• Baseball: Myths and modernization

      Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses the processes behind the development of baseball and in particular, the myth that baseball was invented by Abner Doubleday in 1839.
    • Beetroot supplementation improves the physiological responses to incline walking

      Waldron, Mark; Waldron, Luke; Lawlor, Craig; Gray, Adrian; Highton, Jamie M.; St Mary's University; University of New England; Medical Education Centre Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-03-15)
      Purpose: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. Methods: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24-h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Results: Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was ~4.1% lower after BR (93 vs. 89 mmHg; P = 0.001), as well as during exercise (102 vs. 99 mmHg; P = 0.011) and recovery (97 vs. 94 mmHg; P = 0.001). Exercising (1227 vs. 1129 ml/min P < 0.001) and end-stage (1404 vs. 1249 ml/min; P = 0.002) oxygen uptake (𝑉O2) was lower in BR compared to PLA, which was accompanied by an average reduction in phase II 𝑉 ̇O2 amplitude (1067 vs. 940 ml/min; P = 0.025). Similarly, recovery 𝑉O2 (509 vs. 458 ml/min; P = 0.001) was lower in BR. Whole-blood potassium concentration increased from pre-post exercise in PLA (4.1 ± 0.3 vs. 4.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.013) but not BR (4.1 ± 0.31 vs. 4.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L; P = 0.188). Conclusions: Energy cost of exercise, recovery of 𝑉O2, MAP and blood markers were ameliorated after BR. Previously reported mechanisms explain these findings, which are more noticeable during less efficient walking at steep gradients (15-20%). These findings have practical implications for hill-walkers.
    • Biomechanical measures of short-term maximal cycling on an ergometer: a test-retest study

      Burnie, Louise; Barratt, Paul; Davids, Keith; Worsfold, Paul; Wheat, Jon; Swansea University, Sheffield Hallam University, University of Chester, English Institute of Sport, Team INEOS, Manchester, UK
      An understanding of test-retest reliability is important for biomechanists, such as when assessing the longitudinal effect of training or equipment interventions. Our aim was to quantify the test-retest reliability of biomechanical variables measured during short-term maximal cycling. Fourteen track sprint cyclists performed 3 x 4 s seated sprints at 135 rpm on an isokinetic ergometer, repeating the session 7.6 ± 2.5 days later. Joint moments were calculated via inverse dynamics, using pedal forces and limb kinematics. EMG activity was measured for 9 lower limb muscles. Reliability was explored by quantifying systematic and random differences within- and between-session. Within-session reliability was better than between-sessions reliability. The test-retest reliability level was typically moderate to excellent for the biomechanical variables that describe maximal cycling. However, some variables, such as peak knee flexion moment and maximum hip joint power, demonstrated lower reliability, indicating that care needs to be taken when using these variables to evaluate biomechanical changes. Although measurement error (instrumentation error, anatomical marker misplacement, soft tissue artefacts) can explain some of our reliability observations, we speculate that biological variability may also be a contributor to the lower repeatability observed in several variables including ineffective crank force, ankle kinematics and hamstring muscles’ activation patterns.
    • The body matters: Psychophysical impact of retiring from elite sport

      Stephan, Yannick; Torregrosa, Miguel; Sanchez, Xavier; University Paris XI ; Autonomous University of Barcelona ; Edge Hill College (Elsevier, 2007-01)
      This article involved 69 French retired elite athletes and aimed to assess the relationship between the perception of bodily changes after retirement from elite sport and physical self and global self-esteem, in retired elite athletes.
    • Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play

      Clarke, Jon; Highton, Jamie M.; Close, Graeme L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Warrington Wolves RLFC; Liverpool John Moores University (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2016-11-19)
      Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play
    • Carbohydrate-protein ingestion during self-regulated simulated multiple-sprint sport activity

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2011-09)
    • Changes in anthropometry and performance, and their inter-relationships, across three seasons in elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-11-30)
      This study investigated changes in anthropometry and performance, and their inter-relationships, across three consecutive seasons (under-15 to under-17 age group) in elite youth rugby league players. Each player took part in annual anthropometrical and performance assessments, comprising measurements of stature; body mass; limb lengths and circumference; skinfolds, predicted muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); 20 m speed, counter-movement jump height, vertical power and aerobic power. Lean body mass % changed (P < 0.05) between the under-15 (70.9 ± 5.9 %), under-16 (72.0 ± 5.8 %) and the under-17 age groups (74.1 ± 5.7 %). Likewise, predicted quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) also changed (P < 0.05) between each age group (under-15 = 120.9 ± 37.8 cm2; under-16 = 133.2 ± 36.0 cm2; under-17 = 154.8 ± 28.3 cm2). Concomitant changes between the under-15 and under-16 group were found for 20 m speed (3.5 ± 0.1 cf. 3.4 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.008) and predicted jumping power (3611.3 ± 327.3 W cf. 4081.5 ± 453.9 W; P = 0.003). Both lean body mass and quadriceps muscle CSA consistently, related to both 20 m sprint time and jumping power, with r-values ranging between -0.39 to –0.63 (20 m sprint time) and 0.55 to 0.75 (jumping power). Our findings demonstrate the importance of gains in lean body mass across later-adolescence that support the ability to generate horizontal speed and predicted vertical power. This information should inform the expectations and subsequent training programs of elite rugby league practitioners.
    • Changes in locomotive rates during senior elite rugby league matches

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011-08-05)
      The aim of this study was to quantify the changes in locomotive rates across the duration of senior elite rugby league matches.
    • Changing patterns of drug use in British sport from the 1960s

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      The objective of this paper is systematically to examine evidence relating to the prevalence and the changing patterns of drug use in British sport in the period from the 1960s to the present. There are four major sources of information about the prevalence of drug use among athletes: investigative journalism, including the writings and testimonials of athletes and others involved in sport; formal investigations, which may have legal or quasi-legal powers; surveys; and results from drug testing. The methodological problems associated with these sources of data are discussed. It is concluded that the data suggest that since the 1960s there has been a substantial increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs by British athletes. More particularly the data suggest that, in athletics, the use of drugs has spread from the heavy throwing events to many other track and field events, and that it has spread from athletics and weightlifting - the sports in which drugs were most frequently used in the 1960s - to many other sports. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has also spread down from the elite to much lower levels, while the use of drugs is now widespread among non-competitive recreational athletes in other sport-related contexts such as gymnasiums.
    • Coach behaviour analysis within elite youth soccer

      Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2013-07-23)
      Soccer clubs recruit talented youth players into their development programmes with the aim of nurturing their ability, and ultimately to develop them into professional soccer players (Carling et al. 2012). Past talent identification and development research has identified that youth players, who are then selected to play at higher standards of competition, possess greater endurance capacity (Gil et al. 2007; Reilly et al. 2000), faster sprinting performance (Le Gall et al. 2010), have faster dribbling performance (Huijgen et al. 2009) and are generally more physically advanced in comparison to players of lower ability (Gravina et al. 2008). In contrast to traditional measures, few studies have considered player development in relation to coach-player interaction. There is general agreement that coaching is a process that primarily focuses on aiding athletes in achieving their peak performance (Woodman, 1993). Therefore, the way in which a coach facilitates learning through their words and actions, which is the core principal of the coach’s instructional behavior, can strongly impact upon an athletes’ performance and progression, as well as their emotional well-being (Miller, 1992). Promoting a mastery climate, with equal opportunities and support for athletes fosters group cohesion and reduces performance anxiety through the reduction of social pressures (Smith et al. 2007). Despite the need for equality to promote team cohesion throughout the team, differentiation between feedback provided to effective and non-effective team sport players has previously been identified. In many team sports, it has been suggested that coaches observe and interact more with effective players (based upon match time), provide more feedback (instructional, positive, and negative), and give more positive evaluations within training sessions when compared to non-effective players (Markland & Martinek, 1988; Wang et al. 2001; Rosado & Mesquita, 2009). To date no research has conducted a longitudinal assessment focusing on talent development and player progression through coach behaviour analysis within elite youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of the study was to objectively analyse coaching behaviour within three playing squads at an elite level soccer club during two competitive seasons.
    • Coaches’ philosophies on the transfer of strength training to elite sports performance

      Burnie, Louise; Barratt, Paul; Davids, Keith; Stone, Joseph; Worsfold, Paul R.; Wheat, Jon; Sheffield Hallam University; English Institute of Sport; University of Chester (Sage, 2017-12-07)
      The objective of the study was to explore coaches’ philosophies regarding strength training (repetitive muscle actions against high loads) and the transfer of strength training to sports performance. Thirteen world class coaches and athletes from track cycling, BMX, sprint kayaking, rowing and athletics sprinting were interviewed using an open-ended, semi-structured approach. Participants were asked about their coaching philosophies, design of athlete training programmes, strength training and its transfer to sports performance. A thematic analysis was conducted. Data trustworthiness was enhanced by methods of member checking and analyst triangulation. Coaches believed that task-specific strength is essential for sports performance. They reported that non-specific strength training (“traditional” gym-based strength exercises that are not specific to a sport movement) is important for increasing athletes’ muscle size and strength. This is typically used in conjunction with resisted sport movement training (for example, increased resistance running, pedalling or rowing), believed to achieve an effective transfer of enhanced muscle strength to sports performance. Coaches described the transfer process as complex, with factors associated with fatigue and coordination having particular significance. The importance that coaches place on coordination is supported by a theoretical model that demonstrates increases in muscle strength from strength training may need to be accompanied with a change in inter-muscular coordination to improve sport performance. The idea that each athlete needs to adapt intermuscular coordination in response to a change in his/her unique set of “organism constraints” (e.g. muscle strength) is well described by the theory of ecological dynamics and Newell’s model of constraints.
    • A community-based, bionic leg rehabilitation program for patients with chronic stroke: clinical trial protocol

      Wright, Amy; Stone, Keeron; Lambrick, Danielle; Fryer, Simon; Stoner, Lee; Tasker, Edward; Jobson, Simon; Smith, Grace; Batten, John; Batey, Jo; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-30)
      Stroke is a major global health problem whereby many survivors have unmet needs concerning mobility during recovery. As such, the use of robotic assisted devices (i.e., a bionic leg) within a community-setting may be an important adjunct to normal physiotherapy in chronic stroke survivors. This study will be a dual-centre, randomized, parallel group clinical trial to investigate the impact of a community based, training program using a bionic leg on biomechanical, cardiovascular and functional outcomes in stroke survivors. Following a baseline assessment which will assess gait, postural sway, vascular health (blood pressure, arterial stiffness) and functional outcomes (6-minute walk), participants will be randomized to a 10-week program group, incorporating either: i) physiotherapy plus community-based bionic leg training program, ii) physiotherapy only, or iii) usual care control. The training program will involve participants engaging in a minimum of 1 hour per day of bionic leg activities at home. Follow up assessment, identical to baseline, will occur after 10-weeks, 3 and 12 months post intervention. Given the practical implications of the study, the clinical significance of using the bionic leg will be assessed for each outcome variable. The potential improvements in gait, balance, vascular health and functional status may have a meaningful impact on patients’ quality of life. The integration of robotic devices within home-based rehabilitation programs may prove to be a cost effective, practical and beneficial resource for stroke survivors.
    • A comparison of load-velocity and load-power relationships between well-trained young and middle-aged males during three popular resistance exercises.

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-05-05)
      This study examined the load-velocity and load-power relationships among 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 y) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 y) resistance trained males. Participants performed three repetitions of bench press, squat and bent-over-row across a range of loads corresponding to 20 to 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Analysis revealed effects (P < 0.05) of group and load x group on barbell velocity for all three exercises, and interaction effects on power for squat and bent-over-row (P < 0.05). For bench press and bent-over-row, the young group produced higher barbell velocities, with the magnitude of the differences decreasing as load increased (ES; effect size 0.0 to 1.7 and 1.0 to 2.0, respectively). Squat velocity was higher in the young group than the middle-aged group (ES 1.0 to 1.7) across all loads, as was power for each exercise (ES 1.0 to 2.3). For all three exercises, both velocity and 1RM were correlated with optimal power in the middle-aged group (r = .613 to .825, P < 0.05), but only 1RM was correlated with optimal power (r = .708 to .867, P < 0.05) in the young group. These findings indicate that despite their resistance training, middle-aged males were unable to achieve velocities at low external loads and power outputs as high as the young males across a range of external resistances. Moreover, the strong correlations between 1RM and velocity with optimal power suggest that middle-aged males would benefit from training methods which maximise these adaptations.
    • A comparison of self-reported and device measured sedentary behaviour in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Prince, Stephanie; Cardilli, Luca; Reed, Jennifer; Saunders, Travis; Kite, Chris; Douillette, Kevin; Fournier, Karine; Buckley, John; University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Public Health Agency of Canada, Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, University of Chester, University of Ottawa, University of Prince Edward Island, Aston University
      Background Sedentary behaviour (SB) is a risk factor for chronic disease and premature mortality. While many individual studies have examined the reliability and validity of various self-report measures for assessing SB, it is not clear, in general, how self-reported SB (e.g., questionnaires, logs, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs)) compares to device measures (e.g., accelerometers, inclinometers). Objective The primary objective of this systematic review was to compare self-report versus device measures of SB in adults. Methods Six bibliographic databases were searched to identify all studies which included a comparable self-report and device measure of SB in adults. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Results were synthesized using meta-analyses. Results The review included 185 unique studies. A total of 123 studies comprising 173 comparisons and data from 55,199 participants were used to examine general criterion validity. The average mean difference was -105.19 minutes/day (95% CI: -127.21, -83.17); self-report underestimated sedentary time by ~1.74 hours/day compared to device measures. Self-reported time spent sedentary at work was ~40 minutes higher than when assessed by devices. Single item measures performed more poorly than multi-item questionnaires, EMAs and logs/diaries. On average, when compared to inclinometers, multi-item questionnaires, EMAs and logs/diaries were not significantly different, but had substantial amount of variability (up to 6 hours/day within individual studies) with approximately half over-reporting and half under-reporting. A total of 54 studies provided an assessment of reliability of a self-report measure, on average the reliability was good (ICC = 0.66). Conclusions Evidence from this review suggests that single-item self-report measures generally underestimate sedentary time when compared to device measures. For accuracy, multi-item questionnaires, EMAs and logs/diaries with a shorter recall period should be encouraged above single item questions and longer recall periods if sedentary time is a primary outcome of study. Users should also be aware of the high degree of variability between and within tools. Studies should exert caution when comparing associations between different self-report and device measures with health outcomes.
    • A comparison of the FitroDyne and GymAware rotary encoders for quantifying peak and mean velocity during traditional multi-jointed exercises

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin L.; Clark, Cain; Moran, Jason; Drury, Ben; Garcia-Ramos, Amador; Twist, Craig; University of Chester & Hartpury University (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2018-11-05)
      The FitroDyne and GymAware rotary encoders are being increasingly used in resistance training to monitor movement velocity, but how closely their velocity outcomes agree is unknown. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the level of agreement between the FitroDyne and GymAware for the assessment of movement velocity in three resistance training exercises. Fifteen males performed three repetitions of bench press, back squat and bent-over-row exercises at 10% one repetition maximum increments (from 20 to 80%). For each repetition, the FitroDyne and GymAware recorded peak and mean barbell velocity (cm.s-1). Though strongly correlated (r = 0.79 to 1.00), peak velocity values for the GymAware were significantly lower than the FitroDyne for all exercises and loads. Importantly, the random errors between the devices, quantified via Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement, were unacceptable, ranging from ± 3.8 to 25.9 cm.s-1. Differences in mean velocity were smaller (and non-significant for most comparisons) and highly correlated (r = 0.86 to 1.00) between devices. Notwithstanding smaller random errors than for the peak values, mean values still reflected poor agreement (random errors between ± 2.1 to 12.0 cm.s-1). These findings suggest that the FitroDyne and GymAware cannot record peak or mean velocity with acceptable agreement, and should neither be employed interchangeably nor their data compared.
    • Conclusion: Figurational sociology and the development of modern sport

      Dunning, Eric; Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester ; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses 'figurational' or 'process-sociology' and the history of sport.
    • The concurrent validity of a rugby-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) for assessing match-related running performance

      Dobbin, Nick; Highton, Jamie M.; Moss, Samantha L.; Hunwicks, Richard; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Rugby Football League, Leeds (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2018-06-01)
      This study investigated the concurrent validity of a rugby-specific high-intensity intermittent running test (HIIR) against the internal, external and perceptual responses to simulated match-play. Thirty-six rugby league players (age 18.5 ± 1.8 years; stature 181.4 ± 7.6 cm; body mass 83.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed the prone Yo-Yo IR1, of which sixteen also completed the Yo-Yo IR1, and 2 x ~20 min bouts of a simulated match-play (RLMSP-i). Most likely reductions in relative total, low-speed and high-speed distance, mean speed and time above 20 W·kg-1 (HMP) were observed between bouts of the RLMSP-i. Likewise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and percentage of peak heart rate (%HRpeak) were very likely and likely higher during the second bout. Pearson’s correlations revealed a large relationship for the change in relative distance (r = 0.57-0.61) between bouts with both Yo-Yo IR1 tests. The prone Yo-Yo IR1 was more strongly related to the RLMSP-i for change in repeated sprint speed (r = 0.78 cf. 0.56), mean speed (r = 0.64 cf. 0.36), HMP (r = 0.48 cf. 0.25), fatigue index (r = 0.71 cf. 0.63), %HRpeak (r = -0.56 cf. -0.35), RPEbout1 (r = -0.44 cf. -0.14), and RPEbout2 (r = -0.68 cf. -0.41) than the Yo-Yo IR1, but not for blood lactate concentration (r = -0.20 to -0.28 cf. -0.35 to -0.49). The relationships between prone Yo-Yo IR1 distance and measure of load during the RLMSP-i suggests it possesses concurrent validity and is more strongly associated with measures of training or match load than the Yo-Yo IR1 using rugby league players.
    • Criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer for assessing whole body strength in professional rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nicholas; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Highton, Jamie M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester, Rugby Football League, Leeds Beckett University (Human Kinetics, 2018-02-31)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess whole body strength in professional rugby league players. Methods: Fifty-six male rugby league players, (33 senior and 23 youth professional players) performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e. two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. Results: Isometric peak force was underestimated (P<0.05) using the dynamometer compared to the force platform (95% LoA: -213.5 ± 342.6 N). Linear regression showed that peak force derived from the dynamometer explained 85% (adjusted R2 = 0.85, SEE = 173 N) of the variance in the dependent variable, with the following prediction equation derived: predicted peak force = [1.046 * dynamometer peak force] + 117.594. Cross-validation revealed a non-significant bias (P>0.05) between the predicted and peak force from the force platform, and an adjusted R2 (79.6%), that represented shrinkage of 0.4% relative to the cross-validation model (80%). Peak force was greater for the senior compared to youth professionals using the dynamometer (2261.2 ± 222 cf. 1725.1 ± 298.0 N, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: The isometric mid-thigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimates criterion peak force but is capable of distinguishing muscle function characteristics between professional rugby league players of different standards.
    • Delivering a sports participation legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: evidence from sport development workers in Birmingham and their experiences of a double-bind

      Lovett, Emily; Bloyce, Daniel; Smith, Andy; Edge Hill University; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2020-03-11)
      Legacy promises from London 2012 meant that those working in sport in local, non-host areas in Britain were expected to facilitate more sporting opportunities for local citizens. Legacy preparations occurred in the context of many other constraints that stemmed from Government budget cuts and provision of leisure-time sport and other leisure activities. This paper presents new evidence on a significantly under-researched area of leisure studies, namely: the experiences of those delivering leisure-sport opportunities in a non-host city and how they responded to national legacy promises. Using Elias’s concept of the double-bind, we explain the ‘crisis situation’ in which some local sports workers were enmeshed and how their acceptance of ‘fantasy-laden beliefs’ of expected demonstration effects from mega-events exacerbated their ‘crisis’ (Elias, 2007). We also draw upon participants’ post-Games reflections to consider how future host nations may wish to leverage greater leisure-sporting legacies from a mega-event.
    • Developing children: developmental discourses underpinning physical education at three Scottish preschool settings

      McEvilly, Nollaig; Atencio, Matthew; Verheul, Martine; University of Chester; California State University; The University of Edinburgh (Taylor & Francis, 2015-11-20)
      This paper reports on one aspect of a study that investigated the place and meaning of ‘physical education’ to practitioners and children at three preschool settings in Scotland. We employed a poststructural type of discourse analysis to examine the developmental discourses the 14 participating practitioners drew on when talking about ‘physical education’ at preschools, during semi-structured interviews. Three main discourses around the notion of developmentalism were identified during analysis of the adults’ interview data: (1) preschool children learn and develop through play; (2) preschool children should have choices and freedom; and (3) sometimes more structured activities are needed. The practitioners were heavily invested in developmental ‘truths’ about how preschool children learn and develop. They were in agreement that play is a vital element of preschool education, and that, consequently, children should be provided with opportunities for exploration and making choices. However, they also talked about sometimes ‘needing’ to restrict children’s freedom and provide more adult-led activities. Our findings illustrate the strength of developmental discourses at the three settings. We suggest that preschool practitioners, as well as policy-makers and researchers, should critically reflect on the effects of taken-for-granted developmental discourses, and move beyond thinking in terms of binaries such as ‘physical education versus play’ or ‘structure versus freedom’.