• The application of regression based normative profiling for international male Taekwondo performance

      Thomson, Edd; Milligan, Matthew (University of Chester, 2014-09-30)
      The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive accuracy of two regression based normative profiling methodologies (O’Donoghue & Cullinane, 2011; 2- Nonparametric regression) for the assessment of elite male Taekwondo performance. Following ‘inter-operator’ reliability analysis, retrospective performance data (319 performance indicators; 167 matches) was used for forty-eight elite senior male Taekwondo athletes (<58kg - <80kg) during participation across 22 major competitions between 2010 and 2013. The world rankings of all athletes were converted into relative quality ratings (RQ), with an RQ differential calculated for all respective matches. A Chi-Square χ2 test of independence was employed to identify the existence of a significance association between relative quality and match outcome. All data was then subjected to either Pearson’s r (O’Donoghue & Cullinane, 2011) or Kendall’s Tau (τ) (Non-Parametric regression) correlation analysis, where the performance indicators (n=34) deemed to bear the most meaningful relationships with relative quality were then included within the both profiling methodologies. The ‘standard error of estimate’ (SEE) and SEE% values were computed for all performance indicators and subjected to both Mann Whitney-U and binomial testing comparisons, from which the most accurate method was recruited to analyse a selected athlete. A Chi-square test of independence identified the validity of including relative quality within regression based performance profiling (χ2; P < .01). Non-parametric regression was found to exhibit moderately superior mean SEE and SEE% values, in addition to superior SEE and SEE% values for a greater proportion of the performance indicators of interest. It was concluded that non-parametric regression offered an advance upon previous profiling methodologies for the assessment of elite male Taekwondo performance.
    • The application of the 'COPED' theoretical framework model: A case study

      Whitehead, Paul (University of ChesterBusinessLiverpool, 2006-06)
      This dissertation has reviewed the past and present literature relating to business collaboration and partnerships, with particular reference to public-private sector joint ventures, to gain an insight into the barriers to success and an understanding of what methods have been recommended to overcome them. The evidence suggested that joint ventures partnerships, whilst increasing in popularity, are complex organisations that face many obstacles and are difficult to manage. However, little empirical research has been conducted into the application of a framework of best practice that might contribute towards the success of such partnership arrangements, despite the general consensus that a high proportion of them will encounter difficulties and ultimately fail. The work of Trafford and Proctor (2006) examined the important characteristics that go hand-in-hand with successful public-private joint venture partnerships and presented a theoretical model (COPED), which identified five key characteristics, which they argued, may be considered influential to their success. This led to the research question; Can a theoretical model of joint venture best practice be successfully applied in a case study situation? This research applied the principals of the 'COPED' model, to the case study of a recently formed public-private joint venture partnership (BusinessLiverpool), in an attempt to test its effectiveness at identifying emerging problems and thus enable timely and effective remedial action to be taken. The research strategy adopted a multi-method approach, through the use of survey and case study techniques and using a combination of semi-structured interviews to collect the qualitative data and a questionnaire to collect the quantitative data. Results obtained from the data analysis indicated a range off issues and opportunities evident within the case study organisation and also provided additional characteristics to that of the COPED model that may also be considered as important to the success of such partnerships. The theoretical model was therefore successfully applied, in that, the framework enabled a comprehensive analysis of staff perceptions and attitudes towards the characteristics viewed as important to the success of a joint venture partnership. As a result, a number of recommendations have been made to remedy the current situation and a checklist for future successful joint venture partnerships has been proposed.
    • An appraisal of the 7P's of marketing in respect of building surveying

      Rajkhowa, Gautam; Houghton, Gary (University of Chester, 2007-05)
      The key to long-term profitability for any professional is the creation of a service that states the needs and wants of one's clients and facilitates the exchange of those services in such a manner that provides value and satisfaction to the client. One creates these services through the combination and blend of a set of tools that are referred to as the marketing mix. We define the marketing mix as a set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that the firm blends to provide the result it wants in the target market. It might be useful to use an analogy of a combination lock. In a typical combination lock, you need to know the pattern of three numbers to successfully open the lock. In marketing a firm's services, we attempt to take everything that the firm can do to influence the demand for its services and organise them in such a manner that best meets the needs, wants and desires of the customer. Many combinations are possible with marketing's controllable varables, know as the seven P's. These P's are product, price, place, promotion, physical evidence, processes and people (Kotler & Armstrong 2001). Marketing has an important role to play as the organisation's interface with the environment. It is a "boundary-spanning organisational function through its constant interface with the external environment at large and with customers, competitors and channel members in particular" (Varadarajan 1992), as well as with the various groups within the organisation. The key role attributed to the marketing function is as a tool designed to maximise efficiency. Marketing has been very reluctantly adopted as a management tool by the professions. This dissertation addresses how the 7Ps framework can be applied to professional services given the intensity and complexity of environmental pressures they have been subjected. The research has focused on an appraisal of the 7 Ps when applied to several Building Surveying firms based in both United Kingdom and Brisbane Australia. The findings indicate that change within the building surveying profession only takes place if subjected to contingency pressures by their clients and, in general, it is slowed down due to the barriers of the profession itself. The study has revealed that building surveyors are torn between the pressures of change and the need for respectability and maintenance of the status quo. The adoption of the 7 P's of the marketing mix has been proven to be a powerful driver for change in terms of initiating and leading the marketing process. The review of perceptions of the concept and role of marketing within professional service firms has revealed generational differences, misconceptions and outright conflict leading to resistance to adopt the 7P"s framework in terms of its introduction and application, although professionals have individually practiced a wide variety of marketing activities in their pursuit of gaining and maintaining clients. There has been conspicuous resistance to the acceptance of marketing as a management tool across the building surveying professional service organisations. Understanding on how marketing has being practiced within the professional organisation researched has been considered important in establishing the nature of the response to contingency and institutional forces. The research has been focused on the level of importance given to marketing as a strategic tool as opposed to the traditional tactical, communications mainly tool.
    • Are fish and chips sustainable with climate change: What affects may this have on the British diet?

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Haywood, Elizabeth (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2008)
      There is increasing evidence that the world’s climate is changing. Many studies have looked into the economic and environmental consequences of this but fewer have researched the health impacts, in particular the effects climate change may have on our diet. This study aims to assess how climate change may affect the availability of a traditional British dish, “fish and chips”, and how this may affect the British diet in the future. A literature review was carried out to collate information on how the environment is likely to change and how this will affect fish and chip availability and production. A questionaire was designed and distributed to 140 participants from different age groups in order to identify how climate change is likely to affect the diets’ of different demographic groups of the UK population. The findings suggest that it is very likely that the potato crop will become commercially unviable in many parts of the UK, particularly the southeast, because of reduced yield due to drought stress and increases in extreme summer temperatures. With the increasing pressures of climate change, already over-exploited cod and haddock stocks are likely to have significantly reduced by the 2080s. It is likely that fisheries will develop to catch new warmer-water species, such as red mullet. The survey revealed that fish and chips as a dish and as individual food items are eaten widely across all demographic groups sampled in this study. Cod was the most commonly consumed white fish and potatoes were the most commonly consumed staple. Older age groups are likely to be most affected if “traditional” fish and chips are no longer available, and pasta dishes are the most likely alternative to potatoes. This study indicates that the British diet is likely to be significantly affected by climate change and the era of “fish and chips” may one day come to an end. Further research needs to be carried out to assess the effects of climate change on other foods and how it might affect the health of the British public.
    • Are parents showing pushy parenting traits on online discussion forums?

      Lloyd, Julian; Holland, Emily (University of Chester, 2017)
      More parents are turning to online discussion forums for security, advice, support, empowerment and to share their parenting experiences. This naturalistic setting is becoming more prominent form of data collection within psychological research, observing human behaviour in natural manner. Many parenting styles are widely acknowledged, but little research has been performed surrounding pushy parenting. Pushy parenting behaviours can be evident and associated within an educational context. Therefore, this study aims to explore online discussion forums for evidence of pushy parenting behavioural traits. Content analytical approaches were applied on a poplar parenting website Mumsnet. A coding scheme was devised from the existing literature and was applied to one hundred discussions from nine threads related to education where there was clear evidence of pushy parenting characteristics. 2x2 Chi-square tests were run to establish any significant relationships between the variables stated as the hypotheses. Findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between the gender of the child and pushy parenting, the orientation displayed towards the child and the child’s educator and whether the behaviour is considered in the child’s best interests and the reasons given making the behaviour justifiable.
    • Are reference nutrient intakes for key micronutrients and macronutrients set by COMA (1991) met and are their importance understood among pregnant women, attending antenatal clinics in Liverpool

      Currie, Lindsey (University of Chester, 2010-12-01)
      Introduction: The aim of this project was to investigate if intakes of key micronutrients and macronutrients during pregnancy reflect the understanding of specific micronutrients and macronutrients. The study further hypothesised if age, marital status, occupation, trimester of pregnancy, number of previous pregnancies and smoking affects total micronutrient and macronutrient intake and affects understanding of key micronutrients and macronutrients. Design: A prospective observational study. Subjects and methods: Pregnant women (n=47) were recruited from 3 different antenatal classes across Merseyside, UK. Subjects completed a non validated questionnaire and 3 day food diary. Questionnaires were analysed using SPSS and intakes were analysed using dietary analysis software. Results: Occupation had a significant positive influence on dietary micronutrient intakes (p=0.004). Occupation had further affects on nutritional knowledge (p=0.009). Other significant differences were established between trimester and mean dietary intakes (p=0.008). The majority of mean intakes of micronutrients and macronutrients were lower than UK recommendations set by COMA (1991) for pregnant women. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that intakes of key micronutrients and macronutrients during pregnancy did not reflect the understanding of specific micronutrients and macronutrients. The participants from this study possessed a sound understanding of food sources for the different micronutrients and macronutrients. However it appears that this did not influence dietary intake, as RNIs in general were lower than recommended.
    • Are student midwives influenced by the 'traditional' (non evidence based) practices of their clinical mentors?

      Hogard, Elaine; Armstrong, Nicola A. (University of Chester, 2007-11)
      Aim The aim of this study was to find out whether cohorts of final year pre-registered midwifery students are influenced by the ‘traditional’ (non evidence-based) practices of their clinical mentors. This was thought to be worthy for a number of reasons. Foremost, it is said that; where pre-registered students are allocated to a clinical placement, the workplace should ensure that the provision of care is based on relevant research-based and evidence-based findings. It is also said that clinical mentors should have a good knowledge base in order to identify, apply and disseminate research findings within their area of practice. Against this, there is a growing concern that many practices are based on tradition, rather than on sound evidence. The consequence of this is that; if students adopt the traditional practices of their mentors it may have implications on how students may practice when they qualify, and in turn, they may pass on these traditions to future students. More importantly, it is essential that midwifery practice is informed by the best available evidence and where this philosophy is lacking, it may not only impact on students learning, but more importantly it can impact on the quality of patient care. Method and Design The data collection method included a survey of a finite population, which consisted of all final year pre-registered midwifery students, who were based at five midwifery cohorts. A total of 145 students were available for inclusion. The sample was asked to complete a questionnaire, which predominantly utilised a 5-point Likert scale and was designed to yield some ‘open’ responses. Analysis The quantitative data was amenable to statistical analysis which was coded into the computer software. A grounded theory approach was utilised to analyse the ‘open response’ data. Findings There was a sufficient amount of evidence to assert that; the students were influenced by their mentors’ traditional practices. The findings also strongly supported the idea that; what was taught in the Higher Education Institution (HEI), did not always equate to the workplace realities and while the HEI advocated students to employ evidence-based practices (EBP), the students were more likely to adopt the traditional practices of their mentors. While statistically the majority of students perceived that they would challenge their mentors if they did not employ EBP’s, their comments overall conflicted with these findings. Indeed, many perceived that; to challenge their mentors could potentially jeopardise their clinical assessments and or career prospects. The most significant finding was that there appeared to be a multitude of barriers that prevented the students from employing EBP’s, however, they believed they would utilise these practices once they had qualified.
    • Art psychotherapy: Understanding the experiences of first language Welsh speaking clients receiving art psychotherapy through the medium of English in north Wales

      Keeling, June J.; Roberts, Gwawr W. (University of ChesterGwynedd Council, 2013-10)
      The topic of bilingualism in art therapy has been recognised as an important one for further investigation within the art psychotherapy literature; particularly, the need for qualitative research exploring the experiences of clients working bilingually. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of bilingual (Welsh-English) first-language Welsh-speaking clients receiving art psychotherapy through the medium of English in north Wales. The study used a mix of phenomenology and heuristic methodology with art-based inquiry, since it required the researcher to have had a direct personal connection with the topic of inquiry. Data were obtained from two study participants through the conducting of semi-structured interviews, which also included directive image-making. A thematic analysis identified three theoretical themes: the therapist’s Welsh language awareness; the client’s language identity, and communication. Each theme is discussed together with important sub-themes. Based on the empirical findings the study concludes that receiving art psychotherapy through the medium of English (if the recipient is a Welsh-English bilingual) does impact upon the therapeutic experience and presents a number of key recommendations regarding areas for future research, practical implications for art psychotherapist training and art psychotherapy practice in a bilingual setting.
    • Assess LTSB mobile banking usage by customers in the Chester area during June and July 2011

      Page, Steve; Hampshire, Chris (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      Over the past decade the focus of UK banks has been on delivering electronic banking through Personal Computers (PCs) in order to reduce their operational costs. Information Technology and new distribution channels are two key drivers of strategic change and smart-phones are Information Technology devices that can act as electronic distribution channels. Smart-phones have become more widespread than PCs in the UK and consequently smart-phones provide an opportunity for Lloyds TSB to extend their electronic banking services to a wider customer base. The effective use of mobile banking through smart-phones usage by customers will assist Lloyds TSB in reducing their operational costs as custoemrs undertake banking transactions themselves rather than using branches or call centres. The recent phenomenal growth in the number of UK customers with smart-phones provides an opportunity for Lloyds TSB to effectively use this development as a further opportunity to meet their overall business strategy.
    • Assessing the influences of website design over the choice of university for undergraduate study, using the University of Chester as an example

      Page, Steve; Martin, Neil (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2012-10)
      This paper seeks to attain which website design considerations a university must make to engage undergraduate students, using the University of Chester‟s website as a basis for assessment. It further endeavours to evaluate the degree in which the University of Chester‟s website meets the needs of prospective undergraduate students. Finally, this paper attempts to measure which website elements a user would select in designing their ideal university web page. The findings show a high level of support for the marketisation of Higher Education, with market behaviour reflecting a shift power online, to that of the undergraduate consumer. This paper considered prospective undergraduate students as being generation Y consumers, seeking a positive interactive website experience, to aid evaluation and help determine the value of a course. These consumers place considerable trust in their online experience, with anything falling below their expectations having an adverse effect on their perceptions of the brand. The findings support that there are two types of consumer, and in satisfying the needs of both, universities should adopt a user-centric approach to website design. The study considers visual engagement, usability and written content as the three primary website design considerations that a university must address, in order to satisfy prospective undergraduate students. This paper concludes that a university's website provides one of the greatest opportunities to influence and satisfy the needs of the undergraduate market.
    • Assessing the possible potential of implement [sic] a CRM system into the University of Chester

      Page, Steve; Azadpour, Amir (University of Chester, 2007-09)
      Today technologies and computer based systems are helping managers to achieve their organisation goals. However, strategies and tactics which organisations have to adopt depend on the short or long- term plans and visions which change the concept of using models and technologies in information system areas in an organisation. Managers believe that the HI sector is changing. Students are becoming more demanding and looking for added value from their education. Also Universities are now having to become more competitive and responsive to the needs of students. Nowadays, because of demand, there is a requirement for HEI's to be competitive and their future business success depends on developing beneficial relationships with student. One of the most useful systems for this reason is CRM. Today more than 80 Higher Educational Institutes (HEI) in the UK use all or some functions of the CRM system (Agresso newsletter, 2007). It seems that, in order to achieve their goals, senior managers in HEI's should integrate systems to collect, keep and use historic data and use students life cycle to be able to generate types of data which informs their marketing strategy. This strategy will also feed into a HEI's strategic plan. The ability to develop successful customer relationships lies in an organisation's ability to understand its customers and their needs. Indeed, organisations need to identify "real customers and individual basis" and communicate with them appropriately (Mitussis, 2006). The collection, analysis and use of information to identify, understand and meet customer need is crucial to the successful implementation of a CRM system. As a result, technology, initially in data base format, is widely regarded as a core component of CRM as the data used aims to build a long-term connection between the company and customers. As such, CRM can be regarded as a "business strategy that uses information technology to provide an enterprise with a comprehensive, reliable and integrated view of its customer base" (Zikmund et al., 2002). This documentary -based study uses qualitative method for data collection from utilising CRM for University of Chester as a case study. The researcher used empirical research and 3 exploratory study in order to discuss the possible potential of utilising the CRM system with regards to vision and strategy in the University of Chester. Indeed, to examine other HEI's experience implementing CRM systems, the researcher chose Roehampton University because it had similar characteristics, demographics and background to the case study. In order to avoid the problems and decrease the risk of the implementation CRM system in the University of Chester with regards to plans and activities which an organisation has to do, the following are the recommended key steps to a successful CRM strategy: Strategic context. The organisation should understand how CRM fits into the context of the company's overall business strategy, Capabilities assessment. The assessment is to be done to confirm the company's current CRM capabilities. Business case development. The organisation needs a good reason to implement CRM other than simply following new technology trends. Implementation plan creation. Create and execute a plan which clearly defines how to achieve the goal and execute it. (Nguyen, 2007) Competitive advantages that organisations could gain from CRM systems include the following: increase in customer loyalty, superior service, superior information gathering and knowledge sharing and organisational learning. This study highlights potential benefits, limitations and general features about a CRM system at strategic level that might be taken into consideration in case CRM system is be implemented in University of Chester.
    • Assessing the variance in anxiety, depression, lifestyle and readmission outcomes between patients treated for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction with Primary Percutaneous Intervention versus Thrombolysis

      Fallows, Stephen; Barnard, Fiona (University of Chester, 2011-09-30)
      Anxiety levels are known to be elevated following a Myocardial Infarction (MI). If untreated, results can lead to depression and an increase in recurrent events (Frasure-Smith, Lesperance, Talajic, 1994). Patients undergoing thrombolysis to treat their MI remain in hospital for approximately 5 days. The introduction of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) has seen the Bristol Royal Infirmary (BRI) reduce PPCI patients' length of stay to an average of 2.7 days (Oriolo & Tagney, 2011). There is little evidence to indentify if this results in positive or negative effects on patient anxiety and depression. Length of in-patient stay affects patient's ability to absorb information (Astin et al 2008a). A short stay in hospital may affect anxiety due to less time spent on providing information and support to patients and their families. It is possible prolonged recovery or increased readmissions could be due to anxiety issues. The study aim is to investigate if anxiety and depression levels in PPCI patients from South Bristol result in different outcomes compared to Thrombolysis patients. A retrospective study of patients admitted to BRI with a first time STEMI treated with either Thrombolysis or PPCI from April 2004 to March 2010. The study will provide insight into patients' motivation to lifestyle changes. Overall, the study will identify improvement or deterioration in patient recovery from an MI with the introduction of PPCI. Myocardial Ischemia National Audit Project (MINAP) provided patient identification data. MINAP data was matched with the BRI Cardiac Rehabilitation Patient Audit tracking System (CRPATS). Hospital anxiety and depression scores (HADS) were used, to measure emotional outcomes. Readmission data was collected from PATS, hospital and patient medical records. Cardiac rehabilitation attendance and lifestyle outcomes were obtained from CRPATS data. Patient information remains anonymous for the purpose of this study. Application of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) calculated statistical analysis. Unplanned re-admissions occurred sooner for PPCI patients at the BRI (p = .034) as did cardiac related re-admissions (p = .049). A significant link exists with PPCI increased number of cardiac related re-admissions and increased phase II 1 depression scores (P = .024). PPCI patients had shorter hospital admissions following their initial event (P = .005). PPCI deaths occurred earlier than Thrmobolysis (P = .001) Shorter hospital admissions were linked to increased phase II depression (P = .041), phase III anxiety scores (P = .031) anxiety levels (P = .009) in thrombolysis patients. PPCI patients anxiety improved at phase III compared with Thrombolysis (p = .031). Thrombolysis depression levels and scores demonstrate significant reductions between phases (P = .037). Female anxiety scores were higher than male at phase III (P = .019). Cholesterol and Smoking improved between phase II and III. Activity decreased in both treatments between phases. Longer admissions were linked to decreased diastolic blood pressure, weight and alcohol. Females have poorer outcomes in terms of risk factor management between phase II and III cardiac rehabilitation than males. The introduction of PPCI has not been detrimental to South Bristol patients outcomes. More prospective studies are necessary to identify if links with length of stay, readmission time and premature deaths are valid amongst PPCI patients. Further investigation is necessary to find reasons behind reduced activity and poorer outcomes for females at phase III.
    • Assessment of causes of childhood obesity in 11 year-old Maltese children

      Micallef, Doreen (University of Chester, 2017-04)
      Objective The aim of this study was to show the rate of childhood obesity in 10 – 11 year old Maltese children attending year 6 in local primary schools in and to investigate whether a correlation exists between body mass index (BMI) and activity, screen-time, soft drinks consumption and sleep patterns in a cohort of Maltese children. Methods 103 boys and girls (47% and 53% respectively; mean age 10.4 years) were sampled from four different primary schools serviced by the state, Church and independent entities. The students’ height and weight were measured to determine their BMI. A questionnaire which dealt with the four areas under study was then distributed to all the participants. Data was analysed to determine whether the correlations under investigation were present. Results A negative correlation was found between BMI and (i) the number of different physical activities the students engaged in weekly, (ii) the average number of times that the students carried out these physical activities per week and (iii) the average number of hours of sleep per night reported by the children. A positive correlation was found between BMI and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. There seems to be no correlation between BMI and the different number of forms of screen-time the students engaged in or the total number of hours of screen-time although descriptive data shows that both factors increase with increasing BMI. 46 | P a g e Conclusion Similar studies on a larger cohort of participants should be considered in the future. The effect of involving parents, educators, general practitioners, paediatricians and other health care providers in the fight against childhood obesity should also be the primary focus of other studies.
    • Assessment of the effectiveness of attendance management in order to improve work life balance within Warrington Borough Council

      Webb, Paul; Taylor, Ceri L. (University of Chester, 2010-09)
      The aim of this dissertation is to ascertain and review the management policies to address absenteeism levels and improve work life balance within Warrington Borough Council. This will be carried out by conducting an appraisal of absenteeism within the public sector, in particular within local government and Warrington BC, to assemble the required data for improving current policies and meet the challenge of reducing absenteeism and increasing staff morale, productivity and efficiency within the Council. The dissertation describes the methods used to achieve these objectives by: Reviewing relevant literature associated with absenteeism and work life balance to inform and provide the framework for the research; Defining the methodology adopted to undertake the research in terms of the philosophical stance, approach, strategy and methods for data collection; Reporting the findings of the research, demonstrating how they were arrived at through analysis of the collected data and by testing this against relevant theory. The research question and aims investigated for the purpose of this study are: Assessment of the Effectiveness of Attendance Management in order to improve Work Life Balance within Warrington Borough Council; To examine the perceived problem of absenteeism within the public sector, in particular within local government; To critically review literature to establish what the concept of work life balance is and what benefit if any it can be to an organisation; in particular in terms of addressing absenteeism; To identify and analyse the current strengths and weaknesses of the absence and work life balance policies within Warrington BC; To examine the barriers to implementing a new corporate policy for attendance management and work life balance within Warrington BC. Outcome - To make recommendations for actions to ensure continuous improvement in attendance management and promotion of work life balance. In order to answer the research question and to achieve the research aims, a phenomenological philosophy is adopted, using a case study strategy and an inductive approach. The data collection methodology has been identified based on the findings of initial research and fact finding internal interviews. The research includes case studies from the private and public sector in order to demonstrate a balanced and authoritative outcome.
    • Assessment of the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on the maintenance of healthy lifestyle modifications: An international comparison between England and New Zealand

      Fallows, Stephen; Dunn, Stephanie (University of Chester, 2010-09-15)
      Secondary preventive Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programmes are the most cost effective measure for reducing mortality and morbidity associated with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), and are now recommended internationally (BHF, 2007a). There are two structured CV rehabilitation programmes based on specific sets of guidelines: the American Cardiology Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines and the British Association Cardiac Rehabilitation (BACR) guidelines. New Zealand (NZ) practice under the ACSM guidelines, while the United Kingdom (UK) practice under the BACR guidelines. The purpose of this study is to compare patients CR experiences between the UK and NZ based on their effectiveness at successfully motivating patients to maintain healthy behaviours. Data was collected from non-participant observations, and focus groups with patients 6-12months post CR. Results were analysed using thematic analyses and reflection in action. Both CR programmes have been successful in supporting the individuals to maintain healthy lifestyles. A number of similar positive CR experiences were noted between groups and countries: support, education, positive mental attitude, motivation, and help to facilitate individuals to maintain healthy lifestyles. Diet and exercise were the main themes influenced. Exercising in a friendly environment, with companionship was significant to the maintenance of exercise for participants in both countries. Barriers such as physical disabilities, time constraints, and weather conditions helped to inhibit healthy behaviour maintenance. Those in NZ seemed to be more affected by external factors such as opportunity, access, and work. Individuals’ confidence appeared higher in the UK in regards to monitoring themselves. Exploring patients’ views and experiences through discussion provided an insight in these programmes, and could assist in future CR developments, addressing the barriers to such developments. The study highlighted that less monitoring in NZ is required. Also, further future developments for NZ could include improving referrals for CR intervention, and improvements in opportunities to access exercise sessions with other CV individuals. Future research into continuing social support through exercise sessions and education discussion groups could be a step towards tackling the drop-out rates in both countries.
    • An assessment of the genetic diversity of the founders of the European captive population of Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) using microsatellite markers and studbook analysis

      McDowall, Ian; O'Donoghue, Paul; Atkinson, Kirsty (University of Chester, 2017-05)
      The European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) was founded in the early 1990’s from nine individuals sourced from an Indian captive population. During 2007-2009, 57 lions were born into this captive population. Of these births, 35 individuals died within 20 days, three within two months, and one individual was medically euthanized at four months. Indeed, over 50% of total historic captive population died within 30 days of birth. These stillbirths, and high levels of infant mortality, could be due to high levels of inbreeding. Previous research has recorded genetic variation in the current Indian captive population. This research uses the same microsatellite markers to establish the level of genetic variation which was captured in the establishment of the EEP population in relation to the variation observed in Indian zoo populations. At 12 markers showing variation in the Indian captive population, only two showed bi-allelic heterozygosity in the EEP founders, suggesting that variation was not captured during the establishment of the EEP population. This lack of variation was confirmed through sequencing of two mitochondrial DNA segments; cytochrome b and D-Loop. The ‘European Studbook for the Asiatic Lion’ provides some historic pedigree information showing that the EEP founder population contains offspring resulting from full-sibling and half-sibling matings, resulting in a number of inbred individuals, including all the female founders. A number of unsuitable matings have also been recorded during the last decade. Given the observed limited genetic variation at the markers tested, this study recommends the import of Asiatic lions from India (captive or wild-caught), incorporating genetic testing and studbook analysis, in order to introduce genetic variation into the EEP.
    • An assessment of the impact of the annual codes of the Education department on the development of a rural school

      Skinner, Katherine (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)Chester College of Higher Education, 1994-10)
      This masters dissertation discusses the impact that Codes of the minutes of the Education department (contained in the Annual Report of the Committee of the Council on Education) had upon Thornton-le-Moors Elementary School, 1875-1902. The curriculum, managers, attendence, punishment, and gender studies are discussed.
    • An assessment of the Liverpool City Council raising achivement service as a learning organisation

      Page, Steve; Kerans, Linda (University of Chester, 2007-07)
      The increasing pace of change has created a general consensus that organisations need to find better ways to learn (Argyris 1999). Concepts of the Learning Organisation and organisational learning have developed from a subject for serious academic study to a 'hot boardroom topic' (Burnes 2004). Although as relevant these days to public sector organizations, there has been much less research in this area, and what does exist tends to emphasise the negative impact of public sector bureaucracy, hierarchy and political influence on capacity to learn. This research investigates the Liverpool City Council Raising Achievement Service, one department in the now integrated Children's Services, which successfully transformed itself following a disastrous 1999 Ofsted inspection of what was then the L.E.A. The research takes place at a particular time of change and uncertainty when the future of the Service, and the individuals in it, are under threat. This is impacting on the clarity of the organisation's 'vision' and on individuals' perceptions of their capacity to influence the new agenda. Following a phenomenological philosophy the research uses a mixture of inductive and deductive approaches which incorporate existing literature and normative frameworks (in particular Senge, 1990; Marsick & Watkins, 1993; Pedler, Burgoyne & Boydell, 1997) to create the research instruments. A review of the literature leads the author to the construction of a conceptual model which links the three inter-dependent levels of learning: individual, collective (group) and systems-wide or organisational learning. There is no yes or no answer to the question of whether the R.A. Service is a learning organization, and if it is accepted as Finger & Brand (1999) state, that it is an ideal to aspire to, then it is concluded that there is evidence of both positive and negative contributory factors. It is clear from the research that strengths in one area (e.g. individual learning) will be adversely affected or at worst negated, by weaknesses in another (e.g. structures and systems). The report ends with recommendations to improve organisational learning at this crucial time.
    • An assessment on the strategic and opertational impact of the Futures Scheme to Liverpool City Council

      Page, Steve; Lyall, Laurie (University of ChesterLiverpool City Council, 2007-05)
      In 2006 Sports Services launched its Futures Scheme, an initiative that allowed children and young persons to access sports facilities at no charge. The drivers for the scheme introduction were cited as being to improve health and social benefits. Components of the research are operational impact and critical analysis of strategic change. The scheme is challenging Sports Services to indicate its value to the citizens of Liverpool by the removal of charges as a barrier to accessing sporting opportunities. Analysis has indicated that operational impact manifested in stress, communication failings and budgetary pressures. Further analysis also indicates that the provision and evaluation of such schemes require a multi agency approach due to the complexity of sport provision for children for health and social benefits. A review is required of the scheme that was initially popular but interest has declined due to lack of variety. The removal of price as a barrier is not sufficiently stimulating to maintain high attendances.
    • Attempting to create behaviour change using an ethnographic approach: A family-based study

      Edwards, Jacob (University of Chester, 2014-09)
      The following study is an ethnographic approach to changing behaviour towards physical activity with a recently retired family member by using a physical activity intervention. The overall aim of this study was to attempt to create some sort of behaviour change using the Prochaska & DiClemente (1983) Transtheoretical Model (TTM) as a framework. There is a wide range of previous research on the subject of interventions and how best to apply them and the differing environments (Stubbs & Lavin, 2002; Michie & Abraham, 2004; Ransdell, Taylor, Oakland, Schmidt, Moyer-Mileur & Schultz, 2003). There is a long process involved before commencing with an intervention, involving interviews, questionnaires, planning and evaluating. Additionally, the study assessed my Father’s psychological measures, as opposed to focusing on physiological measures. The exercise undertaken each week was calculated using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) calculation to assess whether there was an increase/decrease from baseline week to post-intervention. Despite the focus of the study analysing any change in behaviour, the use of the GLTEQ calculation enables for a greater understanding of how much exercise was being completed each week, in comparison to the baseline, my Father’s weight was also recorded, prior to the intervention commencing, post-intervention and after the completion of the whole study. The results found that there was a short term increase in physical activity from the baseline week compared to the weeks of independent activity. Furthermore, my father appeared to have extra positive feelings towards exercise before an activity after the intervention than beforehand.