• Dance Bands in Chester & North Wales, 1930 – 1970: Revealing a Hidden History

      Southall, Helen; University of Chester (2016-01-11)
      Dance bands in Chester and North Wales, 1930 - 1970 : Revealing a Hidden History “… the work of local amateur musicians is not just haphazard or formless, the result of individual whim or circumstance. On the contrary, a consistent - if sometimes changing - structure lies behind these surface activities. The public events … are part of an invisible but organised system through which individuals make their contribution to both the changes and the continuities of English music today.” (Finnegan, 2007) Chester (UK) in the period around World War II had a thriving live dance music scene, in which most of the music-making was done by local semi-professional musicians. Although they were busiest in the 1940s and 50s, many of the bands involved continued to operate alongside groups playing rock 'n' roll and pop, often in the same venues and sometimes at the same events, and the infrastructure which had supported the dance bands is an essential, if under-recorded, part of the history of rock 'n' roll and beat bands in the area (including the Beatles). This presentation looks at evidence from a recently-completed Ph.D. project to investigate how this local dance band scene worked, including the nature and evolution of its 'invisible but organised' underlying structure. The majority of the data was collected from private sources, with the aim of recording information which was not available in a single, academically-accessible archive. Fieldwork included over 30 recorded interviews with musicians, promoters and dancers. It also yielded more than 200 photographs and images which helped to illuminate the world of the bands, musicians and venues mentioned, and to produce a comprehensive snapshot of the local dance band scene, covering as wide a range as possible of social and musical backgrounds and experiences. Inspirations for this oral history project include The Hidden Musicians (Finnegan, 2007), Jazz Places (Becker, 2004), Rock Culture in Liverpool (Cohen, 1991), Other Voices (Brocken, 2010) and Victory Through Harmony (Baade, 2013). It is hoped that combining ideas from these and other sources with a detailed investigation of this specific local scene, as this work has done, will contribute further to a better understanding of amateur and semi-professional music-making in an urban landscape. Becker, Howard S. (2004). Jazz Places. In A. Bennett & R. A. Peterson (Eds.), Music Scenes: Local, Translocal and Virtual (pp. 17 - 27): Vanderbilt University Press. Brocken, Michael. (2010). Other voices : hidden histories of Liverpool's popular music scenes, 1930s - 1970s: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Cohen, Sara. (1991). Rock Culture in Liverpool : Popular Music in the Making: Oxford University Press. Finnegan, Ruth H. . (2007). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town: Wesleyan University Press.
    • Dance bands in Chester (1930 - 1970) : An evolving professional network

      Southall, Helen; University of Chester (2011-09)
      Headings are: the city of Chester; a hidden history; jazz places; economic places; social networks; methodology and findings.
    • Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks with minimum delay and minimum use of energy: A comparative study

      Qayyum, Bushra; Saeed, Mohammed; Roberts, Jason A.; University of Chester ; Al Khawarizmi University College ; University of Chester (British Computer Society, 2015)
      The prime objective of deploying large- scale wireless sensor networks is to collect information from to control systems associated with these networks. Wireless sensor networks are widely used in application domains such as security and inspection, environmental monitoring, warfare, and other situations especially where immediate responses are required such as disasters and medical emergency. Whenever there is a growth there are challenges and to cope with these challenges strategies and solutions must be developed. This paper discusses the recently addressed issues of data aggregation through presenting a comparative study of different research work done on minimizing delay in different structures of wireless sensor networks. Finally we introduce our proposed method to minimize both delay and power consumption using a tree based clustering scheme with partial data aggregation.
    • De-smokeGCN: Generative Cooperative Networks for Joint Surgical Smoke Detection and Removal

      Chen, Long; Tang, Wen; John, Nigel W.; Wan, Tao Ruan; Zhang, Jian Jun; Bournemouth University; University of Chester; University of Bradford (IEEE XPlore, 2019-11-15)
      Surgical smoke removal algorithms can improve the quality of intra-operative imaging and reduce hazards in image-guided surgery, a highly desirable post-process for many clinical applications. These algorithms also enable effective computer vision tasks for future robotic surgery. In this paper, we present a new unsupervised learning framework for high-quality pixel-wise smoke detection and removal. One of the well recognized grand challenges in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for medical image processing is to obtain intra-operative medical imaging datasets for network training and validation, but availability and quality of these datasets are scarce. Our novel training framework does not require ground-truth image pairs. Instead, it learns purely from computer-generated simulation images. This approach opens up new avenues and bridges a substantial gap between conventional non-learning based methods and which requiring prior knowledge gained from extensive training datasets. Inspired by the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), we have developed a novel generative-collaborative learning scheme that decomposes the de-smoke process into two separate tasks: smoke detection and smoke removal. The detection network is used as prior knowledge, and also as a loss function to maximize its support for training of the smoke removal network. Quantitative and qualitative studies show that the proposed training framework outperforms the state-of-the-art de-smoking approaches including the latest GAN framework (such as PIX2PIX). Although trained on synthetic images, experimental results on clinical images have proved the effectiveness of the proposed network for detecting and removing surgical smoke on both simulated and real-world laparoscopic images.
    • Dead-zone logic in autonomic systems

      Eze, Thaddeus; Anthony, Richard; University of Chester and University of Greenwich (IEEE, 2014-07-31)
      Dead-Zone logic is a mechanism to prevent autonomic managers from unnecessary, inefficient and ineffective control brevity when the system is sufficiently close to its target state. It provides a natural and powerful framework for achieving dependable self-management in autonomic systems by enabling autonomic managers to smartly carry out a change (or adapt) only when it is safe and efficient to do so-within a particular (defined) safety margin. This paper explores and evaluates the performance impact of dead-zone logic in trustworthy autonomic computing. Using two case example scenarios, we present empirical analyses that demonstrate the effectiveness of dead-zone logic in achieving stability, dependability and trustworthiness in adaptive systems. Dynamic temperature target tracking and autonomic datacentre resource request and allocation management scenarios are used. Results show that dead-zone logic can significantly enhance the trustability of autonomic systems.
    • Developing critical insights into artificial intelligence

      Kerins, John (Higher Education Academy, 2005-10)
      This article discusses how to gain insights into artifical intelligence through introducing context, theory, and relevant practical tasks that allow students to gain a deeper understanding into some of the scientific and engineering goals of artifical intelligence.
    • Device to accurately place Epidural Tuohy needle for Anesthesia Administration

      Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N.; Wee, Michael Y. K.; Isaacs, Richard; Bournemouth University; Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (Copernicus Publications, 2014-01-02)
      The aim of this project is to design two sterile devices for epidural needle insertion which can measure in real time (i) the depth of needle tip during insertion and (ii) interspinous pressure changes through a pressure measurement device as the epidural needle is advanced through the tissue layers. The length measurement device uses a small wireless camera with video processing computer algorithms which can detect and measure the moving needle. The pressure measurement device uses entirely sterile componenets including a pressure transducer to accurately measure syringe saline in mm Hg. The data from these two devices accurately describe a needle insertion allowing comparison or review of insertions. The data was then cross-referenced to pre-measured data from MRI or ultrasound scan to identify how ligemant thickness correlates to our measured depth and pressure data. The developed devices have been tested on a porcine specimen during insertions performed by experienced anaesthetists. We have obtained epidural pressures for each ligament and demonstrated functionality of our devices to measure pressure and depth of epidural needle during insertion. This has not previously been possible to monitor in real-time. The benefits of these devices are (i) to provide an alternative method to identify correct needle placement during the procedure on real patients. (ii) The data describing the speed, depth and pressure during insertion can be used to configure an epidural simulator, simulating the needle insertion procedure. (iii) Our pressure and depth data can be compared to pre-measured MRI and ultrasound to identify previously unknown links between epidural pressure and depth with BMI, obesity and body shapes.
    • Double-diffusive natural convection in a differentially heated wavy cavity under thermophoresis effect

      Grosan, Teodor; Sheremet, Mikhail A.; Pop, Ioan; Pop, Serban R.; Babes-Bolyai University; Tomsk State University; University of Chester (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2018-02-28)
      A numerical analysis is made for thermophoretic transport of small particles through the convection in a differentially heated square cavity with a wavy wall. The governing gas-particle partial differential equations are solved numerically for some values of the considered parameters to investigate their influence on the flow, heat, and mass transfer patterns. It is found that the effect of thermophoresis can be quite significant in appropriate situations. The number of undualtions can essentially modify the heat transfer rate and fluid flow intensity.
    • Efficacy of a virtual environment for training ball passing skills in rugby

      Miles, Helen C.; Pop, Serban R.; Watt, Simon J.; Lawrence, Gavin P.; John, Nigel W.; Perrot, Vincent; Mallet, Pierre; Mestre, Daniel R.; Morgan, Kenton (Springer, 2014-07-14)
      We have designed a configurable virtual environment to train rugby ball passing skills. Seeking to validate the system’s ability to correctly aid training, two experiments were performed. Ten participants took part in ball passing activities, which were used to compare the combinations of different user positions relative to the physical screen, the use of stereoscopic presentation and the use of a floor screen to extend the field of view of the virtual scene. Conversely to what was expected, the results indicate that the participants did not respond well to simulated target distances, and only the users physical distance from the screen had an effect on the distance thrown.
    • Evaluating current practice and proposing a system to enhance knowledge assets within a small software development unit

      Fannoun, Sufian; Kerins, John; The University of Chester (IEEE, 2018-06-25)
      Knowledge management and knowledge transfer within organisations challenge continuity and resilience in the face of changing environments. While issues are principally addressed within large organisations, there is scope to evaluate how knowledge assets are managed within small and medium enterprises and to consider how the process might be enhanced. The research reported here aimed to evaluate practice within an evolving software development unit to understand how knowledge has been acquired and utilised to further organisational development. In-depth interviews were carried out with members of the unit to elicit an understanding of individual and collective learning. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed key changes in thinking and practice as well as insight into the development of individuals' contextual knowledge and tacit understanding. This analysis led to the proposal of a bespoke, lightweight web-based system to support knowledge capture and organisational learning. This work is still in progress but it is anticipated that the results will provide a potentially novel and beneficial method for enhancing knowledge assets in small enterprises and consolidating valuable, and potentially scarce, expertise.
    • Evaluating LevelEd AR: An Indoor Modelling Application for Serious Games Level Design

      Beever, Lee; Pop, Serban R.; John, Nigel W.; University of Chester (IEEE Conference Publications, 2019-09-06)
      We developed an application that makes indoor modelling accessible by utilizing consumer grade technology in the form of Apple’s ARKit and a smartphone to assist with serious games level design. We compared our system to that of a tape measure and a system based on an infra-red depth sensor and application. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of each system over four different measuring tasks of increasing complexity. Our results suggest that our application is more accurate than the depth sensor system and as accurate and more time efficient as the tape measure over several tasks. Participants also showed a preference to our LevelEd AR application over the depth sensor system regarding usability.
    • Evolution of Neural Networks for Physically Simulated Evolved Virtual Quadruped Creatures

      Vaughan, Neil; Royal Academy of Engineering; University of Chester (Springer-Verlag, 2018-07-07)
      This work develops evolved virtual creatures (EVCs) using neuroevolution as the controller for movement and decisions within a 3D physics simulated environ-ment. Previous work on EVCs has displayed various behaviour such as following a light source. This work is focused on complexifying the range of behaviours available to EVCs. This work uses neuroevolution for learning specific actions combined with other controllers for making higher level decisions about which action to take in a given scenario. Results include analysis of performance of the EVCs in simulated physics environment. Various controllers are compared including a hard coded benchmark, a fixed topology feed forward artificial neural network and an evolving ANN subjected to neuroevolution by applying mutations in both topology and weights. The findings showed that both fixed topology ANNs and neuroevolution did successfully control the evolved virtual creatures in the distance travelling task.
    • The Evolution of Ransomware Variants

      Wood, Ashley; Eze, Thaddeus
      Abstract: This paper investigates how ransomware is continuing to evolve and adapt as time progresses to become more damaging, resilient and sophisticated from one ransomware variant to another. This involves investigating how each ransomware sample including; Petya, WannaCry and CrySiS/Dharma interacts with the underlying system to implicate on both the systems functionality and its underlying data, by utilising several static and dynamic analysis tools. Our analysis shows, whilst ransomware is undoubtedly becoming more sophisticated, fundamental problems exist with its underlying encryption processes which has shown data recovery to be possible across all three samples studied whilst varying aspects of system functionality can be preserved or restored in their entirety.
    • Evolutionary Robot Swarm Cooperative Retrieval

      Vaughan, Neil; Royal Academy of Engineering; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-07-07)
      In nature bees and leaf-cutter ants communicate to improve cooperation during food retrieval. This research aims to model communication in a swarm of auton-omous robots. When food is identified robot communication is emitted within a limited range. Other robots within the range receive the communication and learn of the location and size of the food source. The simulation revealed that commu-nication improved the rate of cooperative food retrieval tasks. However a counter-productive chain reaction can occur when robots repeat communications from other robots causing cooperation errors. This can lead to a large number of robots travelling towards the same food source at the same time. The food becomes de-pleted, before some robots have arrived. Several robots continue to communicate food presence, before arriving at the food source to find it gone. Nature-inspired communication can enhance swarm behaviour without requiring a central control-ler and may be useful in autonomous drones or vehicles.
    • Formal Verification of Astronaut-Rover Teams for Planetary Surface Operations

      Webster, Matt; Dennis, Louise A; Dixon, Clare; Fisher, Michael; Stocker, Richard; Sierhuis, Maarten; University of Liverpool; University of Chester; Ejenta, inc.
      This paper describes an approach to assuring the reliability of autonomous systems for Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) teams using the formal verification of models in the Brahms multi-agent modelling language. Planetary surface rovers have proven essential to several manned and unmanned missions to the moon and Mars. The first rovers were tele- or manuallyoperated, but autonomous systems are increasingly being used to increase the effectiveness and range of rover operations on missions such as the NASA Mars Science Laboratory. It is anticipated that future manned missions to the moon and Mars will use autonomous rovers to assist astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA), including science, technical and construction operations. These ASRO teams have the potential to significantly increase the safety and efficiency of surface operations. We describe a new Brahms model in which an autonomous rover may perform several different activities including assisting an astronaut during EVA. These activities compete for the autonomous rovers “attention’ and therefore the rover must decide which activity is currently the most important and engage in that activity. The Brahms model also includes an astronaut agent, which models an astronauts predicted behaviour during an EVA. The rover must also respond to the astronauts activities. We show how this Brahms model can be simulated using the Brahms integrated development environment. The model can then also be formally verified with respect to system requirements using the SPIN model checker, through automatic translation from Brahms to PROMELA (the input language for SPIN). We show that such formal verification can be used to determine that mission- and safety critical operations are conducted correctly, and therefore increase the reliability of autonomous systems for planetary rovers in ASRO teams.
    • Haptic feedback from human tissues of various stiffness and homogeneity.

      Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N.; Wee, Michael Y. K.; Isaacs, Richard; Bournemouth University; Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (Techno-Press, 2014-07-01)
      This work presents methods for haptic modelling of soft and hard tissue with varying stiffness. The model provides visualization of deformation and calculates force feedback during simulated epidural needle insertion. A spring-mass-damper (SMD) network is configured from magnetic resonance image (MRI) slices of patient’s lumbar region to represent varying stiffness throughout tissue structure. Reaction force is calculated from the SMD network and a haptic device is configured to produce a needle insertion simulation. The user can feel the changing forces as the needle is inserted through tissue layers and ligaments. Methods for calculating the force feedback at various depths of needle insertion are presented. Voxelization is used to fill ligament surface meshes with spring mass damper assemblies for simulated needle insertion into soft and hard tissues. Modelled vertebrae cannot be pierced by the needle. Graphs were produced during simulated needle insertions to compare the applied force to haptic reaction force. Preliminary saline pressure measurements during Tuohy epidural needle insertion are also used as a basis for forces generated in the simulation.
    • How effective is Ant Colony Optimisation at Robot Path Planning

      Wolfenden, A.; Vaughan, Neil; University of Chester (The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation for Behaviour (AISB), 2018-04-06)
      This project involves investigation of the problem robot path planning using ant colony optimisation heuristics to construct the quickest path from the starting point to the end. The project has developed a simulation that successfully simulates as well as demonstrates visually through a graphical user interface, robot path planning using ant colony optimisation. The simulation shows an ability to traverse an unknown environment from a start point to an end and successfully construct a route for others to follow both when the terrain is dynamic and static
    • The Implementation and Validation of a Virtual Environment for Training Powered Wheelchair Manoeuvres

      John, Nigel W.; Pop, Serban R.; Day, Thomas W.; Ritsos, Panagiotis D.; Headleand, Christopher J.; University of Chester; Bangor University; University of Lincoln (IEEE, 2017-05-02)
      Navigating a powered wheelchair and avoiding collisions is often a daunting task for new wheelchair users. It takes time and practice to gain the coordination needed to become a competent driver and this can be even more of a challenge for someone with a disability. We present a cost-effective virtual reality (VR) application that takes advantage of consumer level VR hardware. The system can be easily deployed in an assessment centre or for home use, and does not depend on a specialized high-end virtual environment such as a Powerwall or CAVE. This paper reviews previous work that has used virtual environments technology for training tasks, particularly wheelchair simulation. We then describe the implementation of our own system and the first validation study carried out using thirty three able bodied volunteers. The study results indicate that at a significance level of 5% then there is an improvement in driving skills from the use of our VR system. We thus have the potential to develop the competency of a wheelchair user whilst avoiding the risks inherent to training in the real world. However, the occurrence of cybersickness is a particular problem in this application that will need to be addressed.
    • In vitro and Computational Modelling of Drug Delivery across the Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier

      Davies, Alys E; Williams, Rachel L.; Lugano, Gaia; Pop, Serban R.; Kearns, Victoria R.; University of Liverpool; University of Chester
      The ability to produce rapid, cost-effective and human-relevant data has the potential to accelerate development of new drug delivery systems. Intraocular drug delivery is an area undergoing rapid expansion due to the increase in sight-threatening diseases linked to increasing age and lifestyle factors. The outer bloodretinal barrier (OBRB) is important in this area of drug delivery, as it separates the eye from the systemic blood flow. This study reports the development of complementary in vitro and in silico models to study drug transport from silicone oil across the outer blood-retinal barrier. Monolayer cultures of a human retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19, were added to chambers and exposed to a controlled flow to simulate drug clearance across the OBRB. Movement of dextran molecules and release of ibuprofen from silicone oil in this model were measured. Corresponding simulations were developed using COMSOL Multiphysics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and validated using independent in vitro data sets. Computational simulations were able to predict dextran movement and ibuprofen release, with all of the features of the experimental release profiles being observed in the simulated data. Simulated values for peak concentrations of permeated dextran and ibuprofen released from silicone oil were within 18% of the in vitro results. This model could be used as a predictive tool of drug transport across this important tissue.
    • An Information-Theoretic Approach to the Cost-benefit Analysis of Visualization in Virtual Environments

      Chen, Min; Gaither, Kelly; John, Nigel W.; McCann, Brian; University of Oxford; University of Texas at Austin; University of Chester (IEEE, 2018-08-20)
      Visualization and virtual environments (VEs) have been two interconnected parallel strands in visual computing for decades. Some VEs have been purposely developed for visualization applications, while many visualization applications are exemplary showcases in general-purpose VEs. Because of the development and operation costs of VEs, the majority of visualization applications in practice have yet to benefit from the capacity of VEs. In this paper, we examine this status quo from an information-theoretic perspective. Our objectives are to conduct cost-benefit analysis on typical VE systems (including augmented and mixed reality, theatre-based systems, and large powerwalls), to explain why some visualization applications benefit more from VEs than others, and to sketch out pathways for the future development of visualization applications in VEs. We support our theoretical propositions and analysis using theories and discoveries in the literature of cognitive sciences and the practical evidence reported in the literatures of visualization and VEs.