• Sport, health and public policy

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004-11-05)
      This book chapter examines how governments link sport and good health and complexities involved in the relationship between sport, health, and public policy. There are case studies from Britain and the USA.
    • Sports administration on the hoof: The three points for a win ‘experiment’ in English soccer

      Bloyce, Daniel; Murphy, Patrick; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008)
      This article discusses the impact of the three points for a win reform introduced in 1981 by the English Football League.
    • Sports developtment and disability

      Smith, Andy; Haycock, David; University of Chester (Routledge, 2010-12-16)
      This book chapter is some of the key issues associated with disability sports development. It focuses on how disability has been defined and explained, and how this has informed the emergence and development of disability sport in the UK.
    • Sports participation and the 'obesity/health crisis': Reflections on the case of young people in England

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2004-12-01)
      There has been growing concern in recent years about the emergence of a supposed 'health crisis' - in the form of an 'obesity epidemic' - among young people, one of the maincauses of which, it is assumed, is their declining levels of involvement in sport and physical activity. This brief paper offers some critical comments on the taken-for-granted relationship between these two emergent 'crises' and argues that, in contrast to popular opinion, young people are, in fact, doing more sport and physical activity than at any other time in the past, but that this process has co-occurred, and continues to co-occur, with increasing levels of obesity and overweight. In order to begin to adequately explain these co-occurring processes, it is argued that we need to examine young people's lives in their total context, while noting, in particular, the continuing significance of broader social processes and the networks of relationships in which they are involved.
    • A stair walking interventation strategy for children with Down's syndrome

      Lafferty, Moira E. (Elsevier, 2005-01)
      This article discusses the effects of a 12-week intervention study designed to enhance the stair-walking ability of children with Down's Syndrome utilising a concept known as active therapy.
    • Statistical analyses in the physiology of exercise and kinanthropometry

      Winter, Edward; Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L. (Routledge, 2001-10-01)
    • Strenght training methods and the work of Arthur Jones

      Smith, Dave; Bruce-Low, Stewart; University College Chester (American Society of Exercise Physiologists, 2004-12)
      This paper reviews research evidence relating to the strength training advice offered by Arthur Jones, founder and retired Chairman of Nautilus Sports/Medical Industries and MedX Corporation. Jones advocated that those interested in improving their muscular size, strength, power and/or endurance should perform one set of each exercise to muscular failure (volitional fatigue), train each muscle group no more than once (or, in some cases, twice) per week, perform each exercise in a slow, controlled manner and perform a moderate number of repetitions (for most people, ~8-12). This advice is very different to the strength training guidelines offered by the National Strength and Conditioning Association, the American College of Sports Medicine and most exercise physiology textbooks. However, in contrast to the lack of scientific support for most of the recommendations made by such bodies and in such books, Jones' training advice is strongly supported by the peer-reviewed scientific literature, a statement that has recently been supported by a review of American College of Sports Medicine resistance training guidelines. Therefore, we strongly recommend Jones' methods to athletes and coaches, as they are time-efficient and optimally efficacious, and note that, given his considerable contribution to the field of strength training, academic recognition of this contribution is long overdue.
    • Swarming behaviour in elite race bunch cycling: a case study

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; White, Christopher; Murray, Stafford; University of Chester (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2011-04)
      The current study undertook a dynamical systems analysis of race bunch cycling, considering the 'sports contest' as a dynamical, self organising system (McGarry et al., 2002). Data from one international track racing event was used to analyse a potential non-linear aggregation theory of 'swarming' in the 'points race', with two objectives; 1) To identify a race profile of a basic swarm mentality within the points race; 2) To identify system stability and the possible perturbation of stability in relation to successful and unsuccessful breakaways. Stability was based upon a 'normal' profile of race behaviours, measured by three separate dependent measures, namely; Absolute Difference, Rate of Change and Phase Duration. Results showed; 1) The points race exhibits the quintessential 'attract and repel' elements that characterise the swarm mentality 2) One-way ANOVA revealed that breakaways of both successful (3.3±1.2 half laps) and unsuccessful (3.1±1.5 half laps) conditions tend to differ from the race 'norm' (2.1±1.3 half laps) in terms of phase duration (F(2, 228)=18.4, P<0.05), suggesting that breakaways perturb the system through longer attract and repel phases. Results are discussed in relation to the current and future effectiveness of describing race bunch cycling as a dynamical system.
    • Tackling the "couch potato" culture amongst children and young people

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Thurston, Miranda; University College Cheter (2004)
    • The technical demands of amateur boxing: Effect of contest outcome, weight and ability

      Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-03)
      As research to-date has typically considered the technical features of amateur boxing performance with respect to contest outcome only, this study examined the offensive and defensive technical demands with respect to the independent and interactive effects of contest outcome, weight class and ability. Appraising eight offensive and four defensive actions and their corresponding outcomes (successful/unsuccessful), the technical demands of competitive boxing from 84 English amateurs (age: 21.3 ± 3.1 y; body mass: 68.1 ± 11.4 kg) across 11 weight categories (48 – 91+ kg) and two standards of competition (regional and national) were notated using computerized software. Data analysis reinforced that amateur boxing produces high technical loads (e.g. ~ 25 punches and ~ 10 defences per minute) and that performance is influenced significantly by the study’s independent variables. In particular, boxing standard (ability) was positively associated with external load (frequency of offensive and defensive actions), and winning was associated with high offensive and low defensive frequencies, whereas weight class had an inconsistent impact on technical performance. It is recommended that appraisals of performance and approaches to training and competition should take heed of our observations and that future research considers the role of other independent variables, including opposition quality and ‘style’, likely to affect boxing performance.
    • Test-retest reliability in quantitative physical education research: A commentary

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 1998-10-01)
      This paper highlights an important statistical development for exercise and physical education research. Traditionally, the Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients have been liberally used by researchers to quantify the test-retest reliability of many performance, behavioural, and physiologically-related measurements. The suitability of these forms of analyses has recently been challenged by British exercise scientists, who argue that they do not really address what they are meant to, that is, the level of agreement between repeated measurements or scores. As a consequence, our existing knowledge of the reliability of such measurements is questionable and deserves to be re-established with a more appropriate statistical technique. Accordingly, the 95% Limits of Agreement method is presented and offered as an essential supplement for future measurement and evaluation research.
    • The importance of perturbations in elite squash: An analysis of their ability to successfully predict rally outcome

      Roddy, Ryan; Lamb, Kevin L.; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2014-12)
      This study investigated the presence of perturbations within elite squash through the analysis of critical incidents responsible for successful rally outcome.
    • The World Anti-Doping Agency at 20: progress and challenges

      Houlihan, Barrie; Vidar Hanstad, Dag; Loland, Sigmund; Waddington, Ivan (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-06)
    • Theorising lifestyle drift in health promotion: explaining community and voluntary sector engagement practices in disadvantaged areas

      Powell, Katie; Thurston, Miranda; Bloyce, Daniel; University of Sheffield, Hedmark University College, University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-24)
      The past two decades have seen an increasing role for the UK community and voluntary sector (CVS) in health promotion in disadvantaged areas, largely based on assumptions on the part of funders that CVS providers are better able to engage ‘hard-to-reach’ population groups in services than statutory providers. However, there is limited empirical research exploring CVS provider practices in this field. Using ethnographic data this paper examines the experiences of a network of CVS providers seeking to engage residents in health promoting community services in a disadvantaged region in the North of England. The paper shows how CVS providers engaged in apparently contradictory practices, fluctuating between an empathically informed response to complex resident circumstances and (in the context of meeting externally set targets) behavioural lifestyle approaches to health promotion. Drawing on concepts from figurational sociology, the paper explains how lifestyle drift occurs in health promotion as a result of the complex web of relations (with funders, commissioners and residents) in which CVS providers are embedded. Despite the fact that research has revealed the impact of targets on the work of the CVS before, this paper demonstrates more specifically the way in which monitoring processes within CVS contracts can draw providers into the neoliberal lifestyle discourse so prevalent in health promotion.
    • A three-season comparison of match performances among selected and unselected elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2014-02-28)
      This study compared technical actions, movements, heart rates and perceptual responses of selected and unselected youth rugby league players during matches (under-15 to under-17). The players’ movements and heart rates were assessed using 5 Hz Global Positioning Systems (GPS), while their technical actions were analysed using video analysis. The maturity of each player was predicted before each season for statistical control. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between selected and unselected players in the under-15 or the under-17 age groups for any variables. However, in the under-16 group, the selected players (57.1 ± 11.9 min) played for longer than the unselected players (44.1 ± 12.3 min; P = 0.017; ES = 1.08 ± CI = 0.87), and covered more distance (5,181.0 ± 1063.5 m cf. 3942.6 ± 1,108.6m, respectively; P = 0.012; ES = 1.14 ± CI = 0.88) and high intensity distance (1,808.8 ± 369.3 m cf. 1,380.5 ± 367.7 m, respectively; P = 0.011; ES = 1.16 ± CI = 0.88). Although successful carries per minute was higher in the selected under-15 group, there were no other differences (P > 0.05) in match performance relative to playing minutes between groups. Controlling for maturity, the less mature, unselected players from the under-16 group performed more high-intensity running (P < 0.05). Our findings question the use of match- related measurements in differentiating between selected and unselected players, showing that later maturing players were unselected, even when performing greater high-intensity running during matches.
    • To Infinity and Beyond: The Use of GPS Devices within the Football Codes

      Malone, James; Barrett, Stephen; Barnes, Chris; Twist, Craig; Drust, Barry; Liverpool Hope University; Hull City FC; CB Sports Performance; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University
      The quantification of external load through global positioning systems (GPS) is now commonplace across the different football codes. Despite this acceptance amongst sports science practitioners, confusion still remains around which are the most appropriate metrics to use when monitoring their athletes. In addition, the translation of the message between the data gathered and the athletes and coaches can often be lost. The aim of this commentary is to provide discussion and recommendations when using GPS for athlete monitoring.
    • Track cycling: An analysis of the pacing strategies employed during the devil elimination race

      Gill, Kevin; Worsfold, Paul R.; White, Christopher; University of Chester (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2014-04-01)
      This study aimed to provide a description of the pacing requirements of the track cycling Elimination race, and to identify effective pacing strategies to maximise overall Omnium medal opportunity. Six male, and six female elite competitive races were investigated using half-lap split times. Selected dependant variables were; mean speed and variation in speed. Spearman’s Rho correlations were used to test patterns between dependant variables and the final finishing position of riders. One-way ANOVAs were also applied to test for differences in dependant variables, between successful (top 6 finishers) and unsuccessful groups (7th-12th). Pacing patterns of the men's and women's races were complex, but followed an overall positive and variable pacing pattern, with men's race quarter speeds of 52.8km/h (±1.9), 52.1km/h (±2.1), 51.1km/h (±2.2), and 49.5km/h (±5.5). In general, differences in pacing strategy were not found to significantly influence the success of riders unless employed late in the race. Results are discussed for the application and the development of effective elimination race strategies and tactics.
    • Transient fatigue is not influenced by ball-in-play time during elite rugby league matches

      Waldron, Mark; Highton, Jamie M.; Thomson, Edward; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2017-03-13)
      The capacity to sustain high-speed running is important for rugby league players. Transient fatigue, described as a reduction in high-speed running in the 5-min after a peak 5-min period, is a phenomenon observed during rugby league matches. This concept has recently been questioned based on the proposed confounding influence of ball-in-play time during these periods. Therefore, this study examined the changes in high-speed running (> 14 km∙h-1) of elite rugby league players, as well as ball-in-play time, during the peak, subsequent and mean 5-min periods of five competitive matches using 5 Hz GPS devices. The suitability of ball-in-play time as a covariate was also evaluated. The high-speed running and ball-in-play time was different between peak (26.7 ± 5.5 m∙min-1 and 177 ± 37 s) and subsequent (12.1 ± 6.2 m∙min-1 and 147 ± 37 s) 5-min periods (P < 0.05; most likely ↓). However, there was no relationship (r = 0.01 to -0.13; P > 0.05) between ball-in-play time and high-speed running and ball-in-play time was not independent of the match period. This study has reaffirmed the presence of transient fatigue during elite rugby league matches but questioned the influence of ball-in-play time as a confounding factor. These observations have implications for the design of appropriate training practices and informing tactical strategies employed by coaches. Most importantly, any practitioner wishing to measure transient fatigue could follow a similar statistical approach taken herein and, based on the current findings would not need to account for ball-in-play time as a confounding variable.
    • Understanding physical education

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-01-24)
      This book discusses the nature and purpose of physical education; extra-curriculr physical education; and gender, social class, health, youth, ethnicity, disability in relation to physical education.