• Disability and inclusion policy towards physical education and youth sport

      Smith, Andy; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-08)
      This book chapter discusses UK governmental policy relating to social inclusion in sport, particuarly using of physical education and youth sport to promote the inclusion of young people with disabilities and/or special educational needs in mainstream schools.
    • Disability, sport and society: An introduction

      Thomas, Nigel; Smith, Andy; Staffordshire University; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-05)
      This book discusses key themes in disability sport including disability theory and policy, the development of disability sport, disability sports in schools, elite disability sport (including the Paralymics), and media involvement in disability sport.
    • The discriminant validity of standardised testing battery and its ability to differentiate anthropometric and physical characteristics between youth, academy and senior professional rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Moss, Samantha L.; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2019-01-31)
      Purpose: To assess a standardised testing battery’s ability to differentiate anthropometric and physical qualities between youth, academy and senior rugby league players, and determine the discriminant validity of the battery. Methods: A total of 729 rugby league players from multiple clubs within England categorised as youth (n = 235), academy (n = 362) and senior (n = 132) players completed a standardised testing battery that included the assessment of anthropometric and physical characteristics during preseason. Data was analysed using magnitude-based inferences and discriminant analysis. Results: Academy players were most likely taller and heavier than youth players (effect size (ES) = 0.64 to 1.21), with possibly to most likely superior CMJ, medicine ball throw and prone Yo-Yo IR1 performance (ES = 0.23 to 1.00). Senior players were likely to most likely taller and heavier (ES = 0.32 to 1.84), with possibly to most likely superior 10 and 20 m sprint times, CMJ, CoD, medicine ball throw and prone Yo-Yo IR1 compared to youth and academy (ES = -0.60 to 2.06). The magnitude of difference appeared to be influenced by playing position. For the most part, the battery possessed discriminant validity with an accuracy of 72.2%. Conclusion: The standardised testing battery differentiates anthropometric and physical qualities of youth, academy and senior players as a group and, in most instances, within positional groups. Furthermore, the battery is able to discriminate between playing standards with good accuracy and might be included in future assessments and rugby league talent identification.
    • Drug use in English professional football

      Waddington, Ivan; Malcolm, Dominic; Roderick, Martin J.; Naik, Ravin D.; University College Chester ; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester (British Association of Sport and Medicine, 2005-03-25)
      Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players’ use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledge of players who used such drugs. Methods: With the cooperation of the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), reply paid postal questionnaires were delivered to the home addresses of all 2863 members of the PFA. A total of 706 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of just under 25%. Results: Many players use supplements, although almost one in five players does so without seeking qualified professional advice from anyone within the club. Blood tests are rarely used to monitor the health of players. One third of players had not been tested for drugs within the preceding two years, and 60% felt that they were unlikely to be tested in the next year. The use of performance enhancing drugs appears to be rare, although recreational drugs are commonly used by professional footballers: 6% of respondents indicated that they personally knew players who used performance enhancing drugs, and 45% of players knew players who used recreational drugs. Conclusions: There is a need to ensure that footballers are given appropriate advice about the use of supplements in order to minimise the risk of using supplements that may be contaminated with banned substances. Footballers are tested for drugs less often than many other elite athletes. This needs to be addressed. The relatively high level of recreational drug use is not reflected in the number of positive tests. This suggests that many players who use recreational drugs avoid detection. It also raises doubts about the ability of the drug testing programme to detect the use of performance enhancing drugs.
    • Education, Physical Education and Physical Activity Promotion

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Edge Hill University; University of Chester; Innland Norway University (Routledge, 2017-12-18)
      This chapter examines: (i) the policy rationale for viewing education and schools as an appropriate setting for PA promotion; (ii) the apparent role PE is expected to have in fostering lifelong participation in PA and sport; and (iii) the limits of education in promoting PA given the significance of wider social inequalities in families and the wider societies of which they are a part. It is suggested that while engaging in PE may help promote PA among young people in schools, and may strengthen their sporting predispositions and biographies, whether the content, organization and delivery of curricula promotes PA often depends on the predispositions, habits and experiences that are acquired and reproduced outside of education in childhood and family contexts characterized by varying degrees of social inequality.
    • The effect of carbohydrate-protein ingestion on simulated multiple-sprint sport performance

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2011-04)
    • The effect of imagery modality on golf putting performance

      Smith, Dave; Holmes, Paul; University College Chester ; Manchester Metropolitan University (North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, 2004-09)
      This study examined the effect of various imagery modalities on golf putting performance. Forty experienced male golfers were randomly assigned to one of four groups. A “written script” group received a personalized, response proposition-laden script. Participants in the audio and video groups either listened to an audiotape or watched an internal-perspective videotape of themselves putting. Control participants spent an equivalent amount of time reading golf literature. Each participant completed a 15-ball putting task twice a week for 6 weeks and also performed his imagery or reading daily during this period. Pretests revealed no significant differences in performance. Posttests, however, showed that the video and audio groups performed significantly better than the written script and control groups. This indicates that the form in which an imagery intervention is delivered can have a significant impact on its performance effectiveness
    • The effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on muscle function and performance following simulated multiple-sprint sport activity

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2010-09)
    • The effects of a cycling warm-up including high-intensity heavy-resistance conditioning contractions on subsequent 4 km time trial performance

      Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2017-03-25)
      Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65.3 +/- 5.6 ml[middle dot]kg-1[middle dot]min-1) performed two 4 km cycling time trials following a 5-minute recovery after a warm-up at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 6.5-minutes (MW), and a warm-up with conditioning contractions (CW) consisting of 5 minutes at 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max then 3 x 10-seconds at 70% of peak power interspersed with 30-seconds recovery. Blood lactate concentrations were measured before and after time trial. Expired gases were analysed along with time, power output (PO), and peak forces over each 500 m split. Following CW, mean completion time was reduced (1.7 +/- 3.5 s p > 0.05), PO increased (5.1 +/- 10.5 W p > 0.05) as did peak force per pedal stroke (5.7 +/- 11 N p > 0.05) when compared to MW. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 increased (1.4 +/- 1.6 ml[middle dot]kg-1[middle dot]min-1 p < 0.05) following CW, whilst RER decreased (0.05 +/- 0.02 p < 0.05). Physiological and performance differences following CW were greatest over the first 1500 m of the trials. The results suggest a PAP-inducing warm-up alters V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics and can lead to performance improvements in short endurance cycling but work and recovery durations should be optimised for each athlete.
    • Effects of a four-week touch rugby and self-paced interval running intervention on health markers in active young men.

      Dobbin, Nick; Bloyce, Daniel; Hughes, Stephen; Twist, Craig (Springer, 2020-03-29)
      Background: Modified team sport activity has been proposed as effective exercise modality for promoting markers of health that are comparable or greater than continuous forms of activity. However, research using modified team sports is currently limited to sedentary populations using 2-3 sessions across a minimum of 8 weeks. Aim: To investigate the effects of a four-week touch rugby and self-paced interval running intervention on a range of health markers in active men. Methods: Sixteen participants (age 26.4 ± 6.4 years) were matched for age, demographic and physical activity before completing a single touch rugby (n = 8) or running (n = 8) session per week for four weeks. Measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate (RHR), body composition and biochemical status were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Results: ANCOVA analysis revealed between-group differences for impedance (P = 0.027), fat mass (P = 0.008), percentage body fat (P = 0.008) and fat free mass (P = 0.002), with greater changes after touch rugby. Systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups with greater reductions observed after touch rugby (P = 0.002). No between-group difference was observed for RHR, interleukin-6 or C-reactive protein (P > 0.05). Contrasting internal, external and perceptual loads were observed. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a single session of touch rugby over a 4-week period elicited greater improvements in body composition and SBP that self-paced running, with both equally beneficial for improving RHR, diastolic blood pressure and improved inflammatory status in active young men.
    • The effects of a high carbohydrate diet on cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) during a period of increase exercise workload amongst Olympic and ironman triathletes

      Costa, Ricardo J. S.; Jones, G. E.; Coleman, Robert C.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Williams, John H. H. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2005-04-11)
      This article discusses a study of the effects of a 6-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet on salivary cortisol and IgA during a period of increased exercise workload with thirty-two competitively trained male triathletes.
    • The effects of Bodymax high-repetition resistance training on measures of body composition and muscular strength in active adult women

      O'Connor, Tracey E.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Chester College of Higher Education (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2003-08)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a light, high-repetition resistance-training program on skinfold thicknesses and muscular strength in women. Thirty-nine active women (mean age 38.64 +/- 4.97 years) were randomly placed into a resistance-training group (RT; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 19). The RT group performed a resistance-training program called Bodymax for 1 hour, 3 d.wk(-1), which incorporated the use of variable free weights and high repetitions in a group setting. The CG group continued its customary aerobic training for 1 hour 3 d.wk(-1). Five skinfold and 7 muscular strength measures were determined pretraining and after 12 weeks of training. Sum of skinfolds decreased (-17 mm; p < 0.004) and muscular strength increased (+57.4 kg; p < 0.004) in the RT group. Effect sizes for individual skinfold sites and strength measures were "medium" and "high," respectively. Bodymax is an effective resistance-training program for reducing skinfold thickness and increasing muscular strength in active women. Therefore, women with a similar or lower-activity status should consider incorporating such training into their regular fitness programs.
    • The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on maximal intensity intermittent exercise performance

      Twist, Craig; Eston, Roger; University College Chester ; University of Exeter (Spring-Verlag, 2009-05-18)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a common occurrence following activities with a high eccentric component. Alterations to the torque-velocity relationship following EIMD would appear to have serious implications for athletic performance, particularly as they relate to impairment of maximal intensity exercise. However, this has been studied infrequently. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EIMD on maximal intermittent sprint performance. Ten male participants (age 22.4±3.2 years, height 178.6±5.2 cm, mass 80.6±10.7 kg) performed 10×6 s cycle ergometer sprints, interspersed with 24 s recovery against a load corresponding to 0.10 kp/kg and 10×10 m sprints from a standing start, each with 12 s active (walking) recovery. All variables were measured immediately before and at 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h following a plyometric exercise protocol comprising of 10×10 maximal counter movement jumps. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant changes over time (all P<0.05) for perceived soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), peak power output (PPO), sprint time and rate of fatigue. Soreness was significantly higher (P<0.01) than baseline values at all time intervals (3.1, 4.9, 5.5 and 3.2 at 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively). CK was significantly elevated (P<0.05) at 24 h (239 IU/l) and 48 h (245 IU/l) compared to baseline (151 IU/l). PPO was significantly lower (P<0.05) than baseline (1,054 W) at all time intervals (888, 946, 852 and 895 W, at 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively). The rate of fatigue over the ten cycling sprints was reduced compared to baseline, with the greatest reduction of 48% occurring at 48 h (P<0.01). This was largely attributed to the lower PPO in the initial repetitions, resulting in a lower starting point for the rate of fatigue. Values returned to normal at 72 h. Sprint times over 10 m were higher (P<0.05) at 30 min, 24 h and 48 h compared to baseline (1.96 s) with values corresponding to 2.01, 2.02 and 2.01 at 30 min, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Values returned to baseline by 72 h. The results provide further evidence that, following a plyometric, muscle-damaging exercise protocol, the ability of the muscle to generate power is reduced for at least 3 days. This is also manifested by a small, but statistically significant reduction in very short-term (?2 s) intermittent sprint running performance. These findings have implications for appropriate training strategies in multiple sprint sports.
    • Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption

      Burt, Dean G.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Staffordshire University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2013-04-08)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (PB0.05) increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) and decreases in peak knee extensor torque at 24 and 48 h after squatting exercise. Moreover, RMR, physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during sub-maximal running and EPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (PB0.05). It is suggested that the elevated RMR was a consequence of a raised energy requirement for the degradation and resynthesis of damaged muscle fibres. The increased oxygen demand during sub-maximal running after muscle damage was responsible for the increase in EPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.
    • The effects of in-season, low-volume sprint interval training with and without sport-specific actions on the physical characteristics of elite academy rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nick; Highton, Jamie M.; Moss, Samantha; Twist, Craig (Human Kinetics, 2020-05-01)
      Purpose: To determine the utility of a running and rugby-specific, in-season sprint interval interventions in professional rugby league players. Methods: Thirty-one professional academy rugby players were assigned to a rugby-specific (SITr/s, n = 16) or running (SITr, n = 15) sprint interval training group. Measures of speed, power, change of direction (CoD) ability, prone Yo-Yo IR1 performance and heart rate recovery (HRR) were taken before and after the 2-week intervention as were sub-maximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Internal, external and perceptual responses were collected during SITr/s/SITr, with wellbeing and neuromuscular function assessed before each session. Results: Despite contrasting (possible to most likely) internal, external and perceptual responses to the SIT interventions, possible to most likely within-group improvements in physical characteristics, HRR and sub-maximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1 were observed after both interventions. Between-group analysis favoured the SITr/s intervention (trivial to moderate) for changes in 10 m sprint time, CMJ, change of direction and medicine ball throw as well as sub-maximal (280-440 m) high metabolic power, PlayerLoad™ and acceleratory distance during the prone Yo-Yo IR1. Overall changes in wellbeing or neuromuscular function were unclear. Conclusion: Two-weeks of SITr/s and SITr was effective for improving physical characteristics, HRR and sub-maximal responses to the prone Yo-Yo IR1, with no clear change in wellbeing and neuromuscular function. Between-group analysis favoured the SITr/s group, suggesting that the inclusion of sport- specific actions should be considered for in-season conditioning of rugby league players.
    • The effects of physical contact type on the internal and external demands during a rugby league match simulation protocol.

      Norris, Jonathan; Highton, Jamie M.; Hughes, Stephen F.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-02-09)
      This study investigated how the type of contact influences physiological, perceptual and locomotive demands during a simulated rugby league match. Eleven male university rugby league players performed two trials of the rugby league movement simulation protocol for forwards (RLMSP-i) with a traditional soft tackle bag (BAG) and a weighted tackle sled (SLED) to replicate contact demands. Locomotive rate, sprint speed, tackle intensity, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration were analysed in four periods during the first and second bout of both trials. Countermovement jump (CMJ) was measured before and immediately after each trial. More time was spent in heart rate zone between 90 – 100% HRpeak during the first (effect size ± 95% confidence interval: 0.44 ± 0.49) and second bout (0.44 ± 0.43), and larger (0.6 ± 0.69) decrements in CMJ performance were observed during SLED (5.9, s = 4.9%) compared to BAG (2.6, s = 5.4%). Sprint into contact speed was faster during BAG compared to SLED in the first (1.10 ± 0.92) and second bout (0.90 ± 0.90), which impaired high intensity running ability but did not increase physiological strain. Changing the type of contact during the match simulation subtly altered both the internal and external load on participants. These findings indicate that tackle training apparatus should be considered regarding the outcome of a training session.
    • The effects of variable resistance using chains on bench throw performance in trained rugby players

      Godwin, Mark S.; Fernandes, John; Twist, Craig; University College Birmingham; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-04-01)
      This study sought to determine the effects of variable resistance using chain resistance on bench throw performance. Eight male rugby union players (19.4 ± 2.3 y, 88.8 ± 6.0 kg, 1RM 105.6 ± 17.0 kg) were recruited from a national league team. In a randomised cross-over design participant’s performed three bench throws at 45% one repetition maximum (1RM) at a constant load (No Chains) or a variable load (30% 1RM constant load, 15% 1RM variable load; Chains) with seven days between conditions. For each repetition the peak and mean velocity, peak power, peak acceleration and time to peak velocity were recorded. Differences in peak and mean power were very likely trivial and unclear between the Chains and No Chains conditions, respectively. Possibly greater peak and likely greater mean bar velocity were accompanied by likely to most likely greater bar velocity between 50-400 ms from initiation of bench press in the Chains compared to the No Chains condition. Accordingly, bar acceleration was very likely greater in the Chains compared to the No Chains condition. In conclusion, these results show that the inclusion of chain resistance can acutely enhance several variables in the bench press throw and gives support to this type of training.
    • Effort Perception

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Eston, Roger; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of Chester; University of South Australia (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-27)
      Research addressing children's perceptions of exercise effort (their ‘perceived exertion’) has appeared steadily in the scientific literature over the last 30 years. Accepting that the established Borg adult rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was not appropriate for children, investigators set about developing child-specific scales which employed numbers, words and/or images that were more familiar and understandable. Numerous studies have examined the validity and reliability of such scales as the CERT, PCERT and OMNI amongst children aged 5 to 16, across different modes of exercise (cycling, running, stepping, resistance exercise), protocols (intermittent vs. continuous, incremental vs. non-incremental) and paradigms (estimation vs. production). Such laboratory-based research has enabled the general conclusion that children can, especially with practice, use effort perception scales to differentiate between exercise intensity levels, and to self-regulate their exercise output to match various levels indicated on them. However, inconsistencies in the methodological approaches adopted diminish the certainty of some of the interpretations made by researchers. In addition, though often mentioned, the would-be application of effort perception in physical education and activity/health promotion contexts has been relatively ignored. Accordingly, the scope for research in this applied domain is now considerable.
    • Energy expenditure, metabolic power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running

      Oxendale, Chelsea; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-03-21)
      Objectives: The purpose of the study was to compare measures of energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry and micro-technology, as well as high power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running. Design: Repeated measures Methods: Twelve university standard team sport players completed a linear and multi-directional running condition. Estimated energy expenditure, as well as time at high speed (> 14.4 km.h-1) and high power (> 20 W.kg-1) were quantified using a 10 Hz micro-technology device and compared with energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry. Results: Measured energy expenditure was higher during the multi-directional condition (9.0 ± 2.0 cf. 5.9 ± 1.4 kcal.min-1), whereas estimated energy expenditure was higher during the linear condition (8.7 ± 2.1 cf. 6.5 ± 1.5 kcal.min-1). Whilst measures of energy expenditure were strongly related (r > 0.89, p < 0.001), metabolic power underestimated energy expenditure by 52% (95% LoA: 20-93%) and 34% (95% LoA: 12-59%) during the multi-directional and linear condition, respectively. Time at high power was 41% (95% LoA: 4-92%) greater than time at high speed during the multi-directional condition, whereas time at high power was 5% (95% LoA: -17-9%) lower than time at high speed during the linear condition. Conclusions: Estimated energy expenditure and time at high metabolic power can reflect changes in internal load. However, micro-technology cannot be used to determine the energy cost of intermittent running.
    • Energy intake and expenditure assessed ‘in-season’ in an elite European rugby union squad.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F.; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L. (2015-06-09)
      Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg-1 body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg-1 body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.