• Season-long increases in perceived muscle soreness in professional rugby league players: role of player position, match characteristics and playing surface

      Fletcher, Ben D.; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 14/09/2015)
      Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence of a repeated bout effect or ‘contact adaptations’ in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain
    • Selected physiological, perceptual and physical performance changes during two bouts of prolonged high intensity intermittent running separated by 72 hours

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 01/12/2017)
      This study investigated the effects of performing a second 90-minute intermittent running protocol 72 hours after an initial trial on selected physiological, perceptual, and sprint running measures. Eight subelite soccer players provided measures of isokinetic muscle function, countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m sprinting, and muscle soreness before, and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 90-minute intermittent high-intensity running bout (IHIR-1). A second 90-minute IHIR bout (IHIR-2) was performed 72 hours after the first. Heart rates, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration [Bla], and 10-m sprint times were recorded periodically during both IHIR. Analysis of effects revealed that in the 72-hour period after IHIR-1, there were most likely increases in muscle soreness and likely to very likely deteriorations in CMJ, 10-m sprint, and isokinetic muscle function. During IHIR-2, heart rates (possibly to likely) and [Bla] (possibly to very likely) were lower than IHIR-1, whereas RPE remained unchanged. Sprint times during IHIR-2 were also likely to very likely higher than in IHIR-1. It was evident that these team sport players exposed to repeat bouts of prolonged high-intensity running within 72 hours downregulated their sprint performances in the second bout despite no change in perceived effort. These findings have implications for managing training and match loads during periods of intense scheduling.
    • Semi-automated time-motion analysis of senior elite rugby league

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Hall, Shayne; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; ProZone Group Ltd ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2009)
      The aim of this study was to examine the movement demands of senior elite rugby league with consideration of the impact of player position and match phase.
    • Semi-automated time-motion analysis of senior elite rugby league

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Hall, Shayne; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester ; ProZone Group Ltd ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (2009-09)
    • Semi-automated time-motion analysis of senior elite rugby league

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Hall, Shayne; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; ProZone Group Ltd ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (2008-09)
    • Sex-related changes in physical performance, wellbeing and neuromuscular function of elite Touch players during a four-day international tournament.

      Dobbin, Nick; Highton, Jamie; Thorpe, M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University
      Purpose: To examine the within- and between-sex physical performance, wellbeing and neuromuscular function responses across a four-day international touch rugby (Touch) tournament. Methods: Twenty females and twenty-one males completed measures of wellbeing (fatigue, soreness, sleep, mood, stress) and neuromuscular function (countermovement jump (CMJ) height, peak power output (PPO) and peak force (PF)) during a 4-day tournament with internal, external and perceptual loads recorded for all matches. Results: Relative and absolute total, low- (females) and high-intensity distance was lower on day 3 (males and females) (ES = -0.37 to -0.71) compared to day 1. Mean heart rate was possibly to most likely reduced during the tournament (except day 2 males) (ES = -0.36 to -0.74), whilst RPE-TL was consistently higher in females (ES = 0.02 to 0.83). The change in mean fatigue, soreness and overall wellbeing were unclear to most likely lower (ES = -0.33 to -1.90) across the tournament for both sexes, with greater perceived fatigue and soreness in females on days 3-4 (ES = 0.39 to 0.78). Jump height and PPO were possibly to most likely lower across days 2-4 (ES = -0.30 to -0.84), with greater reductions in females (ES = 0.21 to 0.66). Wellbeing, CMJ height, and PF were associated with changes in external, internal and perceptual measures of load across the tournament (2 = -0.37 to 0.39). Conclusions: Elite Touch players experience reductions in wellbeing, neuromuscular function and running performance across a 4-day tournament, with notable differences in fatigue and running between males and females, suggesting sex-specific monitoring and intervention strategies are necessary.
    • Slowing the Reconstitution of W′ in Recovery With Repeated Bouts of Maximal Exercise

      Chorley, Alan; Bott, Richard; Marwood, Simon; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Human Kinetics, 01/02/2019)
      Purpose: This study examined the partial reconstitution of the work capacity above critical power (W′) following successive bouts of maximal exercise using a new repeated ramp test, against which the fit of an existing W′ balance (W'bal) prediction model was tested. Methods: Twenty active adults, consisting of trained cyclists (n = 9; age 43 [15] y, V˙ O2max 61.9 [8.5] mL·kg−1·min−1) and untrained cyclists (n = 11; age 36 [15] y, V˙ O2max 52.4 [5.8] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed 2 tests 2 to 4 d apart, consisting of 3 incremental ramps (20 W·min−1) to exhaustion interspersed with 2-min recoveries. Results: Intratrial differences between recoveries demonstrated significant reductions in the amount of W′ reconstituted for the group and both subsets (P < .05). The observed minimal detectable changes of 475 J (first recovery) and 368 J (second recovery) can be used to monitor changes in the rate of W′ reconstitution in individual trained cyclists. Intertrial relative reliability of W′ reconstitution was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients for the group (≥.859) and the trained (≥.940) and untrained (≥.768) subsets. Absolute reliability was evaluated with typical error (TE) and coefficient of variation (CV) for the group (TE ≤ 559 J, CV ≤ 9.2%), trained (TE ≤ 301 J, CV ≤ 4.7%), and untrained (TE ≤ 720 J, CV ≤ 12.4%). Conclusions: The reconstitution of W′ is subject to a fatiguing effect hitherto unaccounted for in W'bal prediction models. Furthermore, the W'bal model did not provide a good fit for the repeated ramp test, which itself proved to be a reliable test protocol.
    • Social class and the emergent organised sporting habits of primary-aged children

      Wheeler, Sharon; Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Edge Hill University; University of Chester; Innland University Norway (Sage, 15/05/2017)
      This paper reports on the patterns of participation in organised sports of youngsters coming towards the end of primary school, with a view to identifying emergent sporting habits in relation to social class gradients. The data for the study were generated via 90 semi-structured interviews with parents and children from 62 families. The data revealed differences in organised activity participation (both at and beyond school) between an ‘under-class’ and combined middle-class groups of children, as well as within-class gradients among the middle-class sub-groups. There were, for example, substantial differences between the under-class group and the combined middle-class group in terms of both the average number of bouts of organised sport participation and the repertoire or variety of sports engaged with. In effect, the mid- and upper-middle-class children were already sporting and cultural omnivores by the final years of primary schooling. We conclude that while the primary school organised sporting ‘offer’ may be neither a sufficient nor even a necessary contribution to the emerging sporting habits of mid- and upper-middle-class children, for under-class children it is likely to be necessary even though it may still prove, in the longer run, insufficient.
    • Social class, young people, sport and physical education

      Green, Ken; Smith, Andy; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2005)
      This book chapter discusses the relationship between social class and physical education. It aims to demonstrate how social class can effect other areas of young people's lives that impact on physical education, such as leisure lifestyles.
    • Sociology of sport in the balance: Critical reflections on some recent and more enduring trends

      Dunning, Eric; University of Leicester (Taylor & Francis, 2004)
      In his book Sociology in the Balance, the Dutch sociologist Johan Goudsblom attempted an overview of the development of sociology as a whole. This essay sets out ot provide a similar stocktaking of the sociology of sport. Its objectives are threefold: to mark any advances in knowledge which have been mae in the field in the century which recently drew to a close; toprovide a guide to the principal conflicts and difficulties which have arisen in the field; and to scholars to some of the mistakes that have been made and some of the recipes that been advocated for avoiding them.
    • Some reflections on women's sports in Ireland

      Liston, Katie; University College Chester (University College Dublin Press, 2008)
      This book chapter discusses the role of sport in identity-formation, especially as it relates to the self-conceptions and social ranking of men and women in Ireland.
    • Sport policy and development: An introduction

      Bloyce, Daniel; Smith, Andy; University of Chester (Routledge, 2010)
      This book discusses the development of sports policy, government involvement in sports policy, the development of community sports, school sports, elite sports development, and the development of mega-events such as the Olympic games.
    • Sport, health and public policy

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004)
      This book chapter examines how governments link sport and good health and complexities involved in the relationship between sport, health, and public policy. There are case studies from Britain and the USA.
    • Sports administration on the hoof: The three points for a win ‘experiment’ in English soccer

      Bloyce, Daniel; Murphy, Patrick; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008)
      This article discusses the impact of the three points for a win reform introduced in 1981 by the English Football League.
    • Sports developtment and disability

      Smith, Andy; Haycock, David; University of Chester (Routledge, 2011)
      This book chapter is some of the key issues associated with disability sports development. It focuses on how disability has been defined and explained, and how this has informed the emergence and development of disability sport in the UK.
    • Sports participation and the 'obesity/health crisis': Reflections on the case of young people in England

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; Roberts, Ken; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2004)
      There has been growing concern in recent years about the emergence of a supposed 'health crisis' - in the form of an 'obesity epidemic' - among young people, one of the maincauses of which, it is assumed, is their declining levels of involvement in sport and physical activity. This brief paper offers some critical comments on the taken-for-granted relationship between these two emergent 'crises' and argues that, in contrast to popular opinion, young people are, in fact, doing more sport and physical activity than at any other time in the past, but that this process has co-occurred, and continues to co-occur, with increasing levels of obesity and overweight. In order to begin to adequately explain these co-occurring processes, it is argued that we need to examine young people's lives in their total context, while noting, in particular, the continuing significance of broader social processes and the networks of relationships in which they are involved.
    • A stair walking interventation strategy for children with Down's syndrome

      Lafferty, Moira E. (Elsevier, 2005)
      This article discusses the effects of a 12-week intervention study designed to enhance the stair-walking ability of children with Down's Syndrome utilising a concept known as active therapy.
    • Statistical analyses in the physiology of exercise and kinanthropometry

      Winter, Edward; Eston, Roger; Lamb, Kevin L. (Routledge, 01/10/2001)
    • Strenght training methods and the work of Arthur Jones

      Smith, Dave; Bruce-Low, Stewart; University College Chester (American Society of Exercise Physiologists, 2004-12)
      This paper reviews research evidence relating to the strength training advice offered by Arthur Jones, founder and retired Chairman of Nautilus Sports/Medical Industries and MedX Corporation. Jones advocated that those interested in improving their muscular size, strength, power and/or endurance should perform one set of each exercise to muscular failure (volitional fatigue), train each muscle group no more than once (or, in some cases, twice) per week, perform each exercise in a slow, controlled manner and perform a moderate number of repetitions (for most people, ~8-12). This advice is very different to the strength training guidelines offered by the National Strength and Conditioning Association, the American College of Sports Medicine and most exercise physiology textbooks. However, in contrast to the lack of scientific support for most of the recommendations made by such bodies and in such books, Jones' training advice is strongly supported by the peer-reviewed scientific literature, a statement that has recently been supported by a review of American College of Sports Medicine resistance training guidelines. Therefore, we strongly recommend Jones' methods to athletes and coaches, as they are time-efficient and optimally efficacious, and note that, given his considerable contribution to the field of strength training, academic recognition of this contribution is long overdue.
    • Swarming behaviour in elite race bunch cycling: a case study

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; White, Christopher; Murray, Stafford; University of Chester (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2011-04)
      The current study undertook a dynamical systems analysis of race bunch cycling, considering the 'sports contest' as a dynamical, self organising system (McGarry et al., 2002). Data from one international track racing event was used to analyse a potential non-linear aggregation theory of 'swarming' in the 'points race', with two objectives; 1) To identify a race profile of a basic swarm mentality within the points race; 2) To identify system stability and the possible perturbation of stability in relation to successful and unsuccessful breakaways. Stability was based upon a 'normal' profile of race behaviours, measured by three separate dependent measures, namely; Absolute Difference, Rate of Change and Phase Duration. Results showed; 1) The points race exhibits the quintessential 'attract and repel' elements that characterise the swarm mentality 2) One-way ANOVA revealed that breakaways of both successful (3.3±1.2 half laps) and unsuccessful (3.1±1.5 half laps) conditions tend to differ from the race 'norm' (2.1±1.3 half laps) in terms of phase duration (F(2, 228)=18.4, P<0.05), suggesting that breakaways perturb the system through longer attract and repel phases. Results are discussed in relation to the current and future effectiveness of describing race bunch cycling as a dynamical system.