• Understanding physical education

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-01-24)
      This book discusses the nature and purpose of physical education; extra-curriculr physical education; and gender, social class, health, youth, ethnicity, disability in relation to physical education.
    • The Unsuitability of Energy Expenditure Derived From Microtechnology for Assessing Internal Load in Collision-Based Activities

      Highton, Jamie M.; Mullen, Thomas; Norris, Jonathan; Oxendale, Chelsea; Twist, Craig (Human Kinetics, 2016-05-25)
      This aim of this study was to examine the validity of energy expenditure derived from micro-technology when measured during a repeated effort rugby protocol. Sixteen male rugby players completed a repeated effort protocol comprising 3 sets of 6 collisions during which movement activity and energy expenditure (EEGPS) were measured using micro-technology. In addition, energy expenditure was also estimated from open circuit spirometry (EEVO2). Whilst related (r = 0.63, 90%CI 0.08-0.89), there was a systematic underestimation of energy expenditure during the protocol (-5.94 ± 0.67 kcalmin-1) for EEGPS (7.2 ± 1.0 kcalmin-1) compared to EEVO2 (13.2 ± 2.3 kcalmin-1). High-speed running distance (r = 0.50, 95%CI -0.66-0.84) was related to EEVO2, while Player Load was not (r = 0.37, 95%CI -0.81-0.68). Whilst metabolic power might provide a different measure of external load than other typically used micro-technology metrics (e.g. high-speed running, Player Load), it underestimates energy expenditure during intermittent team sports that involve collisions.
    • Using ‘sport in the community schemes’ to tackle crime and drug use among young people: Some policy issues and problems

      Smith, Andy; Waddington, Ivan (Sage, 2004-10-01)
      This article discusses the effectiveness of sport in the community schemes such as the Positive Futures initative and Summer Splsh/Splash Extra in reducing crime and drug use amongst young people.
    • Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale

      Smith, Dave; Hale, Bruce; University College Chester ; University of Maine (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine, 2004-04)
      Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach’s = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (p<0.001) and moderate correlations were found between all BDS and MDI subscales, and between five of the eight EDQ subscales. A multivariate analysis of covariance, with univariate F tests and Tukey HSD tests, revealed that both male and female competitive bodybuilders scored significantly (p<0.05) higher on all three BDS subscales than the male and female non-competitive bodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). Conclusion: The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.
    • The validity and reliability of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a treadmill-based sub-maximal perceptually regulated exercise test

      Morris, Mike; Lamb, Kevin L.; Hayton, John; Cotterrell, David; Buckley, John P.; University of Chester ; (Springer-Verlag, 2010-03-30)
      The purpose of this study was to determine for the first time whether VO2max could be predicted accurately and reliably from a treadmill-based perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET) incorporating a safer and more practical upper limit of RPE 15 ("Hard") than used in previous investigations.
    • Validity of a pictorial perceived exertion scale for effort estimation and effort production during stepping exercise in adolescent children

      Yelling, Martin; Lamb, Kevin L.; Swaine, Ian; Chester College of Higher Education (Sage, 2002-06-01)
      Recent developments in the study of paediatric effort perception have continued to emphasise the importance of child-specific rating scales. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of an illustrated 1 – 10 perceived exertion scale; the Pictorial Children’s Effort Rating Table (PCERT). 4 class groups comprising 104 children; 27 boys and 29 girls, aged 12.1±0.3 years and 26 boys, 22 girls, aged 15.3±0.2 years were selected from two schools and participated in the initial development of the PCERT. Subsequently, 48 of these children, 12 boys and 12 girls from each age group were randomly selected to participate in the PCERT validation study. Exercise trials were divided into 2 phases and took place 7 to 10 days apart. During phase 1, children completed 5 x 3-minute incremental stepping exercise bouts interspersed with 2-minute recovery periods. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of exertion were recorded during the final 15 s of each exercise bout. In phase 2 the children were asked to regulate their exercising effort during 4 x 4-minute bouts of stepping so that it matched randomly prescribed PCERT levels (3, 5, 7 and 9). Analysis of data from Phase 1 yielded significant (P<0.01) relationships between perceived and objective (HR) effort measures for girls. In addition, the main effects of exercise intensity on perceived exertion and HR were significant (P<0.01); perceived exertion increased as exercise intensity increased and this was reflected in simultaneous significant rises in HR. During phase 2, HR and estimated power output (POapprox) produced at each of the four prescribed effort levels were significantly different (P<0.01). The children in this study were able to discriminate between 4 different exercise intensities and regulate their exercise intensity according to 4 prescribed levels of perceived exertion. In seeking to contribute towards children’s recommended physical activity levels and helping them understand how to self-regulate their activity, the application of the PCERT within the context of physical education is a desirable direction for future research.
    • Validity of a portable jump mat for assessing countermovement jump performance in elite rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Rugby Football League, Leeds (Thieme Publishing, 2016-12-08)
      Validity of a portable jump mat for assessing countermovement jump performance in elite rugby league players
    • Validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer in male youth athletes

      Till, Kevin; Morris, Rhys; Stokes, Keith; Trewartha, Grant; Twist, Craig; Dobbin, Nicholas; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben (2017-11-16)
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer against a criterion measure (i.e., 1,000 Hz force platform) for assessing muscle strength in male youth athletes. Twenty-two male adolescent (age 15.3 ± 0.5 years) rugby league players performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e., two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) separated by 5 minutes rest in a randomised and counterbalanced order. Mean bias, typical error of estimate (TEE) and Pearson correlation coefficient for peak force (PF) and peak force minus body weight (PFBW) from the force platform were validated against peak force from the dynamometer (DynoPF). When compared to PF and PFBW, mean bias (with 90% Confidence limits) for DynoPF was very large (-32.4 [-34.2 to -30.6] %) and moderate (-10.0 [-12.8 to -7.2] %), respectively. The TEE was moderate for both PF (8.1 [6.3 to 11.2] %) and PFBW (8.9 [7.0 to 12.4]). Correlations between DynoPF and PF (r 0.90 [0.79 to 0.95]) and PFBW (r 0.90 [0.80 to 0.95] were nearly perfect. The isometric mid-thigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimated PF and PFBW obtained using a criterion force platform. However, strong correlations between the dynamometer and force platform suggest that a dynamometer provides an appropriate alternative to assess isometric mid-thigh pull strength when a force platform is not available. Therefore, practitioners can use an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess strength in the field with youth athletes but should be aware that it underestimates peak force.
    • The validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from a perceptually-regulated graded exercise test

      Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; King, Nicholas; University of Exeter ; University of Chester ; University of Exeter ; University of Wales, Bangor (Springer-Verlag, 2005-04-07)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake from sub-maximal values elicited during a perceptually-regulated exercise test. We hypothesised that the strong relationship between the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and would enable to be predicted and that this would improve with practice. Ten male volunteers performed a graded exercise test (GXT) to establish followed by three sub-maximal RPE production protocols on a cycle ergometer, each separated by a period of 48 h.
    • Violence, competition and the emergence and development of modern sports: Reflections on the Stokvis-Malcolm debate

      Green, Ken; Liston, Katie; Smith, Andy; Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (SAGE, 2005-03-01)
      This article discusses the place of violence reducation in the socio-genesis of sports. It focuses on the debate between Dominic Malcolm and Ruud Stokvis.
    • “[We’re on the right track, baby], we were born that way!” Exploring sports participation in Norway

      Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken; University of Chester; Hedmark University College; Norsk Statistisk Sentralbyra (Taylor & Francis, 2013-02-25)
      Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter, this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership and young Norwegians are the quintessential sporting omnivores. Among other things, the Statistics Norway study reveals substantial increases in participation (among young people and females especially) during the period 1997–2007, a shift in the peak of participation to the late teenage years, a relatively high level of lifelong participants, a re-bound effect in the post-child rearing years and a growth in lifestyle sports. Young Norwegians grow up in a socio-economic context of relative equality between the sexes and high standards of living. An abundance of natural and artificial outdoor and indoor sporting facilities alongside a well-established voluntary sports club sector and an elementary school system that emphasizes physical exercise and recreation, as well as high levels of parental involvement, add to the favourable socio-economic conditions to create seemingly optimal circumstances for sports participation. All these reinforce the sporting and physical recreation cultures deeply embedded in Norwegian society and embodied by the very many middle-class parents in a country which, for the time being at least, remains relatively young in demographic terms. In terms of lessons to be learned for policy towards sports and physical education beyond Norway, there may be grounds for some optimism around parental involvement in children's sport as well as the potential appeal of lifestyle sports. That said, it is likely to be the greater socio-economic equalities in Scandinavian countries such as Norway that make them unrealistic benchmarks for sports participation elsewhere.
    • What happened to the legacy from London 2012? A sociological analysis of the processes involved in preparing for a grassroots sporting legacy from London 2012 outside of the host city

      Lovett, Emily L.; Bloyce, Daniel; Edge Hill University; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-02-01)
      Preparations for London 2012 included promises for a sporting legacy across Britain. APS data suggest that, despite a slight spike in 2012, we have not experienced the rise in participation promised. The importance of preparations for legacy were well documented but little research has examined these processes. We examine planning for sporting legacy within a non-Olympic city in England, Birmingham. 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people delivering sport in Birmingham to provide a figurational analysis of relationships involved. The change in government during the economic recession saw budget cuts and a reduction in sport development personnel. Whilst various organisations struggled financially, others wanted to link to legacy. This increase in groups involved led to confusion and the unintended outcome of ‘initiativitis’. In trying to leverage legacy, a strategic approach to managing potential opportunities with clear communication of opportunities is vital. A belief in inherent inspiration cannot be relied upon. Key words: London 2012, sport legacy, figurational sociology, Birmingham, initiativitis, school sports partnerships, policy, inherent inspiration, demonstration effect
    • What is PE and who should teach it? Undergraduate PE students’ views and experiences of the outsourcing of PE in the UK

      McEvilly, Nollaig; University of Chester
      This paper investigates beginning BSc Physical Education (PE) students’ views and experiences of the outsourcing of PE in the UK. Outsourcing involves the provision of PE by external providers such as sports coaches. PE in the UK (and other neoliberal Western contexts) is a site in which outsourcing has become increasingly normalised. I anticipated that, as first year undergraduates, the participants would have relatively recent experience of outsourcing as pupils/students (i.e. experience of receiving outsourced PE provision). Data were generated through written narratives (n = 16), completed on the participants’ first day at university, and follow-up semi-structured interviews (n = 10). Drawing on a Foucaultian theoretical framework, I employed a poststructural type of discourse analysis concerned with analysing patterns in language. Referring to PE, the participants drew heavily on a sport discourse, often conflating PE and sport and emphasising the necessity of teachers having knowledge and experience of sports content and skills, as well as a pedagogical discourse (and, to a lesser extent, a ‘healthy lifestyles’ discourse). The participants had a range of experiences of outsourcing in PE, particularly at primary level. They were in favour of primary PE being taught by either specialist PE teachers, or sports coaches (rather than generalist teachers alone). They spoke positively about their experiences of external provision at both primary and secondary school. While few critical comments were provided, participants raised concerns about external providers’ pedagogical knowledge, and some questioned if teachers might feel devalued by external providers being brought in to teach aspects of their curriculum. In general, while the participants recognised teachers’ pedagogical expertise, they also valued external providers’ perceived content knowledge and sporting experience. As such, by conflating PE and sport, they considered that PE should be taught by sport ‘experts’ and that external providers could enhance schools’ internal capabilities.
    • When transport policy becomes health policy: A documentary analysis of active travel policy in England

      Bloyce, Daniel; White, Christopher; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-09-17)
      There has been a succession of policy documents related to active travel published by the British government since the implementation of a National Cycle Network (NCN) in 1995. However, as the latest National Travel Survey (NTS) reveals, the number of journeys made by bike in the UK has remained steadfastly around only 2% (Department for Transport [DfT], 2018a). By using documentary analysis of the available official policy documents and statements, the aim of this paper is to make sense of the policies that have been published concerning active travel (AT) in England. This is done from a figurational sociological perspective. Three key themes emerge from the analysis: (1) the rhetorical, advisory level of the vast majority of the policies; (2) the reliance on a wide network of local authorities to implement AT policy; and (3) the focus placed on individuals to change their behaviour. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that despite a large number of policy publications from a range of government departments claiming to promote AT, little has actually changed in this time period in terms of a national agenda. Despite the successive policies, it seems there is little appetite on behalf of recent governments to make widespread infrastructural changes, where instead the focus has largely been on persuading the individual to seek more active modes of travel, increasingly for their own, individual ‘health’ gains.
    • Young people and lifelong participation in sport and physical activity: A sociological perspective on contemporary physical education programmes in England and Wales

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Roberts, Ken (Taylor & Francis, 2005-01)
      This article discusses the key goal of physical education in preparing schoolchildren for lifelong participation in physical acitivity and which types of PE programmes and activities are more likely to achieve this aim.