestry by demonstrating the thematic and structural similarities between these genres. It will do so by analysing some of the myths and legends used in Kay’s texts. These come from a variety of sources including Celtic, Norse and Greek mythology; Judeo-Christian myths; and some of the legends associated with King Arthur. It will also show the connections between these myths and legends as they often utilise similar themes or have a shared heritage. For accounts of the Arthurian legends this study has used those given in Le Morte d’Arthur and The Mabinogion, though there are many other sources available. In order to demonstrate the structural connections, this work will apply the theories of Vladimir Propp as established in the Morphology of the Folktale. However, the complexity of the narratives in fantasy literature as compared to the simplicity of folktales and what that means for the application of the ‘Functions of Dramatis Personae’ will also be explored. The choices Kay makes concerning the names of characters and places within his trilogy will be examined alongside their legendary counterparts.
    • Web-based information systems: An assessment of impact

      Page, Steve; Holman, Dennis (University College ChesterUniversity College Chester, 2003-05)
      Chester College developed its first formal Information Strategy in 1999, within which was the major commitment to develop an integrated web-based information system to replace the majority of unintegrated and/or paper-based systems used across the institution. The system, ‘IBIS’ (Internet-Based Information System), was seen as a major driver for instigating change and had a broad range of objectives beyond the purely functional ones, including the changing of work practices and a realignment of attitudes and culture. In 2001 College committees received a summary of functional changes resulting from IBIS. However, a number of authors suggest that to gain a real understanding of the impact which an information system has achieved within its organisation it is necessary to take into account a whole range of issues, attitudes, and perceptions at both individual and workgroup level. To date no such appraisal has been undertaken within Chester College, though the available literature suggests that the College is anything but unique in this as few firms successfully undertake the exercise in practice. This present research study was therefore undertaken in order to assess the impact that IBIS had achieved during its first four years of development and implementation. A questionnaire, the design of which was informed by a literature survey and exploratory interviews with three staff, was issued to 55 current academic staff members who had been employed full-time by the institution prior to the introduction of IBIS. The 50 responses were analysed in tabular form for perceived impacts upon individuals, workgroups and the institution as a whole. The conclusion reached was that, overall, IBIS has achieved a positive impact within the College and the potential benefits identified within the 1999 strategy were being achieved. However, a number of issues were identified from the analysis which were leading to the potential impact being lessened for certain individuals and workgroups, resulting in some loss of organisational efficiency and effectiveness. Recommendations are proposed to address these issues.
    • Weight loss intervention trial comparing intermittent low carbohydrates versus continuous Mediterranean diet

      Todd, Sandra (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Intermittent low carbohydrate diet (ILCD) may result in greater overall weight loss and body fat % than a daily restricted Mediterranean diet (DRMD). Overweight women (BMI 25kg/m2 - <32.4kg/m2) (n 85) aged 25- 65 years on healthy women not on any medication were randomised to a continuous 25% daily energy restriction in both groups, to either a DRMD (7d/ week) or ILCD (<20% carbohydrates for 2d/ week consecutively then follow a DRMD 5d/week) for a twelve week weight- loss period. Body fat % reduced with the DRMD (median -2.9kg (95% CI: -2.6, -2.1) and the ILCD diet (median -2.9kg (95% CI: -2.3, -2.0). Reductions were not significantly different between the two diets. Reductions in weight loss in the DRMD (median -1.7kg (95% CI: -1.6, -0.1) and ILCD (median -1.0kg (95% CI: -1.5, -1.0) between groups also showed no statistical difference. Waist reduction in the DRMD (mean -5.7cm (95% CI: -5.8, - 40 5.5) and in the ILCD (mean -5.6cm (95% CI: -3.6, -5.8) with greater reductions in the DRMD compared to the ILCD group was significant (mean -0.1cm (95% CI: -2.2, -0.3, P= 0.04). Hip reduction in the DRMD (median -4.3cm (95% CI: -4.6, -4.2) and in the ILCD (median -3.7cm (95% CI: -4.6, -1.2) with greater reductions in the DRMD compared to ILCD group was also significant (median -0.6cm (95 CI: -0.0, -3.0, P= 0.02). Both diets overall are just as effective and there is no evidence that ILCD is superior for fat loss than a DRMD. In the short term DRMD is comparable to ILCD with respect to waist (P = 0.04) and hip circumference (P = 0.02). Drop out rate was low (11%) compared to previous studies (22%- 25%). Long- term studies into the effectiveness and adherence to the ILCD diet are warranted and rejects both hypotheses.
    • What are the maximum protein requirements of strength athletes? A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Foster, Brandon (University of Chester, 2008-09-30)
      Protein intakes above the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult males have been suggested to be essential in accreting lean body mass, particularly in active individuals. Though, what is the maximum protein requirement of strength athletes in order to maximise their performance. A systematic review was conducted on all primary literature to establish the maximum protein requirements of strength athletes. A comprehensive search strategy involving searches of six electronic databases and ‘grey’ literature were conducted. The search was restricted to studies published after 1986 to the present day. All primary research literature that presented the effect of total dietary protein intake on lean body mass was included. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for methodological quality using the Downs and Black checklist. 4 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, although only 3 studies met the quality assessment criteria; two randomised trials and one non-randomised trial. Statistically non-significant trends (p>0.05) deriving from muscle mass measurements, determined that the maximum protein requirement for strength athletes to be a moderate quantity of 1.4g/kg Bw/day. Similar results were shown in all three studies. There is a sparsity of evidence and an inconsistency in the methodological designs between trials, regarding what the maximum protein requirement of strength athletes to be. Yet, it is likely to be a moderate protein intake, rather than a high protein intake.
    • What are University of Chester staff perceptions of the role of Chester Students’ Union in relation to the student experience at Chester?

      Webb, Paul; Hodkinson, Ruth (University of Chester, 2013-06)
      Research suggests that Students’ Unions (SU) role has changed over the years. Historically, SUs were viewed as political and debating organisations and then moving far more towards extracurricular and commercial areas. This attracted negative press and has resulted in the work of SUs not always being portrayed as positive or professional. Research suggests there has recently been a shift by SUs to re-establish their core role of representation. This is due to a number of factors including, National Students Survey (NSS) and National Union of Students (NUS)/Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) initiatives encouraging far more emphasis on student experience whilst working in partnership with their Universities to ensure the student voice is heard through their SUs. This research has undertaken a qualitative approach, using semi structured interviews with 8 University of Chester staff (UoC) staff to gauge university staff perceptions of the role of Chester Students’ Union (CSU) and how this contributes to student experience. Findings from these interviews suggested staff were aware of the role of a SU and the core role of representation. However when questioned about the existing working partnership with CSU their knowledge was fragmented and relied on professional/personal experiences rather than overall awareness. Commercial and social aspects of the role of CSU were far more apparent. The role of representation was noted as being ineffective. If SUs are only being observed by their universities for their social activities rather than a professional partner within student experience this could have negative results for funding and functions of SUs in future. Recommendations have been made to address issues of effective engagement of students, representation and partnership working with the university. This will be addressed with an implementation plan presented at strategic planning meetings.
    • What barriers are perceived to be preventers in a serviced based organisation realising business process management?

      Black, Kate; Artell, Victoria J. (University of Chester, 2013-06)
      The focus of this research is to consider what key factors can reduce the effectiveness of Business Process Management (BPM) within a service based organisation, more specifically within Organisation X. In order to benefit from the potential advantages of BPM, Organisation X needs to identify the challenges which are perceived by internal stakeholders which may hinder BPM within the business environment. Using a case study approach, the Delphi method was employed as a way to identify and rank the perceived barriers within Organisation X. Twenty-five different barriers were identified, six of which were deemed to have the greatest impact on BPM within Organisation X. Leadership was identified as the greatest barrier followed by Communication, Value of processes, Accountability, Motivation and finally, Culture. Although the barriers identified from the findings are broad topics within business literature as a whole, they should be considered in the context of BPM as well as within the wider organisational context. It is suggested that Organisation X continues to migrate from a traditional, functional, siloed based environment to a process driven environment. The list of barriers identified within the research gives Organisation X a starting point in which to focus their initial efforts of introducing BPM. However, it is important to consider the interdependencies that exist between barriers and the context descriptions provided by the participants.
    • What Can Politics Academic Practice Learn from the Experience Politics Students Have of Expressing Their Political Views?

      D'Artrey, Meriel P. (University of Chester, 2015-11)
      The aim of the research is to identify implications for the practice of Politics academics from the experience their students have of expressing their political views. This exploratory study is set within the wider debate of power and performativity in the HE classroom. It is situated in a study of practice and perceptions in one Department at the University of Chester and conducted through a review of the literature and empirical qualitative research with both Politics students and Politics academics. The research found that while Politics students wish to express their political views, these may not be their actual political views. Politics students indicate that the Politics academic can affect their expression of political views. They prefer academics who express their own political views and they do not like politically neutral academics. They may wish to know an academic’s political views in order to gain advantage for themselves. Knowing an academic’s political views enables the student to avoid expressing political views which some Politics academics find offensive. The research highlights the part played by power and performativity in the expressing of the Politics student’s political views and identifies some of the complexities arising from this. The practice outcomes provide guidance on how Politics academics can approach the issue of the Politics student’s expression of political views. This single case study’s value lies in these contributions to wider practice. Research is identified which will explore the findings further.
    • What does neuroscience offer us in understanding cognitive therapy and person-centred therapy for depression? A realist synthesis review

      Parnell, Tony; Ruby, Madi A. (University of Chester, 2011)
      A need for increased access to effective therapies for depression has been identified in the United Kingdom. There has been significant investment in Cognitive Therapy but a perceived lack of funding for alternatives. This study takes a pluralistic perspective in enquiring into what neuroscience offers us in understanding Cognitive Therapy and Person-Centred Therapy for Depression. This realist synthesis review provides a background of the theories, mapped for commonality in causality and therapy for depression. It examines neuroscience theory of depression and fMRI evidence of the effects of Cognitive Therapy and Person-Centred therapeutic concepts on the brain. This review highlights some of the limitations of scanning technology and the way that research within ‘schools’ interprets evidence from the perspective of a particular theory. This has led to evidence being presented for the case of cognitive control of emotion. The alternate hypothesis for emotional regulation was not tested in the studies reviewed despite being observed as the mechanism of change in drug therapy for depression. Since all disciplines and theories reviewed suggest the involvement of both cognitive and affective processes further research is suggested to clarify their interaction.
    • What does Paul say about the scope of salvation in his epistle to the Romans?

      Morris, Wayne; Henry, Joyphen C. (University of Chester, 2012-10)
      This study seeks to understand the argument for salvation in Romans and what meaning Paul intended for the reader. It will examine the different approaches to salvation, looking at exclusivism and its facets of justification by faith and the doctrine of election. It will also consider inclusivism and universalism and to a lesser extent pluralism. The principal part of the study will be focused on the key texts in the Epistle used by scholars as authority for their arguments. It will use tools of exegesis and historical-critical hermeneutics to determine the extent to which the different approaches are aligned to Paul’s theology on salvation.
    • What does the future hold for intermediate care?

      Proctor, Tony; Barry, Michelle (University of ChesterLiverpool City Council, 2007-08)
      Intermediate care (IC) is seen as a key element in government policy to reduce hospital waiting lists, it was developed to promote independence for older people by developing a range of integrated health and social care services fully networked into local hospital, community Health, social services and primary care services. It was specifically designed around the needs of older people to facilitate hospital discharges and prevent admissions in other words; it is a bridge between home and hospital. In some localities older people with mental health problems or varying degrees of cognitive impairment including dementia are deliberately being excluded from intermediate care. This is based on the assumption that older people with dementia cannot benefit from rehabilitation. The UK has an ageing population as a result of declines both in fertility rates and in the mortality rate. The older people population growth combined with the prevalence of dementia increasing with age has implications for local authorities, and to meet the challenges of an ageing society, and address the needs of all older people there needs to be a rethink in intermediate care service delivery. This study looks at planning and forecasting models that can be used to predict service demand and plan for future the future of IC. A total of seven authorities including Liverpool City Council (LCC) participated in this research. Interviews and surveys explored current service provision to determine what if any specialist intermediate care was available for older people with a diagnosis of dementia. It then went on to establish what if any planning and forecasting systems were being used by the authorities to assist in meeting the challenges of an ageing society. Results drawn from the data analysis showed that even among top performing authorities the approach to forecasting and forward planning is not very sophisticated, only a couple of authorities seem to be taking an objective, quantitative and systematic approach to determine future requirements in older peoples services.
    • What effect do formalised human resource procedures such as contracts and appraisals have on employee motivation in the hospitality industry

      Webb, Paul; Powell, Victoria (University of Chester, 2009-05)
      This paper examines the effects of formalised HR procedures on employee motivation in the hospitality sector. It has long been accepted that staff turnover, the ultimate sign of poor employee motivation, is very high within the hospitality industry (Thomas, 2006), This research attempts to establish whether this is affected by the presence or absence of formalised HR procedures. Rowley and Purcell (2001) and many others have discussed the possibility of 'turnover culture' within the industry and indeed whether it has been both borne from and reinforced by the industry itself, even to the point of it being accepted as 'tradition' for hospitality workers to develop their skills by moving between establishments. Unfortunately there is still an overall perception that there is ignorance towards the importance of human resource development as a contributing factor to service provision within the industry (Baum et al 1997). Coupled with this, leadership within the hospitality industry has historically been based on the principles of bureaucratic management, considering employees as a resource like any other; cost driven to achieve the goals of the organization (Lucas & Deery, 2004). This does not fall in line with current thinking on "best practice HRM". An investigation was undertaken into the level of presence of formalised HR procedures such as appraisals, interviews, personal development plans and contracts and compared with levels of employee turnover within the industry to detect any positive or negative correlation between the two. The report concludes and provides evidence that organisations within the industry would all benefit from implementing or improving HR procedures. The report also shows evidence that employee turnover positively correlates with increasing HR procedures cementing the recommendation that the hospitality industry should look to improve practices as a whole.