• Marathon des Sables: A scientific case study

      Ryder, J. J.; Grantham, N. J.; Kellett, David; Jones, G. E.; University of Hull ; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2004-01)
      The Marathon des Sables is an ultra-endurance foot race across the Sahara Desert. The event lasts 6 days, and competitors are susceptible to a variety of specific injuries, including dehydration, heat stress, and ultimately poor performance. This study involved the monitoring of a highly trained 42-year-old male competitor through a 6-month training program and immediately after the event. The monitoring sessions assessed maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max), pulmonary function, anthropometric characteristics, body composition, resting metabolic rate, training, and nutritional status. The subject also completed a period of acclimation during the taper phase of the training program in an environmental chamber. The last pre-race VO2max of 4.5 1-min showed a decrease of 0.5 1-min. The subject's diet successfully maintained body weight during the training period, and the subject's weight increased from 67.7kg at 12.2% body fat to 71kg at 13.2% body fat during the taper. The subject sustained no chronic injuries during the training or race periods. We concluded that the intervention strategies adopted were successful in preparing the subject to successfully complete the Marathon des Sables. The athlete covered the 229km in 29hr 21min 21sec, finishing in 75th place.
    • Measurement procedures affect the interpretation of metatarsophalangeal joint function during accelerated sprinting

      Smith, Grace; Lake, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (Routledge, 2012-08)
      The metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) is a significant absorber of energy in sprinting. This study examined the influence of MPJ axis choice and filter cut-off frequency on kinetic variables describing MPJ function during accelerated sprinting. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway. Three dimensional high-speed (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the 20 m point. Three axis definitions for the five MPJs were compared. MPJ moments, powers and energies were calculated using different filter cut-off frequencies. The more anatomically appropriate dual axis resulted in less energy absorbed at the MPJ compared to the oblique axis which also absorbed less energy compared to the perpendicular axis. Furthermore, a low cut-off frequency (8 Hz) substantially underestimated MPJ kinematics, kinetics and the energy absorbed at the joint and lowered the estimate of energy production during push-off. It is concluded that a better understanding of MPJ function during sprinting would be obtained by using an oblique or anatomically appropriate representation of the joint together with appropriate kinematic data sampling and filtering so that high frequency movement characteristics are retained.
    • Mental practice, motor performance, and the late CNV

      Smith, Dave; Collins, Dave; University College Chester ; University of Edinburgh (North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, 2004-09)
      The aim of these two studies was to examine the application of Lang’s (1979, 1985) bioinformational theory to the mental practice (MP) of a strength task, the maximal voluntary contraction of the abductor digiti minimi, and the MP of a computerized barrier knockdown task. Study 1 divided 18 males into three groups: a physical practice (PP) group; a stimulus and response proposition mental practice (SRP) group; and a stimulus proposition mental practice (SP) group. Each participant either physically or mentally practiced 40 contractions twice a week for 3 weeks, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded during testing sessions. All three groups significantly increased abduction strength, but there were no significant between-group differences in the mag-nitude of the improvements. In addition, late contingent negative variation (CNV) waves were apparent prior to both real and imagined movements in all conditions. Study 2 allocated 24 participants to PP, SRP, SP, and control groups. Participants performed 120 imaginary or actual barrier knockdown trials, with EEGs recorded as in Study 1. A Group x Test ANOVA for movement time revealed that the PP and SRP groups improved to a significantly greater degree than the SP and control groups. Also, the late CNV was observed prior to real and imagined movement in the SRP group, but not prior to imagined movement in the SP group. These results support bioinformational theory with respect to cognitively oriented motor tasks, but not strength tasks.
    • Metabolic demands and replenishment of muscle glycogen after a rugby league match simulation protocol.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Hannon, Marcus P.; Benford, Victoria; Morehen, James C.; Twist, Craig; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Impey, Samuel G.; Cooper, Robert G.; Morton, James P.; et al. (22/02/2017)
      Objectives: The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. Design: Fifteen (mean ± SD: age 20.9 ± 2.9 y, body-mass 87.3 ± 14.1 kg, height 177.4 ± 6.0 cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6 g•kg•day-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7. Players were prescribed an immediate or delayed (2-h-post) re-feed post-simulation. Methods: Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained post-depletion, before and after simulated match-play, and 48-h after match-play with PlayerLoad and heart-rate collected throughout the simulation. Data were analysed using effects sizes ± 90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Results: PlayerLoad (8.0 ± 0.7 AU•min-1) and %HRpeak (83 ± 4.9%) during the simulation were similar to values reported for RL match-play. Muscle glycogen very likely increased from immediately after to 48-h post-simulation (272 ± 97 cf. 416 ± 162 mmol•kg-1d.w.; ES ± 90%CI) after immediate re-feed, but changes were unclear (283 ± 68 cf. 361 ± 144 mmol•kg-1d.w.; ES ± 90%CI) after delayed re-feed. CK almost certainly increased by 77.9 ± 25.4% (0.75 ± 0.19) post-simulation for all players. Conclusions: The RLMSP presents a replication of the internal loads associated with professional RL match-play, although difficulties in replicating the collision reduced the metabolic demands and glycogen utilisation. Further, it is possible to replete muscle glycogen in damaged muscle employing an immediate re-feed strategy.
    • Metabolic demands of elite rugby competition after 36 hours of a high (6 g·kg-1) or low (3 g·kg-1) carbohydrate diet: implications for dietary recommendations.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Morehen, James C.; Haigh, Julian; Clarke, Jon; Donovan, Timothy F.; Twist, Craig; Cotton, Caroline; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Sharma, Asheesh; et al. (Elsevier, 22/04/2016)
      Objectives: Although the physical demands of Rugby League (RL) match-play are well-known, the fuel sources supporting energy-production are poorly understood. We therefore assessed muscle glycogen utilisation and plasma metabolite responses to RL match-play after a relatively high (HCHO) or relatively low CHO (LCHO) diet. Design: Sixteen (mean ± SD age; 18 ± 1 years, body-mass; 88 ± 12 kg, height 180 ± 8 cm) professional players completed a RL match after 36-h consuming a non-isocaloric high carbohydrate (n = 8; 6 g kg day−1) or low carbohydrate (n = 8; 3 g kg day−1) diet. Methods: Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained pre- and post-match, alongside external and internal loads quantified using Global Positioning System technology and heart rate, respectively. Data were analysed using effects sizes ±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Differences in pre-match muscle glycogen between high and low carbohydrate conditions (449 ± 51 and 444 ± 81 mmol kg−1 d.w.) were unclear. High (243 ± 43 mmol kg−1 d.w.) and low carbohydrate groups (298 ± 130 mmol kg−1 d.w.) were most and very likely reduced post-match, respectively. For both groups, differences in pre-match NEFA and glycerol were unclear, with a most likely increase in NEFA and glycerol post-match. NEFA was likely lower in the high compared with low carbohydrate group post-match (0.95 ± 0.39 mmol l−1 and 1.45 ± 0.51 mmol l−1, respectively), whereas differences between the 2 groups for glycerol were unclear (98.1 ± 33.6 mmol l−1 and 123.1 ± 39.6 mmol l−1) in the high and low carbohydrate groups, respectively. Conclusions: Professional RL players can utilise ∼40% of their muscle glycogen during a competitive match regardless of their carbohydrate consumption in the preceding 36-h.
    • Metatarsophalangeal joint function during sprinting: A comparison of barefoot and sprint spike shod foot conditions

      Smith, Grace; Lake, Mark; Lees, Adrian; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University (13/09/2013)
      The metatarsophalangeal joint is an important contributor to lower limb energetics during sprint running. This study compared the kinematics, kinetics and energetics of the metatarsophalangeal joint during sprinting barefoot and wearing standardised sprint spikes. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether standard sprinting footwear alters the natural motion and function of the metatatarsophalangeal joint exhibited during barefoot sprint running. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway, four sprints in each condition. Three dimensional high speed (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the 20 m point. Joint angle, angular velocity, moment, power and energy were calculated for the metatarsophalangeal joint. Sprint spikes significantly increase sprinting velocity (0.3 m/s average increase), yet limit the range of motion about the metatarsophalangeal joint (17.9 % average reduction) and reduce peak dorsiflexion velocity (25.5 % average reduction), thus exhibiting a controlling affect over the natural behaviour of the foot. However, sprint spikes improve metatarsophalangeal joint kinetics by significantly increasing the peak metatarsophalangeal joint moment (15 % average increase) and total energy generated during the important push-off phase (0.5 J to 1.4 J). The results demonstrate substantial changes in metatarsophalangeal function and potential improvements in performance-related parameters due to footwear.
    • Misperception: No evidence to dismiss RPE as regulator of moderate-intensity exercise

      Eston, Roger; Coquart, J.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of South Australia; Universite´ de Rouen; University of Chester (American College of Sports Medicine, 01/12/2015)
      Dear Editor-in-Chief, Shaykevich et al. (7) demonstrate the efficacy of auditory feedback anchored at 75% of age-predicted HRmax to regulate intensity (claimed as ‘‘moderate’’) during several 20-min bouts of cycling. Their technical approach is novel, but 76% HRmax is the upper limit of moderate intensity, so given the large error in age-predicted HRmax, it is unlikely that their exercise bandwidth was ‘‘moderate’’ for all participants. This is not our major concern, but it reveals one among other inaccuracies: the most serious include training, interpretation, and inferences relating to the RPE.
    • Mission impossible? Reflecting upon the relationship between physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 08/05/2012)
      It is widely believed that school physical education (PE) is or, at the very least, can (even should) be a crucial vehicle for enhancing young people’s engagement with physically active recreation (typically but not exclusively in the form of sport) in their leisure and, in the longer run, over the life-course. Despite the prevalence of such beliefs there remains a dearth of evidence demonstrating a ‘PE effect’. Indeed, the precise nature of the relationship between PE, youth sport and lifelong participation is seldom explored other than in implicit, often speculative and discursive, ways that simply take-for-granted the positive effects of the former (PE) on the latter (youth and adult participation in sport and physically active recreation). Using largely European studies to frame the issue, this paper reflects upon the supposedly ‘causal’ relationship between PE, youth sport and lifelong participation and, in doing so, highlights the inherent problems associated with attempts to identify, characterise and establish a ‘PE effect’.
    • More than a game? The role of sports governing bodies in the development of sport education programmes

      Reid, Paul; University College Chester (SAGE, 2003)
      This article explores the extent to which young people can transfer the skills and knowledge gained from a sport education programme to contexts experienced outside the curriculum. Furthermore, it seeks to identify how and where governing bodies of sport can be influential in the promotion of sport education values outside the school context; that is to say, are governing bodies able to develop initiatives to encourage community clubs to adopt a supporting role in the promotion and delivery of sport education?
    • The movement and physiological demands of international and regional men's touch rugby matches

      Beaven, Robert; Highton, Jamie M.; Thorpe, Cari; Knott, Emma; Twist, Craig; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; Huddersfield University ; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 14/05/2014)
      This study compared the internal and external match demands imposed on international and regional standard male touch rugby players. The study adopted a cohort design with independent groups. Twelve international players (mean age 27.8 ± 6.2 y, body mass 72.8 ± 3.7 kg, stature 174.5 ± 5.4 cm) and nine regional players (mean age 25.5 ± 5.5 y, body mass 74.2 ± 7 kg, stature 174.1 ± 7 cm) were analysed during nine competitive matches from the 2013 season. Movement demands were measured using a 5 Hz global positioning system (GPS), alongside heart rate and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) to quantify internal load. Total distance covered by international players was lower than regional players (2265.8 ± 562.3 cf. 2970 ± 558.9 m, p<0.05). However, international players had greater relative distance (137.1 ± 13.6 cf. 126.2 ± 17.2 m·min) due to shorter playing times per match (p<0.05). Absolute high speed running (>14 km·h) was not different between groups (p>0.05), but relative high speed running (39.3 ± 12.0 cf. 26.0 ± 13.6 m·min) was higher for international players. Regional players performed more absolute low speed activity (≤14 km·h) than international players (p<0.05), whereas relative low speed activity was not different between groups (p>0.05). Very high speed running (>20 km·h) distance, bout number and frequency, peak and average speed were all greater in international players (p<0.05). Higher average heart rate, summated heart rate and s-RPE (p<0.05) indicated higher internal loads during matches for regional players. These data indicate that performance in men's touch rugby is characterised by more relative high speed running and better repeated sprint capacities in higher standard players.
    • Movement characteristics, physiological and perceptual responses of elite standard youth football players to different high intensity running drills

      Gibson, Neil; Henning, Greig; Twist, Craig; Heriot-Watt University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 06/04/2018)
      Purpose: To examine responses to high intensity running drills in youth football players. Methods: Seventeen players completed the YoYo Intermittent Recovery test level one (YYIR1) and a 15 m maximal sprint to quantify target running speeds. Players performed three conditions on separate occasions comprising: 12 x 15 s high intensity runs at 100% of the final YYIRT1 speed, 12 x ~4 s repeated sprints with ~26 s recovery, and combination running using both modalities. Heart rate was monitored continuously with PlayerLoadTM and movement characteristics using microtechnology. Ratings of perceived exertion and blood lactate responses were measured 2 min after the final repetition. The ratio of Flight:contraction time was calculated from a countermovement jump before and at 2 min and 14 hours after each condition. Data analysis used magnitude based inferences and effect sizes statistics. Results: Peak speed (1.1%; ES 0.23 ± 0.44) and mean speed over the initial 4s (6.3%; ES 0.45 ± 0.46) were possibly faster during combination compared to high intensity running with unclear differences when compared to repeated sprinting. This was despite most likely (21.6%; ES 7.65 ± 1.02) differences in prescribed speeds between conditions. There were likely reductions in F:C at 14 hours ratio after high intensity (-5.6%; ES –0.44 ± 0.32) and combination running (-6.8%; ES -0.53 ± 0.47). Changes in the repeated sprinting condition were unclear. Conclusions: Actual movement characteristics of high intensity running drills may not reflect those used to prescribe them whilst reductions in F:C ratio are still evident 14 hours after their completion.
    • Movement demands of elite rugby league players during Australian National Rugby League and European Super League matches

      Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie M.; Waldron, Mark; Edwards, Emma; Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim J.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; Sydney Swans Australian Football Club, Australia ; Australian Catholic University/University of Queensland (Human Kinetics Publishers, 28/02/2014)
      This study compared the movement demands of players competing in matches from the elite Australian and European rugby league competitions.
    • Moving primary physical education forward: start at the beginning

      Jess, Mike; McEvilly, Nollaig; Carse, Nicola; The University of Edinburgh; University of Chester; The University of Edinburgh (Taylor & Francis, 07/03/2016)
      This paper presents selected findings from a questionnaire completed by 509 primary school teachers in Scotland. Drawing on policy enactment theory, the paper focusses on teachers’ personal experiences of physical education and perceptions of the importance of physical education in their schools. More than half (56%) reported that physical education was either ‘very important’ or ‘important’, while almost 40% perceived it to be of ‘limited’ or ‘very limited importance’. ‘Staff’, ‘time’ and ‘subject status’ were the main themes they drew on to explain their responses. Our findings highlight the diverse nature of the physical education professional cultures in Scottish primary schools. From this, we propose that future initiatives to support change in primary physical education should, as a starting point, acknowledge these diverse professional cultures and move beyond the simplistic one-size-fits-all change projects that have been shown to have limited impact on practice.
    • Muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage: Considerations for athletic performance in children and adults

      Eston, Roger; Byrne, Christopher; Twist, Craig; University of Wales, Bangor ; DSO National Laboratories, Republic of Singapore ; NEWI/University of Wales, Bangor (Elsevier, 2004)
    • A Narrative Review on Female Physique Athletes: The Physiological and Psychological Implications of Weight Management Practices

      Alwan, Nura; Moss, Samantha L.; Elliott-Sale, Kisrty; Davies, Ian; Kevin, Enright; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent University (Human Kinetics, 2019-06-13)
      Physique competitions are events in which aesthetic appearance and posing ability are valued above physical performance. Female physique athletes are required to possess high lean body mass and extremely low fat mass in competition. As such, extended periods of reduced energy intake and intensive training regimens are utilised with acute weight loss practices at the end of the pre-competition phase. This represents an increased risk for chronic low energy availability and associated symptoms of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, compromising both psychological and physiological health. Available literature suggests that a large proportion of female physique athletes report menstrual irregularities (e.g., amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea), which are unlikely to normalise immediately post-competition. Furthermore, the tendency to reduce intakes of numerous essential micronutrients is prominent among those using restrictive eating patterns. Following competition reduced resting metabolic rate, and hyperphagia, are also a concern for these female athletes, which can result in frequent weight cycling, distorted body image and disordered eating/eating disorders. Overall, female physique athletes are an understudied population and the need for more robust studies to detect low energy availability and associated health effects is warranted. This narrative review aims to define the natural female physique athlete, explore some of the physiological and psychological implications of weight management practices experienced by female physique athletes and propose future research directions.
    • Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage: Theoretical and applied implications

      Byrne, Christopher; Twist, Craig; Eston, Roger; DSO National Laboratories, Republic of Singapore ; NEWI/University of Wales, Bangor ; University of Wales, Bangor (Adis, 2004)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage is a well documented phenomenon particularly resulting from eccentric exercise. When eccentric exercise is unaccustomed or is performed with an increased intensity or duration, the symptoms associated with muscle damage are a common outcome and are particularly associated with participation in athletic activity. Muscle damage results in an immediate and prolonged reduction in muscle function, most notably a reduction in force-generating capacity, which has been quantified in human studies through isometric and dynamic isokinetic testing modalities. Investigations of the torque-angular velocity relationship have failed to reveal a consistent pattern of change, with inconsistent reports of functional change being dependent on the muscle action and/or angular velocity of movement. The consequences of damage on dynamic, multi-joint, sport-specific movements would appear more pertinent with regard to athletic performance, but this aspect of muscle function has been studied less often. Reductions in the ability to generate power output during single-joint movements as well as during cycling and vertical jump movements have been documented. In addition, muscle damage has been observed to increase the physiological demand of endurance exercise and to increase thermal strain during exercise in the heat. The aims of this review are to summarise the functional decrements associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, relate these decrements to theoretical views regarding underlying mechanisms (i.e. sarcomere disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, preferential fibre type damage, and impaired muscle metabolism), and finally to discuss the potential impact of muscle damage on athletic performance.
    • No Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on 100-m and 200-m Swimming Performance in Moderately-Trained Swimmers.

      Esen, Ozcan; Nicholas, Ceri; Morris, Mike; Bailey, Stephen J (14/11/2018)
      Dietary nitrate supplementation has been reported to improve performance in kayaking and rowing exercise which mandate significant recruitment of the upper body musculature. Since the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on swimming performance is unclear, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on 100-m and 200-m swimming freestyle time-trial (TT) performance. In a double blind, randomized crossover design, ten moderately-trained swimmers underwent two separate 3-day supplementation periods, with a daily dose of either 140 mL nitrate-rich (BRJ; ~800 mg/d nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (PLA) BRJ. Following blood sampling on day 3, the swimmers performed both 200-m and 100-m freestyle swimming TTs, with 30 min recovery between trials. Plasma nitrite concentrations was greater after BRJ relative to PLA consumption (432 ± 203 nmol/L, 111 ± 56 nmol/L, respectively, p = 0.001). Systolic BP was lowered after BRJ compared to PLA supplementation (114 ± 10, 120 ± 10 mmHg, respectively p = 0.001), but time to complete the 200-m (BRJ: 152.6 ± 14.1 s, PLA: 152.5 ± 14.1 s) and 100-m (BRJ: 69.5 ± 7.2 s, PLA: 69.4 ± 7.4 s) freestyle swimming TTs were not different between BRJ and PLA (p > 0.05). While 3 days of BRJ supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration and lowered blood pressure, it did not improve 100-m and 200-m swimming TT performance. These results do not support an ergogenic effect of nitrate supplementation in moderately-trained swimmers, at least for 100-m and 200-m freestyle swimming performance.
    • ‘No pain, no gain’: former elite female gymnasts’ engagements with pain and injury discourses

      Tynan, Ruby; McEvilly, Nollaig; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 11/05/2017)
      This paper investigates former elite female gymnasts’ views and experiences of pain and injury. The purpose of the study was to examine how participants engaged with pain and injury discourses and interrogate the ways in which certain knowledge and practices had become dominant. A Foucaultian theoretical framework underpinned the study, making use of Foucault’s work on discourses, power and resistance. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews with seven former elite gymnasts. By analysing the participants’ talk through poststructural discourse analysis, three themes were identified. Firstly, participants’ persistence through pain and injury was due to the desire to compete. Secondly, participants differentiated between ‘good pain’ and ‘bad pain’. Thirdly, participants had a higher tolerance for pain than for injury. This research raises questions about the dominance of a ‘no pain, no gain’ discourse, and the ways in which gymnasts may develop an uncritical acceptance of particular ‘truths’ surrounding pain and injury.
    • Norwegian youngsters’ perceptions of physical education: Exploring the implications for mental health

      Røset, Linda; Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-24)
      Improving young people’s mental health has become a priority for policy-makers in Norway as elsewhere. Although the evidence is limited, physical activity has been identified as having a role in mental health promotion with school physical education (PE) typically being presented as a suitable setting. Few studies, however, have explored young people’s perceptions and experiences of PE and the possible consequences for their mental health – the departure point for this paper. We approach this issue sociologically by focusing on the processes through which PE is enacted. Qualitative data were generated by 31 focus groups involving 148 youngsters from the 10th grade (15–16-year-olds) in eight secondary schools in Norway. The overarching theme to emerge was that PE was valued by the students for what it was not as much as what it was. The appeal of PE often lay in being different and a break from ‘normal’ school lessons and, at the same time, an opportunity for informal social interaction and strengthening social bonds. Enjoyment of PE – even among those with limited sporting competence – was understood as giving rise to cathartic benefits and an antidote to their increasingly academic, routinized and performance-oriented school lives. However, processes relating to the organization, delivery and assessment of lessons meant that these benefits were sometimes compromised for some young people. We conclude that as far as the mental health of young people is concerned, the best justificatory defence for PE becomes physical recreation as a solution to (academic) schooling rather than PE as education.
    • The number of directional changes alters the physiological, perceptual and neuromuscular responses of netball players during intermittent shuttle running

      Ashton, Ruth; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 11/03/2015)
      This study investigated whether an increased number of changes in direction altered the metabolic, cardiovascular, perceptual and neuromuscular responses to intermittent shuttle running. Using a randomized crossover design, ten female netball players completed 30 min of intermittent shuttle running over a 10 m (ISR10) and 20 m (ISR20) linear course. Measures of expired air, heart rate (HR), RPE, blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) and peak torque of knee extensors and flexors were measured. Differences (% ± 90% CL) in VO2 (1.5 ± 5.6%) was unclear between conditions, while HR was possibly higher (1.5 ± 2.5%) and [BLa] very likely lower in ISR20 compared to ISR10 (-32.7 ± 9.9%). RPE was likely lower in the ISR20 compared to the ISR10 condition at 15 (-5.0 ± 5.0%) and mosly likely lower at 30 min (-9.4 ± 2.0%). Sprint times over 20 m were likely slower during ISR20 at mid (3.9 ± 3.2%) but unclear post (2.1 ± 5.4%). Changes in muscle function were not different between ISR10 and ISR20 conditions for knee extension (-0.2 ± 0.9%) but were likely different for knee flexion (-5.7 ± 4.9%). More directional changes during shuttle running increases the physiological and perceptual load on female athletes that also causes a greater reductions in knee extensor torque. These findings have implications for the effective conditioning and injury prevention of female team sport athletes.