• Changing patterns of drug use in British sport from the 1960s

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      The objective of this paper is systematically to examine evidence relating to the prevalence and the changing patterns of drug use in British sport in the period from the 1960s to the present. There are four major sources of information about the prevalence of drug use among athletes: investigative journalism, including the writings and testimonials of athletes and others involved in sport; formal investigations, which may have legal or quasi-legal powers; surveys; and results from drug testing. The methodological problems associated with these sources of data are discussed. It is concluded that the data suggest that since the 1960s there has been a substantial increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs by British athletes. More particularly the data suggest that, in athletics, the use of drugs has spread from the heavy throwing events to many other track and field events, and that it has spread from athletics and weightlifting - the sports in which drugs were most frequently used in the 1960s - to many other sports. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has also spread down from the elite to much lower levels, while the use of drugs is now widespread among non-competitive recreational athletes in other sport-related contexts such as gymnasiums.
    • Conclusion: Figurational sociology and the development of modern sport

      Dunning, Eric; Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester ; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses 'figurational' or 'process-sociology' and the history of sport.
    • Drug use in English professional football

      Waddington, Ivan; Malcolm, Dominic; Roderick, Martin J.; Naik, Ravin D.; University College Chester ; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester (British Association of Sport and Medicine, 2005-03-25)
      Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players’ use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledge of players who used such drugs. Methods: With the cooperation of the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), reply paid postal questionnaires were delivered to the home addresses of all 2863 members of the PFA. A total of 706 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of just under 25%. Results: Many players use supplements, although almost one in five players does so without seeking qualified professional advice from anyone within the club. Blood tests are rarely used to monitor the health of players. One third of players had not been tested for drugs within the preceding two years, and 60% felt that they were unlikely to be tested in the next year. The use of performance enhancing drugs appears to be rare, although recreational drugs are commonly used by professional footballers: 6% of respondents indicated that they personally knew players who used performance enhancing drugs, and 45% of players knew players who used recreational drugs. Conclusions: There is a need to ensure that footballers are given appropriate advice about the use of supplements in order to minimise the risk of using supplements that may be contaminated with banned substances. Footballers are tested for drugs less often than many other elite athletes. This needs to be addressed. The relatively high level of recreational drug use is not reflected in the number of positive tests. This suggests that many players who use recreational drugs avoid detection. It also raises doubts about the ability of the drug testing programme to detect the use of performance enhancing drugs.
    • An introduction to drugs in sport: Addicted to winning?

      Waddington, Ivan; Smith, Andy; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-02)
      This book discusses the use of performance enhancing drugs in elite sport. It covers a history of the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport, theories of drug use, the development of performance enhancing drugs, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and case studies on the use of performance enhancing drugs in British sports, cycling, and football.
    • Introduction: History, sociology and the sociology of sport: The work of Norbert Elias

      Dunning, Eric; Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester ; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses the 'figurational' or 'process-sociological' approach developed by Norbert Elias.
    • Sport, health and public policy

      Waddington, Ivan; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004-11-05)
      This book chapter examines how governments link sport and good health and complexities involved in the relationship between sport, health, and public policy. There are case studies from Britain and the USA.
    • Sporting celebrity and conspicuous consumption: A case study of professional footballers in England

      Law, Graeme; Bloyce, Daniel; Waddington, Ivan; York St John University; University of Chester
      Association football is a lucrative sport with high financial rewards for top players. However, there has been little empirical work on the lifestyles of professional footballers. Based on interviews with 29 current and former male professional footballers, this paper examines the relationship between money, status and image management within and outside the changing room. The concept of conspicuous consumption is used to help explain players’ attitudes to money, their relationships with others within the football environment and how they advertise their earnings in an environment where open discussion of wages is seen as taboo. Our findings suggest that professional footballers are expected to display a particular image of the professional footballer and this constrains players, even those on lower incomes, to buy expensive clothes and accessories in order to be accepted by others. Players who do not conform to the expected image may be subject to sanctions by their teammates.
    • The World Anti-Doping Agency at 20: progress and challenges

      Houlihan, Barrie; Vidar Hanstad, Dag; Loland, Sigmund; Waddington, Ivan (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-06)
    • Using ‘sport in the community schemes’ to tackle crime and drug use among young people: Some policy issues and problems

      Smith, Andy; Waddington, Ivan (Sage, 2004-10-01)
      This article discusses the effectiveness of sport in the community schemes such as the Positive Futures initative and Summer Splsh/Splash Extra in reducing crime and drug use amongst young people.