• Adherence to exercise in later life: How can exercise on prescription programmes be made more effective?

      Thurston, Miranda; Green, Ken; University College Chester (Oxford University Press, 2004-09-01)
      A broad consensus has emerged in relation to the desirability of promoting exercise among a variety of ‘at risk’ groups via ‘exercise on prescription’ (EoP) schemes, as an alternative to orthodox, biomedical approaches to the management of health problems. Underpinning the rationale for such schemes is the notion that they can act as vehicles for encouraging long-term adherence to exercise. Whilst there is a common sense appeal to using EoP schemes to promote exercise, research to date suggests that evidence of their impact is limited. This paper attempts to make sense of these findings in the light of recent debates about adult lifestyles and exercise. More specifically, it brings work in the sociology of leisure to bear on the topic, on the premise that any study of adults' propensity towards sustainable physical activity needs to be viewed as an aspect of their lives ‘in the round’. Such an analysis points up the value of synthesizing perspectives from across the disciplinary divide in order to shed light on particular ‘problems’, which obviate the necessity for further empirical work. The paper concludes by identifying a number of implications for public health policy and practice with respect to the matter of encouraging lifelong participation in sport and exercise in general, and via EoP schemes in particular. One such implication is the development of a model for understanding participation that shifts the emphasis away from a focus on motivation and behaviour change per se towards satisfaction and enjoyment through the development of skills and relationships. Reconceptualizing the matter of participation in this way is likely to lead not only to a more realistic appreciation of what can be expected from EoP schemes, but also a more adequate understanding of adherence to exercise in later life.
    • Age-related degeneration of the lumbar paravertebral muscles: Systematic review and three-level meta-regression

      Dallaway, Alexander; Kite, Chris; Griffin, Corbyn; Duncan, Michael; Tallis, J; Renshaw, D; Hattersley, John; Coventry University, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Aston University, University of Chester
      Background Morphological changes of the lumbar spine muscles are not well characterised with ageing. To further the understanding of age-related degeneration of the lumbar spine musculature, normative morphological changes that occur within the paravertebral muscles must first be established. Methods A systematic review and meta-regressions were conducted adhering to PRISMA guidelines. Searches for published and unpublished data were completed in June 2019. Results Searches returned 4781 articles. 34 articles were included in the quantitative analysis. Three-level meta-analyses showed age-related atrophy (r = −0.26; 95% CI: −0.33, −0.17) and fat infiltration (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.50) in the lumbar paravertebral muscles. Degenerative changes were muscle-specific and men (r = −0.32; 95% CI: −0.61, 0.01) exhibited significantly greater muscle atrophy than women (r = −0.24; 95% CI: −0.47, 0.03). Imaging modality, specifically ultrasound, also influenced age-related muscle atrophy. Measurements taken across all lumbar levels revealed the greatest fat infiltration with ageing (r = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.74). Moderators explained a large proportion of between-study variance in true effects for muscle atrophy (72.6%) and fat infiltration (79.8%) models. Conclusions Lumbar paravertebral muscles undergo age-related degeneration in healthy adults with muscle, lumbar level and sex-specific responses. Future studies should use high-resolution imaging modalities to quantify muscle atrophy and fat infiltration.
    • Analysis of physical demands during youth soccer match-play: Considerations of sampling method and epoch length

      Doncaster, Greg; Page, Richard; White, Paul; Svenson, Robert; Twist, Craig; Edge HIll University; Stoke City FC; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-11-27)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the physical match profiles of professional soccer players using 3 and 5 min fixed and rolling averages as well as fixed 1 min averages, with considerations to training prescription. Twenty-nine, professional U23 soccer outfield players competed across 17 competitive matches during the 2017/18 season, equating to a total of 130 separate physical match profiles. Match activities were recorded using global positioning system (GPS) devices with integrated micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS), recording total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) and metabolic power (MP). For each individual match profile and variable, 1, 3 and 5 min peak, post-peak, and average values were calculated using fixed-time epochs (FIXED) and rolling averages (ROLL). Linear mixed models were employed to examine the differences in the dependent variables as a function of the method of measurement. Results revealed significantly higher peak values, for relative TD, relative HSR and relative MP when employing the ROLL sampling method, in comparison to the FIXED method, for both 3 min and 5 min epoch lengths. Analysis of epoch length revealed significantly higher peak values, across all positions, for relative TD, relative HSR and MP for 1 min epochs, in comparison to 3 min and 5 min epochs. The data offers a novel insight into the appropriate identification of physical demands during youth soccer match-play. Researchers and practitioners should consider the sampling method and epoch length when assessing the physical demands of competitive match-play, as well as when designing and prescribing sport-specific conditioning drills.
    • An analysis of the three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics of maximal effort punches among amateur boxers.

      Stanley, Edward, R; Thomson, Edward; Smith, Grace; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-09-27)
      The purpose of this study was to quantify the 3D kinetics and kinematics of six punch types among amateur boxers. Fifteen males (age: 24.9 ± 4.2 years; stature: 1.78 ± 0.1 m; body mass: 75.3 ± 13.4 kg; boxing experience: 6.3 ± 2.8 years) performed maximal effort punches against a suspended punch bag during which upper body kinematics were assessed via a 3D motion capture system, and ground reaction forces (GRF) of the lead and rear legs via two force plates. For all variables except elbowjoint angular velocity, analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences between straight, hook and uppercut punches. The lead hook exhibited the greatest peak fist velocity (11.95 ± 1.84 m/s), the jab the shortest delivery time (405 ± 0.15 ms), the rear uppercut the greatest shoulder-joint angular velocity (1069.8 ± 104.5°/s), and the lead uppercut the greatest elbow angular velocity (651.0 ± 357.5°/s). Peak resultant GRF differed significantly (P < 0.05) between rear and lead legs for the jab punch only. Whilst these findings provide novel descriptive data for coaches and boxers, future research should examine if physical and physiological capabilities relate to the key biomechanical qualities associated with maximal punching performance.
    • Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of top-elite, elite and non-elite youth female team handball players

      Moss, Samantha L.; McWhannell, Nicola; Michalsik, Lars B.; Twist, Craig (2015-02-16)
      In order to maximise the potential for success, developing nations need to produce superior systems to identify and develop talent, which requires comprehensive and up-to-date values on elite players. This study examined the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth female team handball players (16.07 ± 1.30 y) in non-elite (n= 47), elite (n= 37) and top-elite players (n= 29). Anthropometric profiling included sum of eight skinfolds, body mass, stature, girths, breadths and somatotype. Performance tests included 20 m sprint, counter movement jump, throwing velocity, repeated shuttle sprint and jump ability test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1. Youth top-elite players had greater body mass, lean mass, stature, limb girths and breadths than elite and non-elite players, while only stature and flexed arm were higher in elite compared to non-elite players (all P < 0.05). Sum of skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Top-elite performed better in most performance tests compared to both elite and non-elite players (P < 0.05), although maximal and repeated10 m sprints were similar between standard (P > 0.05). Elite outperformed non-elite players in throwing velocity only. Findings reveal that non-elite players compare unfavourably to top-elite international European players in many anthropometric and performance characteristics, and differ in few characteristics compared to elite European club team players. This study is useful for emerging team handball nations in improving talent identification processes.
    • The Application of Critical Power, the Work Capacity above Critical Power (W'), and its Reconstitution: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence and Implications for Cycling Training Prescription

      Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L; University of Chester
      The two-parameter critical power (CP) model is a robust mathematical interpretation of the power–duration relationship, with CP being the rate associated with the maximal aerobic steady state, and W' the fixed amount of tolerable work above CP available without any recovery. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the CP concept and the methodologies used to assess it, and to summarize the research applying it to intermittent cycle training techniques. CP and W' are traditionally assessed using a number of constant work rate cycling tests spread over several days. Alternatively, both the 3-min all-out and ramp all-out protocols provide valid measurements of CP and W' from a single test, thereby enhancing their suitability to athletes and likely reducing errors associated with the assumptions of the CP model. As CP represents the physiological landmark that is the boundary between heavy and severe intensity domains, it presents several advantages over the de facto arbitrarily defined functional threshold power as the basis for cycle training prescription at intensities up to CP. For intensities above CP, precise prescription is not possible based solely on aerobic measures; however, the addition of the W' parameter does facilitate the prescription of individualized training intensities and durations within the severe intensity domain. Modelling of W' reconstitution extends this application, although more research is needed to identify the individual parameters that govern W' reconstitution rates and their kinetics
    • Assessment of energy availability and associated risk factors in professional female soccer players

      Moss, Samantha; Randell, Rebecca; Burgess, Darren; Ridley, Stephanie; Ó Cairealláin, Cairbre; Allison, Richard; Rollo, Ian; University of Chester; Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Arsenal Football Club, Tipperary GAA, Melbourne Football Club
      This study aimed to assess energy availability (EA), alongside possible risk factors of reduced or low EA of professional female soccer players during a competitive season. Thirteen players (age: 23.7 ± 3.4 y, stature: 1.69 ± 0.08 m, body mass: 63.7 ± 7.0 kg) engaged in a 5-day (two rest days, one light training, heavy training and match day) monitoring period. Energy intake (EI) and expenditure during exercise (EEE) were measured. EA was calculated and categorised as optimal, reduced or low (≥45, 31-44, ≤30 kcal·kg FFM-1·day-1, respectively). Relationships between EA and bone mineral density, resting metabolic rate (RMR), plasma micronutrient status, biochemical markers and survey data were assessed. EA was optimal for 15%, reduced for 62% and low for 23% of players. Higher EA was observed on rest days compared to others (P<0.05). EA was higher for the light compared to the heavy training day (P<0.001). EEE differed significantly between days (P<0.05). EI (2124 ± 444 kcal), carbohydrate (3.31 ± 0.64 g·kg·day-1) and protein (1.83 ± 0.41 g·kg·day-1) intake remained similar (P>0.05). Survey data revealed 23% scored ≥ 8 on the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire and met criteria for low RMR (ratio <0.90). Relationships between EA and risk factors were inconclusive. Most players displayed reduced EA and did not alter EI or carbohydrate intake to training or match demands. Although cases of low EA were identified, further work is needed to investigate possible long-term effects and risk factors of low and reduced EA separately to inform player recommendations.
    • The assessment of total energy expenditure during a 14-day ‘in-season’ period of professional rugby league players using the Doubly Labelled Water method

      Morehen, James C.; Bradley, Warren J.; Clarke, Jon; Twist, Craig; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.; Morton, James P.; Close, Graeme L.; Liverpool John Moores University; Widnes Vikings Rugby League; University of Chester; University of Aberdeen (Human Kinetics, 2016-10-31)
      Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80-minutes. Training loads are monitored to maximise recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super-League players over two consecutive weeks in-season including one-game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium 2H) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in the form of water (2H218O). Every 24 hours thereafter, players provided urine for analysis of TEE via DLW method. Individual training-load was quantified using session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. There were unclear differences in RMR between forwards and backs (7.7 ± 0.5 cf. 8.0 ± 0.3 MJ, respectively). Indirect calorimetry produced RMR values most likely lower than predictive equations (7.9 ± 0.4 cf. 9.2 ± 0.4 MJ, respectively). A most likely increase in TEE from week-1 to -2 was observed (17.9 ± 2.1 cf. 24.2 ± 3.4 MJ) explained by a most likely increase in weekly sRPE (432 ± 19 cf. 555 ± 22 AU), respectively. The difference in TEE between forwards and backs was unclear (21.6 ± 4.2 cf. 20.5 ± 4.9 MJ, respectively). We report greater TEE than previously reported in rugby that could be explained by the ability of DLW to account for all match and training-related activities that contributes to TEE.
    • Associations between selected training stress measures and fitness changes in male soccer players

      Rabbani, Alireza; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Castagna, Carlo; Clemente, Filipe M.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Human Kinetics, 2019-01-24)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of accumulated Global Positioning System (GPS)-accelerometer-based and heart rate (HR)-based training metrics to changes in high-intensity intermittent running capacity during an in-season phase in professional soccer players. Method: Eleven male professional players (mean ± SD, age: 27.2 ± 4.5 years) performed the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) before and after a five-week in-season training phase, and the final velocity (VIFT) was considered as players’ high-intensity intermittent running capacity. During all sessions, Edwards’ training impulse (Edwards’ TRIMP), Banister’s TRIMP, Z5 TRIMP, training duration, total distance covered, New Body Load (NBL), high-intensity running performance (distance covered above 14.4 km•h-1), and very high-intensity running performance (distance covered above 19.8 km•h-1) were recorded. Results: The players’ VIFT showed a most likely moderate improvement (+4.3%, 90% confidence limits [3.1; 5.5%], effect size ES, 0.70 [0.51; 0.89]). Accumulated NBL, Banister’s TRIMP and Edwards’ TRIMP showed large associations (r = 0.51 to 0.54) with changes in VIFT. Very large relationship was also observed between accumulated Z5 TRIMP (r= 0.72) with changes in VIFT. Large-to-nearly perfect within-individual relationships were observed between NBL and some of the other training metrics (i.e., Edwards’ TRIMP, Banister’s TRIMP, training duration, and total distance) in 10 out of 11 players. Conclusions: HR-based training metrics can be used to monitor high-intensity intermittent running capacity changes in professional soccer players. The dose-response relationship is also largely detected using accelerometer-based metrics (i.e., NBL) to track changes in high-intensity intermittent running capacity of professional soccer players.
    • Baseball: Myths and modernization

      Bloyce, Daniel; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses the processes behind the development of baseball and in particular, the myth that baseball was invented by Abner Doubleday in 1839.
    • Beetroot supplementation improves the physiological responses to incline walking

      Waldron, Mark; Waldron, Luke; Lawlor, Craig; Gray, Adrian; Highton, Jamie M.; St Mary's University; University of New England; Medical Education Centre Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-03-15)
      Purpose: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. Methods: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24-h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Results: Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was ~4.1% lower after BR (93 vs. 89 mmHg; P = 0.001), as well as during exercise (102 vs. 99 mmHg; P = 0.011) and recovery (97 vs. 94 mmHg; P = 0.001). Exercising (1227 vs. 1129 ml/min P < 0.001) and end-stage (1404 vs. 1249 ml/min; P = 0.002) oxygen uptake (𝑉O2) was lower in BR compared to PLA, which was accompanied by an average reduction in phase II 𝑉 ̇O2 amplitude (1067 vs. 940 ml/min; P = 0.025). Similarly, recovery 𝑉O2 (509 vs. 458 ml/min; P = 0.001) was lower in BR. Whole-blood potassium concentration increased from pre-post exercise in PLA (4.1 ± 0.3 vs. 4.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L; P = 0.013) but not BR (4.1 ± 0.31 vs. 4.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L; P = 0.188). Conclusions: Energy cost of exercise, recovery of 𝑉O2, MAP and blood markers were ameliorated after BR. Previously reported mechanisms explain these findings, which are more noticeable during less efficient walking at steep gradients (15-20%). These findings have practical implications for hill-walkers.
    • Biomechanical measures of short-term maximal cycling on an ergometer: a test-retest study

      Burnie, Louise; Barratt, Paul; Davids, Keith; Worsfold, Paul; Wheat, Jon; Swansea University, Sheffield Hallam University, University of Chester, English Institute of Sport, Team INEOS, Manchester, UK
      An understanding of test-retest reliability is important for biomechanists, such as when assessing the longitudinal effect of training or equipment interventions. Our aim was to quantify the test-retest reliability of biomechanical variables measured during short-term maximal cycling. Fourteen track sprint cyclists performed 3 x 4 s seated sprints at 135 rpm on an isokinetic ergometer, repeating the session 7.6 ± 2.5 days later. Joint moments were calculated via inverse dynamics, using pedal forces and limb kinematics. EMG activity was measured for 9 lower limb muscles. Reliability was explored by quantifying systematic and random differences within- and between-session. Within-session reliability was better than between-sessions reliability. The test-retest reliability level was typically moderate to excellent for the biomechanical variables that describe maximal cycling. However, some variables, such as peak knee flexion moment and maximum hip joint power, demonstrated lower reliability, indicating that care needs to be taken when using these variables to evaluate biomechanical changes. Although measurement error (instrumentation error, anatomical marker misplacement, soft tissue artefacts) can explain some of our reliability observations, we speculate that biological variability may also be a contributor to the lower repeatability observed in several variables including ineffective crank force, ankle kinematics and hamstring muscles’ activation patterns.
    • The body matters: Psychophysical impact of retiring from elite sport

      Stephan, Yannick; Torregrosa, Miguel; Sanchez, Xavier; University Paris XI ; Autonomous University of Barcelona ; Edge Hill College (Elsevier, 2007-01)
      This article involved 69 French retired elite athletes and aimed to assess the relationship between the perception of bodily changes after retirement from elite sport and physical self and global self-esteem, in retired elite athletes.
    • Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play

      Clarke, Jon; Highton, Jamie M.; Close, Graeme L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Warrington Wolves RLFC; Liverpool John Moores University (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2016-11-19)
      Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play
    • Carbohydrate-protein ingestion during self-regulated simulated multiple-sprint sport activity

      Highton, Jamie M.; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (2011-09)
    • Changes in anthropometry and performance, and their inter-relationships, across three seasons in elite youth rugby league players

      Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul R.; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-11-30)
      This study investigated changes in anthropometry and performance, and their inter-relationships, across three consecutive seasons (under-15 to under-17 age group) in elite youth rugby league players. Each player took part in annual anthropometrical and performance assessments, comprising measurements of stature; body mass; limb lengths and circumference; skinfolds, predicted muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); 20 m speed, counter-movement jump height, vertical power and aerobic power. Lean body mass % changed (P < 0.05) between the under-15 (70.9 ± 5.9 %), under-16 (72.0 ± 5.8 %) and the under-17 age groups (74.1 ± 5.7 %). Likewise, predicted quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) also changed (P < 0.05) between each age group (under-15 = 120.9 ± 37.8 cm2; under-16 = 133.2 ± 36.0 cm2; under-17 = 154.8 ± 28.3 cm2). Concomitant changes between the under-15 and under-16 group were found for 20 m speed (3.5 ± 0.1 cf. 3.4 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.008) and predicted jumping power (3611.3 ± 327.3 W cf. 4081.5 ± 453.9 W; P = 0.003). Both lean body mass and quadriceps muscle CSA consistently, related to both 20 m sprint time and jumping power, with r-values ranging between -0.39 to –0.63 (20 m sprint time) and 0.55 to 0.75 (jumping power). Our findings demonstrate the importance of gains in lean body mass across later-adolescence that support the ability to generate horizontal speed and predicted vertical power. This information should inform the expectations and subsequent training programs of elite rugby league practitioners.
    • Changes in locomotive rates during senior elite rugby league matches

      Sykes, Dave; Twist, Craig; Nicholas, Ceri; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011-08-05)
      The aim of this study was to quantify the changes in locomotive rates across the duration of senior elite rugby league matches.
    • Changing patterns of drug use in British sport from the 1960s

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      The objective of this paper is systematically to examine evidence relating to the prevalence and the changing patterns of drug use in British sport in the period from the 1960s to the present. There are four major sources of information about the prevalence of drug use among athletes: investigative journalism, including the writings and testimonials of athletes and others involved in sport; formal investigations, which may have legal or quasi-legal powers; surveys; and results from drug testing. The methodological problems associated with these sources of data are discussed. It is concluded that the data suggest that since the 1960s there has been a substantial increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs by British athletes. More particularly the data suggest that, in athletics, the use of drugs has spread from the heavy throwing events to many other track and field events, and that it has spread from athletics and weightlifting - the sports in which drugs were most frequently used in the 1960s - to many other sports. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has also spread down from the elite to much lower levels, while the use of drugs is now widespread among non-competitive recreational athletes in other sport-related contexts such as gymnasiums.
    • Coach behaviour analysis within elite youth soccer

      Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2013-07-23)
      Soccer clubs recruit talented youth players into their development programmes with the aim of nurturing their ability, and ultimately to develop them into professional soccer players (Carling et al. 2012). Past talent identification and development research has identified that youth players, who are then selected to play at higher standards of competition, possess greater endurance capacity (Gil et al. 2007; Reilly et al. 2000), faster sprinting performance (Le Gall et al. 2010), have faster dribbling performance (Huijgen et al. 2009) and are generally more physically advanced in comparison to players of lower ability (Gravina et al. 2008). In contrast to traditional measures, few studies have considered player development in relation to coach-player interaction. There is general agreement that coaching is a process that primarily focuses on aiding athletes in achieving their peak performance (Woodman, 1993). Therefore, the way in which a coach facilitates learning through their words and actions, which is the core principal of the coach’s instructional behavior, can strongly impact upon an athletes’ performance and progression, as well as their emotional well-being (Miller, 1992). Promoting a mastery climate, with equal opportunities and support for athletes fosters group cohesion and reduces performance anxiety through the reduction of social pressures (Smith et al. 2007). Despite the need for equality to promote team cohesion throughout the team, differentiation between feedback provided to effective and non-effective team sport players has previously been identified. In many team sports, it has been suggested that coaches observe and interact more with effective players (based upon match time), provide more feedback (instructional, positive, and negative), and give more positive evaluations within training sessions when compared to non-effective players (Markland & Martinek, 1988; Wang et al. 2001; Rosado & Mesquita, 2009). To date no research has conducted a longitudinal assessment focusing on talent development and player progression through coach behaviour analysis within elite youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of the study was to objectively analyse coaching behaviour within three playing squads at an elite level soccer club during two competitive seasons.
    • Coaches’ philosophies on the transfer of strength training to elite sports performance

      Burnie, Louise; Barratt, Paul; Davids, Keith; Stone, Joseph; Worsfold, Paul R.; Wheat, Jon; Sheffield Hallam University; English Institute of Sport; University of Chester (Sage, 2017-12-07)
      The objective of the study was to explore coaches’ philosophies regarding strength training (repetitive muscle actions against high loads) and the transfer of strength training to sports performance. Thirteen world class coaches and athletes from track cycling, BMX, sprint kayaking, rowing and athletics sprinting were interviewed using an open-ended, semi-structured approach. Participants were asked about their coaching philosophies, design of athlete training programmes, strength training and its transfer to sports performance. A thematic analysis was conducted. Data trustworthiness was enhanced by methods of member checking and analyst triangulation. Coaches believed that task-specific strength is essential for sports performance. They reported that non-specific strength training (“traditional” gym-based strength exercises that are not specific to a sport movement) is important for increasing athletes’ muscle size and strength. This is typically used in conjunction with resisted sport movement training (for example, increased resistance running, pedalling or rowing), believed to achieve an effective transfer of enhanced muscle strength to sports performance. Coaches described the transfer process as complex, with factors associated with fatigue and coordination having particular significance. The importance that coaches place on coordination is supported by a theoretical model that demonstrates increases in muscle strength from strength training may need to be accompanied with a change in inter-muscular coordination to improve sport performance. The idea that each athlete needs to adapt intermuscular coordination in response to a change in his/her unique set of “organism constraints” (e.g. muscle strength) is well described by the theory of ecological dynamics and Newell’s model of constraints.