• Quantification of the physical and physiological load of a boxing-specific simulation protocol

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-03-24)
      The aim of the study was to determine the physical and physiological responses to simulated amateur boxing of 3 × 3-min rounds. Using an externally valid technical and ambulatory demand, 28 amateur boxers (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 3.5 years, body mass 67.7 ± 10.1 kg, stature 171 ± 9 cm) completed the protocol following familiarisation. The physiological load was determined continuously via collection of mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake ( ̇V O2), aerobic energy expenditure (EEaer), excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and post-performance blood lactate. Physical performance was quantified as the acceleration delivered to the target by punches. HRmean and HRpeak were found to exceed 165 and 178 b min−1, absolute ̇V O2 > 124.6 ml kg−1, EEaer > 30.7 kcal min−1 and acceleration via 78 punches >2697 g during each round. Mean blood lactate (4.6 mmol l−1) and CO2excess (438.7 ml min−1) were higher than typical resting values reflecting a notable anaerobic contribution. RPEs reinforced the intensity of exercise was strenuous (>6–8). For all measures, there were typical increases (p < 0.05; moderate ES) across rounds. Accordingly, boxers might consider high-intensity (>90% ̇V O2max) interval training in anticipation such exercise yields improvements in aerobic conditioning. Moreover, the current simulation protocol – the boxing conditioning and fitness test – could be used as a form of training per se and as a means to monitor intervention-based changes in aspects of boxing-related physiology and performance. 1.
    • A re-appraisal of the reliability of the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Rogers, Louise; University of Chester (Springer-Verlag, 2007-03-07)
    • Reduction in high intensity activity during senior elite rugby league matches

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; University of Chester (2009-06)
    • The relationship between physical abilities, ball-carrying and tackling among elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-27)
      This study investigated the relationship between the physical abilities of adolescent rugby league players and tackling and ball-carrying skills performed during matches, across three seasons (under-15 to under-17). The players were measured each season for acceleration (10–30 m), peak and mean speed (10–30 m), sprinting force (10–30 m), aerobic power, counter-movement jump (CMJ) height and jumping power. The matches were filmed and analysed for ball-carrying and tackling frequency per minute (successful and unsuccessful outcomes). There were strong relationships between successful carries∙min–1 and 10 m force in the under-15 (R = 0.61, P < 0.001), under-16 (R = 0.69, P < 0.001) and under-17 groups (R = 0.64, P < 0.001). There were also strong and moderate relationships between predicted vertical power and successful carries∙min–1 in the under-15 (R = 0.63, P = 0.011) and under-17 group (R = 0.40, P = 0.030), respectively. There were no relationships between carries or tackles and any other performance indicators. These findings suggest that acceleration, in accordance with gains in body mass, support ball-carrying but not tackling performance. Performance measurements, such as CMJ or aerobic power, do not support ball-carrying ability among youth rugby league players.
    • The reliability and validity of short-distance sprint performance assessed on a nonmotorized treadmill

      Highton, Jamie M.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig; Nicholas, Ceri; University of Chester (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2012-02)
      This study examined the interday and intraday reliabilities and validities of various sprint performance variables on a nonmotorized treadmill (NMT) over distances of 10, 20, and 30 metres.
    • Reliability of ratings of perceived exertion during progressive treadmill exercise.

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Eston, Roger; Corns, David; University College Chester (Elsevier, 1999-10)
      OBJECTIVE: To assess the test-retest reliability (repeatability) of Borg's 6-20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale using a more appropriate statistical technique than has been employed in previous investigations. The RPE scale is used widely in exercise science and sports medicine to monitor and/or prescribe levels of exercise intensity. The "95% limits of agreement" technique has recently been advocated as a better means of assessing within-subject (trial to trial) agreement than traditional indicators such as Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients. METHODS: Sixteen male athletes (mean (SD) age 23.6 (5.1) years) completed two identical multistage (incremental) treadmill running protocols over a period of two to five days. RPEs were requested and recorded during the final 15 seconds of each three minute stage. All subjects successfully completed at least four stages in each trial, allowing the reliability of RPE responses to be examined at each stage. RESULTS: The 95% limits of agreement (bias +/- 1.96 x SDdiff) were found to widen as exercise intensity increased: 0.88 (2.02) RPE units (stage 1), 0.25 (2.53) RPE units (stage 2), -0.13 (2.86) RPE units (stage 3), and -0.13 (2.94) RPE units (stage 4). Pearson correlations (0.81, 0.72, 0.65, and 0.60) and intraclass correlations (0.82, 0.80, 0.77, and 0.75) decreased as exercise intensity increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings question the test-retest reliability of the RPE scale when used to monitor subjective estimates of exercise intensity in progressive (or graded) exercise tests.
    • The reliability of tests for sport-specific skill amongst elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012-08-10)
      In rugby league, tests of sport-specific skill often involve subjective assessments of performance by observers of varying qualification. However, the reliability of such subjective assessments has yet to be investigated via appropriate statistical techniques. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to investigate: (1) the intra-observer reliability of a non-qualified observer (‘novice’) and (2) the inter-observer reliability of the three observers (two qualified ‘experts’ and one novice observer) in the assessment of catching, passing and tackling (stages 1 and 2) ability in elite adolescent rugby league players (age: 14.790.5 years). Players performed each skill element within a simulated practice drill and were assessed in ‘real time’ by the observers according to pre-defined criteria. An overall bias (PB0.05) was revealed between the observers in stage 1 of catching and stage 1 of passing, the differences being higher for the novice compared to both expert coaches for each stage of catching and the first stage of passing, and between expert 2 and the novice for stage 2 of tackling. No comparisons met the pre-determined analytical goal of ‘perfect agreement’, for any of the skill components. Comparisons between the expert observers did not reach perfect agreement, with the lowest values occurring for both tackling skill stages (60 65%). None of the tests employed were sufficiently reliable to potentially discern between players of differing ability, which may mean up to 56% of players’ skill being misinterpreted. The credibility of such assessments should be questioned and alternative tests considered.
    • The reproducibility of perceptually regulated exercise responses during short-term cycle ergometry

      Hartshorn, James E. O.; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2004-05-18)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility over four trials of perceptually regulated exercise intensity during short-term cycle ergometry. Recent research has suggested that an improvement in the reproducibility (better agreement) of the exercise output would be observed with a repeated practice of using regulatory tools such as Borg’s 6-20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. Eighteen healthy active volunteers (nine males mean age (± SD) 24.7 ± 3.4 yr, and nine females 27.6 ± 5.4 yr) completed four identical intermittent effort production trials on a cycle ergometer, over a period of two-three weeks, with all trials being between three and five days apart. After warm-up, the volunteers were asked to produce four x three-minute bouts of exercise at RPE levels: 13, 15, 9, and 17 (in this order). Power output (W), percentage maximum heart rate reserve (%MHRR), and oxygen consumption (VO2; ml•kg-1•min-1) were recorded in the final minute of each bout. Analysis revealed that the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between repeated trials did not decrease for the objective markers of exercise intensity, remaining wide throughout. In the worst case comparisons the LoA represented changes (expressed as a proportion of the mean of two trials) of up to 58.3% in power output (T2 vs. T3 at RPE 9), 65.5% in %MHRR (T1 vs. T2 at RPE 13) and 36.5% in VO2 (T3 vs. T4 at RPE 17). These findings question the use of ratings of perceived exertion to regulate exercise effort. That the reproducibility of effort is also not seen to improve with practice raises doubts over the validity of using the RPE scale for providing training intensities for this type of exercise.
    • Reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to simulated amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2017-12-01)
      The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to repeated bouts of a three-round amateur boxing simulation protocol (BOXFIT). Twenty-eight amateur boxers completed two familiarisation trials before performing two complete trials of the BOXFIT, separated by 4-7 days. To characterise the internal load, mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (V ̇O2), aerobic energy expenditure (EEaer), excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each round and blood lactate determined post-BOXFIT. Additionally, an indication of the performance-based demands of the BOXFIT was provided by a measure of acceleration of the punches thrown in each round. Analysis revealed there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between repeated trials in any round for all dependent measures. The typical error (coefficient variation %) for all but one marker of internal load (CO2excess) was 1.2 – 16.5% and reflected a consistency that was sufficient for the detection of moderate changes in variables owing to an intervention. The reproducibility of the punch accelerations was high (CV% range = 2.1 – 2.7%). In general, these findings suggest that the internal load and performance-based efforts recorded during the BOXFIT are reproducible and thereby offers practitioners a method by which meaningful changes impacting on performance could be identified.
    • Selected physiological, perceptual and physical performance changes during two bouts of prolonged high intensity intermittent running separated by 72 hours

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2017-12-01)
      This study investigated the effects of performing a second 90-minute intermittent running protocol 72 hours after an initial trial on selected physiological, perceptual, and sprint running measures. Eight subelite soccer players provided measures of isokinetic muscle function, countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m sprinting, and muscle soreness before, and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 90-minute intermittent high-intensity running bout (IHIR-1). A second 90-minute IHIR bout (IHIR-2) was performed 72 hours after the first. Heart rates, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration [Bla], and 10-m sprint times were recorded periodically during both IHIR. Analysis of effects revealed that in the 72-hour period after IHIR-1, there were most likely increases in muscle soreness and likely to very likely deteriorations in CMJ, 10-m sprint, and isokinetic muscle function. During IHIR-2, heart rates (possibly to likely) and [Bla] (possibly to very likely) were lower than IHIR-1, whereas RPE remained unchanged. Sprint times during IHIR-2 were also likely to very likely higher than in IHIR-1. It was evident that these team sport players exposed to repeat bouts of prolonged high-intensity running within 72 hours downregulated their sprint performances in the second bout despite no change in perceived effort. These findings have implications for managing training and match loads during periods of intense scheduling.
    • Semi-automated time-motion analysis of senior elite rugby league

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Hall, Shayne; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; ProZone Group Ltd ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2009)
      The aim of this study was to examine the movement demands of senior elite rugby league with consideration of the impact of player position and match phase.
    • Semi-automated time-motion analysis of senior elite rugby league

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Hall, Shayne; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; ProZone Group Ltd ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (2008-09)
    • Semi-automated time-motion analysis of senior elite rugby league

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Hall, Shayne; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester ; ProZone Group Ltd ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (2009-09)
    • Slowing the Reconstitution of W′ in Recovery With Repeated Bouts of Maximal Exercise

      Chorley, Alan; Bott, Richard; Marwood, Simon; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Human Kinetics, 2019-02-01)
      Purpose: This study examined the partial reconstitution of the work capacity above critical power (W′) following successive bouts of maximal exercise using a new repeated ramp test, against which the fit of an existing W′ balance (W'bal) prediction model was tested. Methods: Twenty active adults, consisting of trained cyclists (n = 9; age 43 [15] y, V˙ O2max 61.9 [8.5] mL·kg−1·min−1) and untrained cyclists (n = 11; age 36 [15] y, V˙ O2max 52.4 [5.8] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed 2 tests 2 to 4 d apart, consisting of 3 incremental ramps (20 W·min−1) to exhaustion interspersed with 2-min recoveries. Results: Intratrial differences between recoveries demonstrated significant reductions in the amount of W′ reconstituted for the group and both subsets (P < .05). The observed minimal detectable changes of 475 J (first recovery) and 368 J (second recovery) can be used to monitor changes in the rate of W′ reconstitution in individual trained cyclists. Intertrial relative reliability of W′ reconstitution was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients for the group (≥.859) and the trained (≥.940) and untrained (≥.768) subsets. Absolute reliability was evaluated with typical error (TE) and coefficient of variation (CV) for the group (TE ≤ 559 J, CV ≤ 9.2%), trained (TE ≤ 301 J, CV ≤ 4.7%), and untrained (TE ≤ 720 J, CV ≤ 12.4%). Conclusions: The reconstitution of W′ is subject to a fatiguing effect hitherto unaccounted for in W'bal prediction models. Furthermore, the W'bal model did not provide a good fit for the repeated ramp test, which itself proved to be a reliable test protocol.
    • Statistical analyses in the physiology of exercise and kinanthropometry

      Winter, Edward; Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L. (Routledge, 2001-10-01)
    • The technical demands of amateur boxing: Effect of contest outcome, weight and ability

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-03)
      As research to-date has typically considered the technical features of amateur boxing performance with respect to contest outcome only, this study examined the offensive and defensive technical demands with respect to the independent and interactive effects of contest outcome, weight class and ability. Appraising eight offensive and four defensive actions and their corresponding outcomes (successful/unsuccessful), the technical demands of competitive boxing from 84 English amateurs (age: 21.3 ± 3.1 y; body mass: 68.1 ± 11.4 kg) across 11 weight categories (48 – 91+ kg) and two standards of competition (regional and national) were notated using computerized software. Data analysis reinforced that amateur boxing produces high technical loads (e.g. ~ 25 punches and ~ 10 defences per minute) and that performance is influenced significantly by the study’s independent variables. In particular, boxing standard (ability) was positively associated with external load (frequency of offensive and defensive actions), and winning was associated with high offensive and low defensive frequencies, whereas weight class had an inconsistent impact on technical performance. It is recommended that appraisals of performance and approaches to training and competition should take heed of our observations and that future research considers the role of other independent variables, including opposition quality and ‘style’, likely to affect boxing performance.
    • Test-retest reliability in quantitative physical education research: A commentary

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 1998-10-01)
      This paper highlights an important statistical development for exercise and physical education research. Traditionally, the Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients have been liberally used by researchers to quantify the test-retest reliability of many performance, behavioural, and physiologically-related measurements. The suitability of these forms of analyses has recently been challenged by British exercise scientists, who argue that they do not really address what they are meant to, that is, the level of agreement between repeated measurements or scores. As a consequence, our existing knowledge of the reliability of such measurements is questionable and deserves to be re-established with a more appropriate statistical technique. Accordingly, the 95% Limits of Agreement method is presented and offered as an essential supplement for future measurement and evaluation research.
    • The importance of perturbations in elite squash: An analysis of their ability to successfully predict rally outcome

      Roddy, Ryan; Lamb, Kevin L.; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2014-12)
      This study investigated the presence of perturbations within elite squash through the analysis of critical incidents responsible for successful rally outcome.
    • A three-season comparison of match performances among selected and unselected elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of New England, Australia; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2014-02-28)
      This study compared technical actions, movements, heart rates and perceptual responses of selected and unselected youth rugby league players during matches (under-15 to under-17). The players’ movements and heart rates were assessed using 5 Hz Global Positioning Systems (GPS), while their technical actions were analysed using video analysis. The maturity of each player was predicted before each season for statistical control. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between selected and unselected players in the under-15 or the under-17 age groups for any variables. However, in the under-16 group, the selected players (57.1 ± 11.9 min) played for longer than the unselected players (44.1 ± 12.3 min; P = 0.017; ES = 1.08 ± CI = 0.87), and covered more distance (5,181.0 ± 1063.5 m cf. 3942.6 ± 1,108.6m, respectively; P = 0.012; ES = 1.14 ± CI = 0.88) and high intensity distance (1,808.8 ± 369.3 m cf. 1,380.5 ± 367.7 m, respectively; P = 0.011; ES = 1.16 ± CI = 0.88). Although successful carries per minute was higher in the selected under-15 group, there were no other differences (P > 0.05) in match performance relative to playing minutes between groups. Controlling for maturity, the less mature, unselected players from the under-16 group performed more high-intensity running (P < 0.05). Our findings question the use of match- related measurements in differentiating between selected and unselected players, showing that later maturing players were unselected, even when performing greater high-intensity running during matches.
    • The validity and reliability of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a treadmill-based sub-maximal perceptually regulated exercise test

      Morris, Mike; Lamb, Kevin L.; Hayton, John; Cotterrell, David; Buckley, John P.; University of Chester ; (Springer-Verlag, 2010-03-30)
      The purpose of this study was to determine for the first time whether VO2max could be predicted accurately and reliably from a treadmill-based perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET) incorporating a safer and more practical upper limit of RPE 15 ("Hard") than used in previous investigations.