• Energy expenditure, metabolic power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running

      Oxendale, Chelsea; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-03-21)
      Objectives: The purpose of the study was to compare measures of energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry and micro-technology, as well as high power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running. Design: Repeated measures Methods: Twelve university standard team sport players completed a linear and multi-directional running condition. Estimated energy expenditure, as well as time at high speed (> 14.4 km.h-1) and high power (> 20 W.kg-1) were quantified using a 10 Hz micro-technology device and compared with energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry. Results: Measured energy expenditure was higher during the multi-directional condition (9.0 ± 2.0 cf. 5.9 ± 1.4 kcal.min-1), whereas estimated energy expenditure was higher during the linear condition (8.7 ± 2.1 cf. 6.5 ± 1.5 kcal.min-1). Whilst measures of energy expenditure were strongly related (r > 0.89, p < 0.001), metabolic power underestimated energy expenditure by 52% (95% LoA: 20-93%) and 34% (95% LoA: 12-59%) during the multi-directional and linear condition, respectively. Time at high power was 41% (95% LoA: 4-92%) greater than time at high speed during the multi-directional condition, whereas time at high power was 5% (95% LoA: -17-9%) lower than time at high speed during the linear condition. Conclusions: Estimated energy expenditure and time at high metabolic power can reflect changes in internal load. However, micro-technology cannot be used to determine the energy cost of intermittent running.
    • Energy intake and expenditure assessed ‘in-season’ in an elite European rugby union squad.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F.; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L. (2015-06-09)
      Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg-1 body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg-1 body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.
    • Established-outsider relations between males and females in male-associated sports in Ireland

      Liston, Katie; University College Chester (The European Association for Sociology of Sport, 2005)
      This paper introduces readers to the field of male-associated sports in the Republic of Ireland with specific reference to power relations between the sexes. It situates a present-day social phenomenon, i.e. Irish females’ increasing involvement in traditional male-associated sports such as Gaelic football, rugby and soccer, within the context of social processes in which more or less independent groups have become more interdependent. Qualitative data from twelve in-depth interviews with high performance female athletes are situated within a sociological analysis of the emergence and development of these sports for women. These are used to support the argument that the relatively slight shift in the balance of power in favour of females has led to feelings of emancipation amongst females and resistance amongst males, though this resistance is gradually becoming weaker. Elias’ theory of “established-outsider” relations is used to suggest that females who participate in these sports can be described as an ‘outsider’ group, one that has lacked the organizational resources and networks of mutual assistance needed to shift significantly the uneven balance of power between the sexes. Moreover, typical of outsiders in their relations with the ‘established’, dominant stereotypical views of females remain embedded in the personality structures of ‘outsiders’.
    • Established-outsider relations between males and females in sports in Ireland

      Liston, Katie; University College Chester (Sociological Association of Ireland, 2005)
    • Estimates of Energy Intake and Expenditure in Elite Female Touch Players During an International Tournament

      Marsh, Nicola; Dobbin, Nick; Twist, Craig; Curtis, Chris; St Mary’s University; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2017-12-31)
      This study assessed energy intake and expenditure of international female Touch players during an international tournament. Energy intake (food diary) and expenditure (accelerometer, global positioning system) were recorded for 16 female Touch players during a four-day tournament, competing in 8.0 ± 1.0 matches; two on days one, two and four, and three on day three. Total daily energy expenditure (43.6 ± 3.1 Kcal.kg-1 body mass (BM)) was not different (P > 0.05) from energy intake (39.9 ± 9.4 Kcal.kg-1 BM). Carbohydrate intakes were below current recommendations (6-10 g.kg-1 BM) on days one (4.4 ± 0.6 g.kg-1 BM) and three (4.7 ± 1.0 g.kg-1 BM) and significantly below (P < 0.05) on day two (4.1 ± 1.0 g.kg-1 BM). Protein and fat intakes were consistent with recommendations (protein; 1.2 - 2.0 g.kg-1 BM, fat; 20 - 35 % total Kcal) across days one to three (protein; 1.9 ± 0.8, 2.2 ± 0.8 & 2.0 ± 0.7 g.kg-1 BM, fat; 35.6 ± 6.8, 38.5 ± 6.4 & 35.9 ± 5.4 % total Kcal). Saturated fat intakes were greater (P < 0.05) than recommendations (10 % total Kcal) on days one to three (12.4 ± 2.9, 14.2 ± 5.1 & 12.7 ± 3.5 % total Kcal). On average, female Touch players maintained energy balance. Carbohydrate intakes appeared insufficient and might have contributed to the reduction (P < 0.05) in high-intensity running on day three. Further research might investigate the applicability of current nutrition recommendations and the role of carbohydrate in multi-match, multi-day tournaments.
    • Europeanisation, Bosman and the financial 'crisis' in English professional football: Some sociological comments

      Platts, Chris; Smith, Andy (2007-04)
      This paper discusses an sociological explaination as to the extent to which Europeanisation process, among others, have contributed to an increasingly unequal concentration of financial resources among a small number of English football clubs. The impact of the Bosman case is discussed.
    • Europeanisation, Bosman and the financial 'crisis' in English professional football: some sociological comments

      Platts, Chris; Smith, Andy (2007-05)
      This paper discusses an sociological explaination as to the extent to which Europeanisation process, among others, have contributed to an increasingly unequal concentration of financial resources among a small number of English football clubs. The impact of the Bosman case is discussed.
    • "Even if you don't care ... you do care afer all"

      Røset, Linda; Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Inland University of Applied SCience, Norway; University of Chester, UK; Inland University of Applied Sciences, Norway
      In the past decade or more, improving young people’s mental health has been identified as a priority for policy-makers in many countries, including Norway. Physical education (PE), as a setting for physical activity, is increasingly viewed as having a potentially significant role to play in addressing mental health among the young. This paper reports the findings from a study of 148 Norwegian youngsters (68 girls and 80 boys) from the 10th grade (15-16 year olds) in eight secondary schools in Norway in 2017. It explores Norwegian youngsters’ experiences of PE in relation to aspects of their mental health – specifically, being judged and, by extension, ‘othered’. The findings suggest that PE may undoubtedly serve to generate positive feelings associated with physical activity and games and, in doing so, bolster some youngsters’ self-esteem and self-identities. On the other hand, however, for those less competent in sporting terms, and whose bodily self-image is not particularly positive, the public nature of PE and the nature of the activities that constitute the subject can give rise to unplanned and unintended harm to some youngsters’ mental health – especially in countries, such as Norway, where sport is a significant aspect of the group habitus and collective ‘we-group’ identity.
    • An examination of a modified Yo-Yo test to measure intermittent running performance in rugby players

      Dobbin, Nick; Moss, Samantha; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-06-17)
      This study examined how starting each shuttle in the prone position altered the internal, external and perceptual responses to the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Using a randomized crossover design, 17 male rugby players completed the Yo-Yo IR1 and prone Yo-Yo IR1 on two separate occasions. External loads (via microtechnology), V ̇O2, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at 160, 280 and 440 m (sub-maximal) and when the test was terminated (peak). The pre-to-post change in blood lactate concentration (∆[La]b) was determined for both tests. All data were analysed using effect sizes and magnitude-based inferences. Between-trial differences (ES  90%CL) indicated total distance was most likely lower (-1.87  0.19), whereas other measures of peak external load were likely to very likely higher during the prone Yo-Yo IR1 (0.62-1.80). Sub-maximal RPE was likely to most likely higher (0.40-0.96) and peak RPE very likely higher (0.63  0.41) in the prone Yo-Yo IR1. The change in [La]b was likely higher after the prone Yo-Yo IRl. Mean HR was possibly lower at 440 m (-0.25  0.29) as was peak HR (-0.26  0.25) in the prone Yo-Yo IR1. "V" ̇E, "V" ̇O2 and "V" ̇CO2 were likely to very likely higher at 280 and 440 m (ES = 0.36-1.22), while peak values were possibly to likely higher (ES = 0.23-0.37) in the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Adopting a prone position during the Yo-Yo IR1 increases the internal, perceptual and external responses, placing greater emphasis on metabolically demanding actions typical of rugby.
    • Examinations in physical education: A sociological perspective on a 'new orthodoxy'

      Green, Ken; Chester College of Higher Education (Carfax Publishing, 2001-03)
      This article discusses the rapid growth of academic examinations (GCSE and 'A'-level) in physical education (PE) from a sociological, specifically figurational, perspective. It utilises data from the author's own research in order to examine: (i) how one might explain the significant increase in GCSE and 'A'-level PE and Sports Studies sociologically; and (ii) if such growth can justifiably be said to represent the emergence of a 'new orthodoxy' or, for that matter, an orthodoxy at all-rather than merely a consensus of thought and practice among PE teachers.
    • Examinations: A 'new orthodoxy' in physical education?

      Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter discusses GCSE and A level examinations in physical education and claims that this has led to the arrival of a new academic Orthodoxy in physical education.
    • Exercise dependence in bodybuilders: Antecedents and reliability of measurement

      Smith, Dave; Hale, Bruce; University College Chester/University of Liverpool ; Penn State University (Edizioni Minerva, 2005-09)
      This article discusses a study which aimed to examine social and psychological antecedents of bodybuilding dependence (life satisfaction, socio-economic status, marital status and parental status) and examine the test-retest reliability of the Bodybuilding Dependence Scale (BDS). One hundred and eighty-one male bodybuilders agreed to participate in the study.
    • Exercise, or exercise and diet for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kite, Chris; Lahart, Ian; Afzal, Islam; Broom, David; Randeva, Harpal; Kyrou, Ioannis; Brown, James (2019-02-12)
      Background: Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care, (ii) diet alone, and (iii) exercise combined with diet, and also exercise combined with diet, compared to (i) control or usual care and (ii) diet alone. Methods: Relevant databases were searched (June 2017) with no time limit for trial inclusion. Eligible trials employed a randomised or quasi-randomised design to measure the chronic effects of exercise, or exercise and diet in women with PCOS. Results: Searches returned 2390 articles; of those, 27 papers from 18 trials were included. Results are presented as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Compared with control, exercise had a statistical effect on change from baseline fasting insulin (MD − 2.44 μIU/mL, 95% CIs − 4.24 to − 0.64; very low-quality evidence), HOMA-IR (− 0.57, − 0.99 to − 0.14; very low-quality evidence), total cholesterol (− 5.88 mg/dL, − 9.92 to − 1.83; low-quality evidence), LDL cholesterol (− 7.39 mg/dL, − 9.83 to − 4.95; low-quality evidence), and triglycerides (− 4.78 mg/dL, − 7.52 to − 2.05; low-quality evidence). Exercise also improved VO2 max (3.84 ml/kg/min, 2.87 to 4.81), waist circumference (− 2.62 cm, − 4.13 to − 1.11), and body fat percentage (− 1.39%, − 2.61 to − 0.18) when compared with usual care. No effect was found for change value systolic/ diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol (all low-quality evidence), or waist-to-hip ratio. Many favourable change score findings were supported by post-intervention value analyses: fasting insulin (− 2.11 μIU/mL, − 3.49 to − 0.73), total cholesterol (− 6.66 mg/dL, − 11.14 to − 2.17), LDL cholesterol (− 6.91 mg/dL, − 12.02 to − 1.80), and VO2 max (5.01 ml/kg/min, 3.48 to 6.54). Statistically lower BMI (− 1.02 kg/m2, − 1.81 to − 0.23) and resting heart rate (− 3.26 beats/min − 4.93 to − 1.59) were also revealed in post-intervention analysis. Subgroup analyses revealed the greatest improvements in overweight/obese participants, and more outcomes improved when interventions were supervised, aerobic in nature, or of a shorter duration. Based on limited data, we found no differences for any outcome between the effects of exercise and diet combined, and diet alone. It was not possible to compare exercise vs diet or exercise and diet combined vs diet. Conclusion: Statistically beneficial effects of exercise were found for a range of metabolic, anthropometric, and cardiorespiratory fitness-related outcomes. However, caution should be adopted when interpreting these findings since many outcomes present modest effects and wide CIs, and statistical effects in many analyses are sensitive to the addition/removal of individual trials. Future work should focus on rigorously designed, well-reported trials that make comparisons involving both exercise and diet. Systematic review registration: This systematic review was prospectively registered on the Prospero International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42017062576)
    • Exercise-induced muscle damage and recovery in young and middle-aged males with different resistance training experience

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig (MDPI, 2019-05-29)
      This study compared the time course of recovery after a squatting exercise in trained young (YG; n = 9; age 22.3 ± 1.7 years) and trained (MT; n = 9; 39.9 ± 6.2 years) and untrained (MU; n = 9; age 44.4 ± 6.3 years) middle-aged males. Before and at 24 and 72 h after 10 × 10 squats at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM), participants provided measurements of perceived muscle soreness (VAS), creatine kinase (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), and resting doublet force of the knee extensors and squatting peak power at 20% and 80% 1RM. When compared to the YG males, the MT experienced likely and very likely moderate decrements in MVC, resting doublet force, and peak power at 20% and 80% 1RM accompanied by unclear differences in VAS, CK, and VA after the squatting exercise. MU males, compared to MT, experienced greater alterations in peak power at 20% and 80% 1RM and VAS. Alterations in CK, MVC, VA, and resting doublet force were unclear at all time-points between the middle-aged groups. Middle-aged males experienced greater symptoms of muscle damage and an impaired recovery profile than young resistance trained males. Moreover, regardless of resistance training experience, middle-aged males are subject to similar symptoms after muscle-damaging lower-body exercise.
    • Exercise-induced muscle damage: what is it, what causes it and what are the nutritional solutions?

      Owens, Daniel J.; Twist, Craig; Cobley, James; Howatson, Glyn; Close, Graeme L.; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Northumbria University (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-15)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterised by symptoms that present both immediately and for up to 14 days after the initial exercise bout. The main consequence of EIMD for the athlete is the loss of skeletal muscle function and soreness. As such, numerous nutrients and functional foods have been examined for their potential to ameliorate the effects of EIMD and accelerate recovery, which is the purpose of many nutritional strategies for the athlete. However, the trade-off between recovery and adaptation is rarely considered. For example, many nutritional interventions described in this review target oxidative stress and inflammation, both thought to contribute to EIMD but are also crucial for the recovery and adaptation process. This calls into question whether long term administration of supplements and functional foods used to target EIMD is indeed best practice. This rapidly growing area of sports nutrition will benefit from careful consideration of the potential hormetic effect of long term use of nutritional aids that ameliorate muscle damage. This review provides a concise overview of what EIMD is, its causes and consequences and critically evaluates potential nutritional strategies to ameliorate EIMD. We present a pragmatic practical summary that can be adopted by practitioners and direct future research, with the purpose of pushing the field to better consider the fine balance between recovery and adaptation and the potential that nutritional interventions have in modulating this balance.
    • Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: an analysis of developmental discourses in Scottish curricular documentation

      McEvilly, Nollaig; University of Chester (Sage, 2014-03-03)
      This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence ‘health and wellbeing’ documentation. The article interrogates the ways in which developmental discourses are evident throughout this and related documentation and how these discourses might ‘work’ to produce specific effects on practitioners and children as they are deployed and taken up in Scottish preschool education contexts. This analysis involves speculating about potential consequences for practitioners' and children's experiences and subjectivities. In conclusion, it is suggested that practitioners should critically engage with the curriculum, as uncritical acceptance of the discourses underpinning it could lead to practices that may have negative consequences. Furthermore, the article proposes that future research should investigate the ways in which the discourses privileged in the Curriculum for Excellence ‘health and wellbeing’ documentation are taken up and negotiated in Scottish preschool settings.
    • An exploration of visual search between coaches and judges in gymnastics

      Page, Jennifer L.; Lafferty, Moira E.; Wheeler, Timothy J.; University of Chester (2007-07)
      This conference paper discusses a case study of 7 coaches and 5 coach/judges who viewed ten handspring vaults whilst earing an ASL 501 eye-tracker. The results provide evidence that to suggest that coaches and coach/judges produce similar search patterns when judging performance using pre-determined criteria. This has implications for perceptual training and the development of training aids where, despite coaches and judges performing separate roles, eye patterns can be trainined in order to produce a more effective scan pattern for error detection.
    • Extra-curricular physical education in secondary schools in England and Wales: Reflections on the 'state of play'

      Green, Ken; University College Chester (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter offers an outline of the state of extra-curricular physical education in secondary schools in England and Wales and discusses why extra-curricular physical education remains relatively conventional in content and form.
    • Factors affecting the anthropometric and physical characteristics of elite academy rugby league players: a multi-club study.

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Moss, Samantha L.; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2019-01-24)
      Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the anthropometric and physical characteristics of elite academy rugby league players. Methods: One hundred and ninety-seven elite academy rugby league players (age = 17.3 ± 1.0 years) from five Super League clubs completed measures of anthropometric and physical characteristics during a competitive season. The interaction between, and influence of contextual factors on characteristics was assessed using linear mixed modelling. Results: Associations were observed between several anthropometric and physical characteristics. All physical characteristics improved during preseason and continued to improve until mid-season where thereafter 10 m sprint (η2 = 0.20 cf. 0.25), CMJ (η2 = 0.28 cf. 0.30) and prone Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IR) (η2 = 0.22 cf. 0.54) performance declined. Second (η2 = 0.17) and third (η2 = 0.16) years were heavier than first years, whilst third years had slower 10 m sprint times (η2 = 0.22). Large positional variability was observed for body mass, 20 m sprint time, medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, and prone Yo-Yo IR1. Compared to bottom-ranked teams, top demonstrated superior 20 m (η2 = -0.22) and prone Yo-Yo IR1 (η2 = 0.26) performance whilst middle-ranked teams reported higher CMJ height (η2 = 0.26) and prone Yo-Yo IR1 distance (η2 = 0.20), but slower 20 m sprint times (η2 = 0.20). Conclusion: These findings offer practitioners designing training programmes for academy rugby league players insight into the relationships between anthropometric and physical characteristics and how they are influenced by playing year, league ranking, position and season phase.
    • Fitness Monitoring in Elite Soccer Players: Group vs. Individual Analyses.

      Rabbani, Alireza; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Twist, Craig (2018-06-14)
      Rabbani, A, Kargarfard, M, and Twist, C. Fitness monitoring in elite soccer players; group vs. individual analyses. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aims of this study were to (a) examine changes in group and individual HR measures during a submaximal warm-up test, and (b) investigate the relationship between accumulated internal training loads and HR changes during an in-season phase among elite soccer players (n = 14). Before and after an in-season phase (24 days), exercise HR (HRex) and HR recovery (HRR) expressed either as the number of beats recovered (HRR60s) or as the mean HR (HRpost1) during 1 minute of recovery were analyzed. Heart rate measures were expressed as the % of maximal HR. Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was computed for all training/match sessions. Group and individual HR changes were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Pearson correlation coefficients were also used to examine the relationships. Group analyses of HR changes revealed there were possibly to likely trivial changes in all HR measures. When analyzing individual data, no substantial change was observed for HRR60s%. However, substantial changes in HRex% and HRpost1% were observed for 4/14 and 5/14 players, respectively. The relationships between HRex% and HRpost1% were nearly perfect (r = 0.90, confidence limits [0.82-0.95]). The associations between changes in HRex% and HRpost1% were also nearly perfect (r = 0.92, 0.80-0.97). A very large inverse correlation was observed between HRex% and accumulated sRPE (r = -0.75, -0.44 to -0.90). This study highlights the value of conducting individual vs. group aerobic fitness monitoring. This study also showed the importance of how HRR is reported when aerobic fitness monitoring of elite soccer players.